(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Medical Advance"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



PRESENTED TO 

THE I.IBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 






THE 



1 3>3" 1 3>3" 3>3" .A. T I 




Medical Advance 



VOLUME II. 



T. P. WILSON, M. D., General Editor. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO: 

JAS. P. GEPPERT, Publisher. 

MDCCCLXXV. 



ORIGINAL COSTRIBUTORS TO VOL, IL 



'♦ »■ 



H. R. Anidt. 
I^wis Barnes. 
Geo. II. Blair. 
J. D. Buck. 
*£. G. Cook. 
C. T Corliss. 
J .P. Dake. 
A. A. Dnncanson. 
C. £. Fisher. 
E. W. Fish. 
A. K. Frain. 



W. II. Ilolcombe. 
E. Y. Howard. 
L. Hubbard. 
S. R. Kirby. 
J. N. Lucas. 
Ad. Liope. 
O. W.Xoans^r}', 
J. J. Marvin. 
A. P. Macomber. 
L. D. Morse. 
O. B. Moss. 
W.H.WoMlyat. 



I (Jco. S. Norton, 
I G. M.Ockford. 
I 1. Pettet. 
I Wm. Owens. 

O. S. Runnels. 

G. Saal. 

£. S. Stuard. 

F. B. Sherboume. 

C. E. Walton. 

T. P. Wilson. 

M. A. B.Woods. 



INDEX V.OLUME II. 1875 



A. 

A Plea for a Popular Medical Science. T. P. Wilson, 

M. D 23 

A Chapter on Food. Louisa S. Ilotchkiss . . 26 

Artificial Limbs 5*^ 

Allopathic Materia Mcdica . . ... 66 

Alcohol not a Poison. G. Saal, M. D. . . . 372, 201 

Alcohol, Use and Abuse of . .... 205 

Alcohol in Medical Practice. M. A. B. Woods, M. D. 254 

Alcohol, Effedts on Warm Blooded Animals . . 381 

Alcohol as a Medicine. Geo. 11. Blair, M, D. . . 420 

Amalgam Fillings vs. Health. J. D. Buck, M. D. . 214 
Antiseptic System of Treatment in Surgery. E. S. 

Stuard, M. D 245 

Anstie, Francis Edmund 378 

Anstie and Dupre on Alcohol 497 

Anaesthetics. Geo. B. Harriman, M. D. . . . 403 
Abnormal Calcareous Foimatic.n in the Human System. 

Wm. Taft, M. D. . . . . . . 545 



IV 



Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



An Outside View 550 

Anstie and Dupre on Alcohol. Lewis B.irnes, M. D. 566 



91 



B. 

Blood, The. O. S. Runnels, M. D. . . . 
Brain Power of Man . . . • . 

Balsams. E. W. Fish, M. D 

Blind Leading the Blind. J. D. Buck, M. D. 
Brown-Sequard's Bluiders. J. P. Dake, M. D. 

BOOK NOTICES. 

Am. Inst. Homoeopathy, Transactions . 
Allen's Encyclopedia Materia Medica 
Annual Record of Homoeopathic Literature 

Braithwait's Retrospect 

Clinical Uses of Ele6tricity. Reynolds 

Diseases of the Ear. Roosa 

Dr. Lowe's Sacrifice; or, the Triumph of Homoeopathy 
Hand Book of Obstretic Surgery 
Homoeopathy in Venereal Diseases 
Minor's Erysipelas and Child Bed Fever 

Eating for Strength 

Jacobi's Infant Diet 

Physicians' Monitor for 1874 .... 
Series of American Clinical Ledlures i 
Specifio Diagnosis, Scudder .... 
New York Medical Society, Transactions 
North American Journal of Homoeopathy 
Repertory to Materia Medica — Eyes. Berridge 
Reproductive Organs and the Venere.-il. Scudder 
Roberts' Theory and Pradtice .... 

Surgical Diseases, ^ienito-Urinary Organs 
Swain's Surgical Emergencies, etc. 
Sphygmograph, The. Holden .... 

Twelve Tissue Remedies 

Tyson's Pra<5tical Guide to the Examination of Urine 
Universality of Homoeopathic Law of Cure. Neidhard 
Wythe's Pocket Dose Book 



127, 153 
. 224 



211 
301 



43 

475 

475 
427 

140 

190 

574 

574 

574 
429 

426 

428 

426 

426 

477 
428 

427 

43 

45 
291 

476 

428 

286 

340 

427 

141 
191 



Index, V 
C. 

Comparative View of Colleges. T. P. Wilson, M. D. 40 

Child Life of Woman ....... 186 

Cataract Operation Stunningly Described . . 189 

Cataradl with Glaucoma. T. P. Wilson, M. D, . . 224 

Cataradl with Irido-Choroiditis. T. P. Wilson, M. D. 225 

Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis. A. P. Macomber, M. D. 313 

Cincinnati Homceopathic Free Dispensary . . . 554 

College. and Miscellaneous Items .... 573 

Contradion of the Leg Curei by Cina. O. W. Louns- 

bury, M. D 227 

Concerning the Progress of Science. J. D. Buck, M. D. 243 

Correspondence — Philadelphia. Ad.Lippe, M. D. . 441 

Buffalo. Mrs. E. G. Cook, M. D. . 444 

Commencement Exercises Pulte Medical College . 522 

Correspondence 571 

D. 

Danger of Tin Vessels for Cooking Acid Fruits and 

Vegetables . . . . . . . . 5^9 

Do<5lors. J. D. Buck, M. D 88 

Dibinfedtant 210 

Discussion on Psychic Influence, etc. C. E. Fisher, M.D. 261 

Discussion on Narcotic Poisoning. C. E. Fisher, M. D. 305 

Discussion on Vaccination. C. E. Fisher, M. D. . 351 

Discussion on Typhoid Fever . . . < . 449 

Discussion on Ulcers. C. E. Fisher, M. D. . . 456 
Deficient Secretion of Milk Cured by Ele<5lricity. O. 

W. Lounsbury, M. D. . . . . • 521 

E. 

Esmarch's Bloodless Operation. Wm. Owens, M. D. 18 

Ele6tro-Therapeutics — Discussion. C. E. Fisher, M. D. 229 

Eledro-Therapeutics. C. E. Walton, M. D. . . 270 
Early Difficulties of Young Practitioners. A. A. Dun- 

canson, M. D. 411, 513 



vi Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

EDITORIALS. 

Cincinnati Hospital 46 

Eustachian Vibrator 50 

American Inst. Homoeopathy. 143 

Allopathic Generosity 242 

A Presentation 480 

A Happy Family 289 

A Qiiestion as to Progress — Occasional Le<5lurc8 . 387 

Anarchy in Michigan 433 

A Busy Do<5lor 479 

Concerning the Progress of Science . . . 243 

Cosmoline 338 

Dietetics and Hygiene 433 

Grand Charity Fair 288 

How to Start a Medical Journal .... 146 

Hard to Please 98 

Hempel's Exposition of Homoeopathy . . . 195 

Honorable Medicine 386 

Hygiene -434 

Hypodermic Injections 530 

Iritis and its Treatment 530 

Joining the Institute 290 

Joseph Adolphus on Eye Diseases .... 290 

Journal Poor 290 

Put in Bay 240 

Psychic Force in Therapeutics 385 

Robert's Theory and Pra<5tice 291 

Twelve Tissue Remedies 340 

Who Shall Decide? 339 

Whom the Gods Would Destroy ..... 483 

P. 

Franklin's Dr., Address of Welcome .... 293 

G. 

Granular Ophthalmia. \V. H. Wootlyatt, M. D. , 565 



Index vii 

H. 

Homoeopathic Cures for Yellow Fever. L. D, Morse, 

M. D 3 

Hysteria. A. K, Frain, M. D 9 

Hydrophobia- Wm- Owens, M. D 59 

Hearts Adion. J- D. Buck, M. D 76 

Heroic Treatment. F, B. Sherbourne, M. D. .184 

Hempel's Exposition of Homoeopathy. T. P. Wilson, 

M. D 195 

Homoeopathy is Dead. G. Saal, M. D. . . . 281 

Hernia from Injury. H- R. Arndt, M. D, , . 36S 

Height at which we Live 469 

Human Nature 504 

L 

In the Dark 15 

Iodide of Potassium in Syphilis. Wnu Owens, M, D. 15 

Inguinal Hernia. F. B. Sherbourne, M. D, . . 52 

Indi<5tment, A Strong 18S 

Intestinal Obstru<!ilion Simulating Intussusception and 

Strangulated Hernia. Wm. Owens, M. D. . 24S, 322 

In a Disse(5ting Room ^^2 

L. 

Livingston's Dr., Remains Identified ... 83 

Localization of Cerebral Fun<5tions .... 8c 

Lupus of the Nose and Cheeic Wm. Owens, M, D. 164 

La(5tation Restored by Electricity 2^2 

M. 

Milk as a Curative Agent. J. M. Ockford, M. D. . 11 

Milk Diet for Infants. L. Hubbard, M. D. . . . 163 

Microscopic Terrors 280 

Mental Dyspepsia. R. Ludlam, M. D. . . 436, 48S 

Modern Allopathy ... • . . 494 

N. 

Narcotic Poisoning. E. S. Stuard, M. D. . . 366 



viii Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

o. 

Our Pickwick 38 

Observations. S. R. Kirby, M. D. . . . .43 
Ophthalmology and Other Modern Sciences. T. P. Wil- 
son, ^.ly 68 

Origin of Species 81 

Ozone, a Ready Disinfectant 104. 

Ozone 381 

Our Climate and Our Mortality .... 419, 463 

P. 

Parapligia Cured by Cina. O. W. Lounsbury, M. D. 226 

ProduAion of Iodine in Frnnce 31 

Post Partem Hemorrhage. O- B. Moss, M. D. . .160 
Pleurisy Treatment by Paracentesis. \Vm. Owens, M. D. 165 

Popular Physiology 215' 

Pills and Piles. E. W. Fish, M. D 223 

Prunus Spinosa, its A6lion on the Eye. Geo. S. Nor- 
ton, M. D. , . 30S 

Psychic Influence in Tlierapeutics, T. P. Wilson, M. D. 256 

Pharmaceutical Homceopathy 266 

Philosophy of Cure. W. H. Holcombe, M. D. . 390 

Philosophy of Cure, a Criticism. Lewis Barnes, M. D. 4S4 
Professional Honor. A. A. Duncanson, M. D. . 313 

Physiology of Nerve Cells. E. Seguin, M. D. . . 473 
Pathology of the Pneumogastric. J. N. Lucas, M.D. 517 

Questions About Homceopathy. T. P. Wilson, M. D. 156 

B. 

Row Among the Regulars • . . . 37, 1S2 

Ranula, Treatment of 165 

Reflex Symptoms of the Utero -Ovarian System. E. Y. 

Howard, M. D. 362 

Railway Advantages and Penalties . . . 424, 467 
Rheumatism. C. T. Corliss 459 



Index. ix 

8. 

Shot Gun Fraiftice ..!.... 14 

S3'philis. Geo. H. BPair, M. D 53 

Spontaneous Fra<5lure of the Femur. Wm. Owens, 

M. D 106 

Soda Water an Antidote to Poison. E. W. Fish^M. D. 221 

Syphilis Hereditary 227 

Science Gone to Seed. T. P. Wilson, M. D. . 228 

Sympathetic Influences 236 

Scarlatina and Cold Water ... . . . 252 

Scarlatina 509 

Sphygmograph, The. Edgar Holden, M. D. . 354 

Sore Eyes — Occasional Lectures. T. P. Wilson, M. D. 376 

Syphilitic Chancre and Chancroid .... 401 

Source of Muscular Strength 506 

Scarlet Fever, followed by Dropsy of the Brain. O. 

W Lounsburv, M. D 520 

Should Forceps Slip from the Child^s Head. O. W. 

Lounsbur^', M. D. 557 

Scrofulous and Kindred Affections .... 563 

SOCIETY PROCEEDINGS. 

American Otological Society, Transactions . . 2S7 

British llomceopathic Congress 166 

Cincinnati Homoeopathic Medical Society . . 233 

Champlain Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society . 299 

Iowa State Homceopathic Society . . . . 11 1 

Indiana IJomceopathic Institute . . . . • ^'5 

Kansas and Missouri Valley Society . . . 121 

Lorain Co. Medical Society . . . . 217, 382 

Montgomery Co. Medical Society . . . 33, 94 

Michigan Homoeopathic Medical Society . . 425 
Ohio Homoeopathic Medical Society . . . .125 

Western Academy of Homoeopathy .... 293 

T. 

Therapeutic Notes 559 

Trial for Mal-Practice. A. Shepherd, M. D. . 35 



X Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Typhoid Diffusion by Means of Drinking Water. Aus- 
tin Flint, M. D 62 

Trichina in the West 139 

Trepanning in the South Pacific 327 

This Thing of Diet Geo. H. Blair, M. D. . . 416 

Typhoid Fever. O. W. Lounsbury, M. D. . . . 445 
Traumatic Injury to the Cornea-Fistula — Treatment 

and Recovery. T. P. Wilson, M. D. . . . 556 

u. 

Ulcers. E. S. Stuard, M. D 452 

Unconscious Action of the Brain .... 466 
Uterine and Ovarian Symptoms, etc E. Y. Howard, 

M. D 362 

V. 

Vaccination. J. J. Marvin, M. D 343 

Valeriania Officinalis. J. Pettct, M. D. ... 13 
Vital Force So 

w. 

Western Academy, etc. Geo. H. Blair, M. D. . 329 

What wc Eat. Gerhard Saal, M. D. . . 100, 14S 

Why is Homoeopathy More Curative than Other Sys- 

tems of Medicine.^ W. H. Holcombe, M. D. . 536 



■h 






/ / 



^U/vx Jpi^t,^^ 



THE 



§>\mXim%%l M^tWtiX hWmtt 




W 

o 




VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.— MAY, 1874. [NO. 1. 



J|@^ Subscriptions to the Advance should be sent to Dr. T. C. Bradfokd, P. O. 
Drawer 1284, Cincinnati, Ohio. $3.00 a year, in advance. 

All business communications, relating to the publication or to advertising, should be 
addressed to Dr. T. P. Wilson, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Mo\md Sts., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



The Medical Union is out in a new dress. It is ably 
conducted. 

The Ohio Medical and Surgical Reporter redivivan. It 
was not (lead but sleeping. Dr. W. A. Phillips antl Prof. 
H. F. Biggar have it in charge. We hope they will be 
patronized, as they deserve it. 

"For medicinal purposes." And they really think they 
have us in a tight place when we are pledged to that. Xon- 
sense ! that door is big enough to drive a whole distillery 
through. You must close it up, ladies, or you'll never suc- 
ceed. Doctors have no more conscience or intelligence on 
this question than other people. 

May I I 



2 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Boston University School of Medicine closed its 
first session on the 4th of March, graduating five (one wo- 
man and four men).. In the class were thirty-one women 
and forty-seven men. 

Dr. CoNSTANTiNE Herring again protests. This time 
it is a denial that he was ever a pupil, or that "he has striv- 
en earnestly for the ipsissima verba^' of Hahnemann ; he 
denies that he has spread Homoeopathy over the United 
States. He asserts that he was "the first to propose tritu- 
rations and dilutions in the centesimal scale ;" that he "was 
the first to prove plumbum, notwithstanding Hahnemann 
had written Stapf that it ought not to "be proved then." 

By way of explanation (for we never indulge in apolo- 
gies) we take this opportunity of saying that we have lapsed 
a couple of months and our second volume dates, as is seen, 
from May. Reasons therefor are thick as blackberries in 
autumn, but they would not interest our readers. Despite 
the traditional habit of starting journals with the year, we 
are of the opinion that the month of May is every way pre- 
ferable. We may be open to the charge of making a virtue 
of necessity, but as we have modestly forborne to speak of 
our necessities, we may be pardoned if we feebly trumpet 
one of our many virtures. Vive la May. 

The editor of the North American Journal of Homoeop- 
athy is usually accurate, but when he says the tendency of 
the Cincinnati Medical Advance is to become rather a 
popular journal than only for the profession," he misses the 
animus of our journal just a little. We have published 
very little not adcjrcssed solely to medical men and women. 
Outside of Cincinnati we haven't now, and never expect to 
have a single non-professional reader. But it is a pet idea 
of the Advance that medical science in practice and teach - 



Theory and Practice. 3 

ing has fallen into a rut . that is narrow and deep. Inhe- 
rently the most beautiful of all sciences, comprehending in 
fact a whole galaxy of sciences, the beauties of which are 
addressed to every sense we possess ; medicine is yet made 
to appear 

"Stale, flat and unprofitable," 
Save to the medical man. And to him much is made 
strangely repulsive. Now we think no higher mission need 
be undertaken than to redeem medical science from this 
condition of misapprehension and abuse. Clothe it in its own 
beauty ; divest it of needless complexity ; purge it of child- 
ish superstitions, ignorant fancies and let it stand forth in 
its truthfulness and simplicity and it will not fail to inspire 
its practitioners and to charm the world. 



i5|$i>jj| aii& 3mt%iu. 



Homoeopathic CnreS for YelloW-Pever. By Lucius Morse, M.D., 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Editors Appeal — There was handed to me a few days ago, 
a pamphlet containing an article from advance sheets of the 
New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal for May, 1874, en- 
titled "Observations on the Yellow-Fever Epidemic of 1873, in 
Memphis, Tennessee." This communication, written by a phy- 
sician of our city, contains matter of so remarkable a character 
as bearing upon the medical practice of the day, that it de- 
mands the careful attention not only of the profession at large, 
but of the general public. Having perused the article with so 
much interest and satisfaction, and hailing it as a most valuable 



Ctticlntiati Medinal Ailaiince. 

conti'ibulion to the pnblished experience of others in yollow- 
f (iver, I beg leave to notice a few points wortby of CBpecial con- 
sideration. 

After cnsimlly montioning the several epiiiomies of yellow- 
fever which have visited Memphis, their centers of infection, 
progress and fatality, and dwelling some length npon the aid 
to diagnosit* derivable from the thermometer, in which he cor- 
roliorutes the experiencea of previous observers, the writer 
says: 

"When called to a ease of yellow-fever within the firet few 
houra of its commencement, I ordered a warm mustard pedi- 
iHvluiii placed in the bed, under the bed clothing, and permitted 
ihii patient's feet to remain in it for fifteen or twenty minuies, 
while the eovenng was well packed around his neck and body, 
so as to get his skin moist and acting well. After this, I had 
him comfortably covered with moderate covering, in a room 
with a thermometer hanging on the wall and marking from 
sixty-eight to seventy degrees. I desire the skin to be simply 
soft; excessive perspiration is weakening, and certainly can not 
prove ultimately beneficial, because the patient will have need 
for all of his powers of resistance when the febrile stage has 
passed, and the great prostration of the system calls loudly 
'Hotp me CasstuR, or I sink. • * « • * jf ^^^ patient's 
bowels are constipated or stomach full, they were emptied — 
the first by very mild or salient aperients, and the other by tepid- 
water emetics. Then commenced my treatment for the febrile 
stage to control the circulation and prevent congestions of 
thp intenial organs, by giving Fleming's tincture of aconite in 
fi-om two to live drop doses every two to four hours, as neces- 
sities and ages of paticntii required. This aconite was given 
in neutral mixture, made fresh and rendered more palatable by 
the addition of simple or orange peel syrnp. * • • • 
I am of the impression, without positively knowing it, that ac- 
onite judiciously administered in these cases for its effect, will 
shortc-n and lighten the febrile stage, and lessen the chances 
of risceral complications. In a number of cases I noticed a 
modified circulation within the first twelve hours of treatment, 
and a grout lessening of headache and backache. I gave my 



Theory and Practice, 6 

patients to drink a little lemonade or water and crushed ice, 
when much tendency to nausea existed. The Creole method 
of tilling the stomach with warm orange leaf tea, etc. never 
struck me as being based upon sound practical observation. 
During the febrile stage nourishment is not urged upon the 
patient, but, if desired, a little fresh butter-mik, given at short 
intervals, will be found grateful and palatable, and will be fre- 
quently eagerly sought by the sufferer, as the mild acidity of 
it helps to allay the constant and annoying thirst which exists. 
About from the fiftieth to the eightieth hour of the febrile 
stage the pulse drops to or below the normal standard, and your 
patient expresses himself as feeling better, yet greatly pros- 
trated: begins, generally, not always, to turn yellow. At this 
time my course was to stop the aconite mixture and commence 
a gently supporting plan with rich, well-made beef tea and milk 
toddy, given alternately in small quantities, at regular intervals; 
the amount of this support to be regulated by the strength and 
frequency of the pulse and range of the thermometer as ob- 
served at the morning and evening visiis. I added a little lime 
water to the milk and whisky when the stomach seemed in- 
clined to fret, and applied mustard sinapisms over the abdo- 
men. * .* * At this stage, if there was sensation of much 
fullness about the abdomen, warm water enemata were resorted 
to, gently emptying the lower bowel, which frequently induced 
an action from the whole canal. * * * I frequently quieted 
very irritable stomachs by giving twenty drops of chloroform 
in a teaspoonful of glycerine. In two cases when irritability 
of stomach was very annoying, I gave five drops of Fowler's 
solution [of arsenic] in a teaspoonful of rose-water, and in an- 
other case tincture of nux vomica, in four drop doses, seemed 
to act equally well." 

The system of treatment recommended above is certainly 
excellent, and that it was wonderfully successful in the cure of 
patients we shall presently see. But the point to which we 
desire the attention of the reader specially directed is the fact 
that, leaving out a few non-'essentials, such, perhaps, as the lime 
water and the purgatives, it is, as far as it goes, strictly homceo- 
pathic. In proof of this we refer to the works of Jahr, Hem 



6 Cificinnati Medical Advance, 

Hughes, Holcorabe, Rauo, Marcy and Hunt, all standards in 
the literature of the new school. The doctor (an allopathist) * 
may not have noticed this coincidence when administering his 
aconite, arsenic and nux vomica, but it is on that account none 
the less instructive. 

Homoeopathy differs from and takes ground in advance of 
the old system of physic by acknowledging a great guiding 
law in the selection of remedies. This law is expressed in the 
formula: slmilia similibus curantitr — likes afe cured by likes — 
that is, a given set of symptoms in disease is removed by a 
drug which administered to healthy persons, is capable of pro- 
ducing similar symptoms. For example, veratrum^ album and 
cuprum taken in large doses produce symptoms closely resem- 
bling those occurring in cholera, hence they become most val- 
uable remedies (administered, of course, in smaller doses) in the 
treatment of this terrible scourge. 

As this is a subject really of such vital importance, let us 
see a little more in detail Kow the treatment recommended by 
the author of the article under consideration agrees, with the 
homoeopathic principle of slmilia. The four drugs recommend- 
ed by him (but let not the reader for a moment infer that this 
meagei: list comprises the resources of Homoeopathy in yellow- 
fever), are: 

Aconite, arsenic, nux vomica, chloroform. 

The hot foot-baths to the already fever-heated patients is so 
palpably " like to like " that we shall not pause to discuss that. 

Aconite is one of the most powerful drugs in the 'materia 
medica, and a prominent symptom produced by doses not even 
dangerous to life is violent fever. It is this property of the 
drug — its ability, in large doses, to prod\ice fever — a property 
discovered by Hahnemann, the founder of homoeopathy, which 
rendered it in small doses so efficient in the first stage of yel- 
low-fever not only in the hands of the writer we are discuss- 
ing, but in those of myself and other homoeopathists who 
practiced here during the recent epidemic. 

Again, one of the prominent symptoms noticed in cases of 
poisoning by arsenic is gastric irritation; even to high state of 
inflammation, attended with nausea and vomiting. The reader 



Thtory and Jh'actice, 7 

need not be surprised, theieforc, to learn that the five drop 
doses of Fowler's solution of arsenic should have subdued this 
condition occurring in yellow-fever. Arsenic is set down in 
all works of homoeopathic practice as one of the oftenest in- 
dicated remedies in the second and third stages of yellow- 
fever, and especially of the dreaded black vomit. 

As to nux vomica, every homoeopathic physician is familiar 
with its power of controlling certain forms of gastric irrita- 
bility; and every one who has witnessed, as I have done, over 
and over again, in the surgical wards of hospitals, as well as 
in private practice, the terrible nausea and vomiting sometimes 
produced by chloroform, will see, in the light of our previous 
remarks, how it becomes homeopathic to similar symptoms 
manifested in disease. 

What were the particular indications, in any given case, 
which called for the administration of one drug in i>reference 
to another, as fpr instance, arsenic instead of nux vomica, for 
this gastric irritability, we are not informed — an omission 
which detracts materially from the value of the article ; but 
fortunately the lack may be fully supplied by reference to any 
of the larger works on homoeopathic practice and materia 
medica. 

That the writer of the article in question administered doses 
of his drugs somewliat larger than tlie majority of homoeo- 
pathic physicians have found, in similar cases, ami)ly sufficient 
makes no difference as to the point under consideration, there 
being, in reality, no such thing as a "homoeopathic dose." 

But now we come to the most startling i>oint of all, the re- 
sult in practice claimed for the treatment we have been con- 
sidering. Let the writer speak for himseif. He says : 

"I treated in my private practice during this epidemic, one 
hundred and eighty-seven cases of yellow-fever ; have tabu- 
lated seventy-three of them, including the ten which died. 
It will be seen from the above that my loss was about live 
and one-third per cent, of those treated. 

Could anything be more satisfactory ? La Iloche in his ex. 
haustive work on yellow-fever gives the mortality in a great 
many epidemics, the lowest being twelve per cent., the liighest 



8 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

about ninety per cent. It will be remembered that Dr. Black- 
burn, who bad charge of the Walthall infirmary during the 
recent epidemic here, was complimented upon his successful 
treatment, and yet he lost more than forty-five per cent, of 
the patients under his care, in that institution." 

With the treatment recommended by the author of the 
article under consideration (and he assures us that he has 
stated simply tlic results of his own personal obsei*vation at 
the bedside), yellow-fever loses its terrors. The death rate is 
less, indeed, than from our usual billions and remittent fevers, 
and far below that of dysentery, pneumonia and pleurisy, 
under allopathic treatment. 

Whatever may have been the success, in this instance, over 
and above that which attended the practice of a majority o^ 
Memphis physicians in the late epidemic, I claim for homoeo- 
p:it?liy, " Honor to whom honor is due. " 

Ilomceopalliy is practically the same, whether its principles 
be used by an acknowledged homoeopathist or by an allo- 
path ist ; whether the medicines employed are obtained from 
a homoeopathic pharmacy or pass over the counter of an or- 
dinary drug-store ; whether the results of treatment are de- 
tailed in a homoeopathic journal or blazoned to the world 
upon the pages of one which claims to be strictly ** orthodox." 
It is exceedingly instructive to see how the old "heroic " sys- 
tem of practice is being modified wherever it comes in contact 
with the new ; how the massive doses of quinine, calomel, 
opium, tartar-emetic, jalap, iron, castor-oil, and purgatives 
generally, are giving place to a more humane, enlightened and 
successful treatment, and how yellow-fever, justly considered 
one of the most dreadful diseases, which, heretofore, was 
thought to demand the most active measures of bleeding, 
blistering, purging and sweating, has come, at last, as we 
have seen, to be treated with a few drops of tincture of aco- 
nite, nux vomica, Fowler's solution, etc. It is time that the 
public mind was impressed with the fact that Homoeopathy 
offers for the treatment of all diseases a system safe, gentle 
and eflicacious. 



Theory and Practice, 



Hysteria. By A. K. 

We see that Prof. Owens' classes hydrophobia among the 
diseases of the imagination sustaining his ground by staunch 
authority and corroborative observation. If this much dread- 
ed disease, which has so successfully battled against cups, cau- 
tery and pills, is indeed a phantasy we may with much more 
reason place hysteria among the morbid actions of the crea- 
tive power, make it a disease of itself instead of a symptom, 
even though there be synchronous uterine disorders, and say 
that it and imagination travel pari passu — the hysteria wholly 
dependent upon a diseased fancy. 

The greater number of cases coming properly under the 
head of hysteria, may at the same time present any of the 
various affections of the reproductive system. The fact 
however remains unquestioned that it does exist idiopathically— 
as independent of any organic or functional derangements of 
the sexual organs, as palpitation of the heart. 

If you are called to treat a case of hemorrhoids, with a hypo- 
chondrical disposition as a symptom thereof, and succeed by 
any remedy in reliving that mental disturbance, you will find 
an improvement in the causes of the disease corresponding 
with the relief given. Or, raise a patient from syphilitic ca- 
chexia to apparent health, and that which produced the ca- 
chexia goes with it, though it be but to return the following 
month. In short, when the physician succeeds in allaying any 
one set or class of the prominent symptoms of his patient, his 
success is indicated, not by their cessation alone; but also by 
the removal of their cause. 

If hysteria, then, is but a symptom when manifesting itself 
where displacements, or other derangements exist in the sex- 
ual tract, we do not see how this most distressing attendant is 
to be eradicated without a like favorable effect upon the foun- 
tain of supply. Yet that it has been, is the experience of many 
physicians. We have now in mind a case of prolapsus, with 
hypertrophy, co-existent with hysteria, in which the latter was 
radically cured with no improvement of the former. 



10 ' Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Why should not cause, and effect in the human economy be 
amenable to the same reasoning which governs them in phys- 
ics ? 

That this disease is frequently developed by affections of 
the uterus or ovaries, there is no more doubt than that sup- 
pressio mensium, may develop phthisis. But who thinks of 
calling phthisis a symptom ? It is none the less a constitution- 
al disease, because preceded by amenorrhoea, than when direct- 
ly awakened by an attack of measles. 

Hysteria being a disease jt)€r se, no one will question our lo- 
cating its cause in the nervous system, whether preceded by 
undue excitement from grief or pleasure, a severe cold, psora 
or uterine complaints. We go a step deeper than this, and 
assume that, like Prof. Owen's hydrophobia, it is always bom 
-in the imagination, nurtured by fancies, which grow morbid 
from a low state of the nervous system or hyperaesthesia, 
and suddenly becoming master of the situation assumes its 
realm upon the lighest pretext, and holds high carnival with the 
motors and affections, and rolls balls up and down the trachea 
at will. To convince the sufferer from this dire malady, 
that she is a prey to an abnormal imagination, is simply im- 
possible ; she treats man and woman with profound scorn who 
endeavor to advance a thought against the reality of the thing 
in her particular case. We remember a lady who refused to 
consult with us until a promise was made that we would im- 
plicitly believe what she said. After an humble acquiesence 
on our part, she said, there was something in her which looked 
exactly like the yolk of an egg ; and so long as it stayed in 
the region of her liver or stomach, she didn't mind it, but that 
sometimes it worked up to tke throat, which nearly choked 
her ; and at other times wended its way up to the right or left 
shoulder, where it caused so much pain, that she was obliged 
to call aid to rub it back to its kennel. She was so sure of 
the reality of this, that she was willing to declare under oath 
that it " pushed the skin out," and that she had often moved 
it with her hand. A few doses of ignatia cured her permanent- 
ly, and not for a month did we assure her, that her egg yolk 
was a myth. Another lady, unmarried, with perfect genera- 



Theory and Practice, 11 

tive organs, was subject to severe convulsions, sometimes cry- 
ing, sometimes laughing and closing with spasmodic muscular 
contractions. Medicine seemed valueless, and finally a tea- 
spoonful of pepper was ordered for the next attack, with th6 
assurance that she would have a remedy indeed. When the 
accepted time arrived, an attendant admisistered the dose — 
the fire and anger produced by this peculiar method of appro- 
priating condiments proved effectual. She had but one more 
light attack which the sight of the cruet, cut short. 

A widow lady, who had suffered with this dire disease for 
some years, in connection with prolapsus, was suddenly left 
impecunious. When she learned, that her relatives would not 
allow her to patronize their homes on account of her "fits,'^ 
they almost immediately left her, and her trouble, thereby 
limited to the prolapsus. 

We might cite other instances, but enough has been given 
to establish this as a disease dependent entirely upon morbid 
conditions of the imagination, and which should be treated as 
such. 

None the less care should be used in examining the heart, 
reproductive system, social surroundings, and aught else likely 
to produce such a condition of the system, as to render the 
body a prey to this morbid phenomenon of the creative faculty. 



Ifilk as a Curative Agent. By Geo. M. Qckford, M. D., 

Hackensack, N. J * 

By observing that children aflected with bowel difficulties 
and other diseases invariably recovered better when nursed 
by a healthy mother than when otherwise nurtured, led me 
to ascertain, if possible, the cau^; and I finally came to the 
conclusion that the milk must form an independent adjunct, 
at least. Following this, I was led to prescribe milk quite 
frequently in cases of diarrhoea and dysentery, in conjunction 



12 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

with the indicated remedy; and the results surpassed my 
most sanguine expectations. Relief was experienced in 
every case and my patients made more rapid recoveries with 
its use than without it. 

In dysentery, especially, the result was most satisfactory. 
My manner of giving was to prescribe in adults a tumbler 
full every two hours, and children in proportion to their ages, 
giving it about blood-warm, and giving the indicated remedy 
on the hour between; and under this treatment I saw some 
of the worst cases of dysentery make rapid covalescence. 
As examples I quote from notes taken last summer and fall: 

Minnie , a little girl aged 7, was attacked with dysen- 
tery, and when called I found her delirious; pulse weak and 
160; passing chocolate-colored, very fetid, bloody discharges 
every 20 or 30 minutes. There were also present great ex- 
haustion, thirst for small quantities, tongue coated and dry, 
face expressive of great anguish, great restlessness, excessive 
pain before stool and burning afterwards, fetid urine, — ^all 
the symptoms being worse about midnight. Jfc arsenic 6th, 
a powder every half hour. There was no relief in twelve 
hours, when I directed milk to be given every hour alternat- 
ing with arsenic, which was clearly indicated. But the 
stomach would not retain the milk, so I gave nux vom. 30th, 
which controlled the nausea, but did not check the dysen- 
teric discharges. Then I persisted in giving the milk, leaving 
a few powders of lac. sac. to be given in a cup half full of 
blood-warm milk every hour, and, owing to the great exhaus- 
tion, gave china 6th with it. From the time she could retain 
the milk, the improvement was gradual but sure. After 
taking it, relief was experierfbed immediately, and the bowels 
gradually assumed a natural foecal discharge and the patient 
recovered, having had psoricum, sulphur and and one or two 
other remedies during the convalescence; but I think it was 
the milk that performed the cure. 

Another case, that of a mfin of nervo-bilious temperamant, 
about 45 years of age, was attacked with dysentery, and to 
whom I gave aeon. 30th and mere. sol. 6th, as they were in- 
dicated, as well as nux. vom., without benefit, when I pre- 



Theory and Practice, 13 

scribed milk warmed to about 98°, a tumbler full every two 
hoursi, with immediate improvement. 

Another case, that of a woman of a mild, yielding dis[)osi- 
tion, who was taken with diarrhoea, which soon changed into 
the characteristic dysenteric discharge, with the cutting pain 
in the bowels, etc. As there were high fever, dry skin, etc., 
I gave aconite and left some powders of sac. lac. to be given 
in a glass of warm sweet milk every two hours. The effect 
was like magic. The disease was controlled in less than 24 
hours and patient had no more trouble. 

I might enumerate a great number of other cases of dysen- 
tery and diarrhoea in which milk was prescribed with benefit 
invariably; but let these suffice. If there are any who have 
not tried this treatment, let me ask them to give it a trial-, for 
I am positive of its great value in the treatment of disease. 



Clinical Notes— Valerania Offldnalis. Translated byj. Pettet, 

M. D. 

Valerian is a kind of specific against that form of intermit- 
tent fever in which the chill is almost wanting, and in which 
the heat exceeds considerably in intensity and endurance — 
followed later by perspiration. 

Two cases of this kind contracted in Africa, where they had 
resisted strong and prolonged doses of quinine and arsenic. In 
one, the disease disappeared for-two years from change of 
climate alone, but afterwards reappeared with singular inten- 
sity, while the other had persisted. 

Two other cases of the same fever existed in the climate of 
Paris and have been presented to my observation at different 
intervals. These four cases have yielded invariably and im- 
mediately to the action of valerian 30th. The first attack 
afte> the administration of the remedy was less intense, sec- 
ond almost imperceptible, then disappeared permanently. 



14 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Fifteen years ago I had also the opportunit}' of prescribing 
valerian successfully under the following circumstances: 

A young woman, having contracted a severe cold, which 
brought on violent cephalalgia, with great weariness, high 
fever, etc., and the posterior cervical region was the seat 
of unbearable rhumatoidal pain, especially during motion. 
Three doses of helleborus niger 30th, given in rapid succes- 
sion caused the pain to disappear in less than three hours, 
the skin becoming moist. But at the same time an analogous 
pain, which was very intense, appeared in the lumbar region. 
Then I prescribed valerian 30th, which, after a few doses and 
in three or four hours, stopped the pain and brought a 
prompt resolution of the phenomena which accompanied 
them." — ^\ Paul Pitet, Bib, Horn, 



Shot-gun Practice is still in vogue and no doubt thought 
by some very scientific. The Indiana Journal of Medicine 
in a recent number gives the following as treatment for 
phlegmasia dolens 

"First prescription: Qiiinine and morphia combined, each 
two hours until rest was secured, then quinine alone. Local 
application, mustard draught over the region of the spleen; 
lubricated tlie abdomen with turpentine and lard." 

Second prescription: "Two doses of chloral combined with 
Dover's Powders, followed by epsom -salts; lubricated the 
thighs with equal parts of hartshorn, turpentine and olive 
oil." 

Third prescription: Qiiinine, port wine, with local applica- 
tion of the hartshorn liniment. 

It is a wonder that this patient showed any signs of con- 
valescence, which it is fair to say she did. But it is no won- 
der that she suddenly relapsed with brain symptoms, and 
died "thirteen hours and forty minutes after the" relapse be- 
gan. In these days a doctor should blush with shame to 
confess to a practice so utterly without rhyme or reason. 



Surgery, 15 

At the last meeting of the Eclectic Medfcal Association 
of Missouri "the subject, Specific Action of Belladonna, was 
taken up and discussed. Drs. Dunn, Sharp and others par- 
ticipated. It w;is the general opinion that the specific action 
of belladonna or any other remedy depended much upon a 
correct diagnosis and an appreciable dose of the medicine." 

Could anything be more absurd? How long will these 
gentlemen continue to betray such utter ignorance of the 
subject of the specific action of drugs? As well say the 
name of the patient or the size of his family determined the 
action of the remedy. Gentlemen, you are in the dark. 




m%u% 



Iodide of Potasdum in SyphiUs. By Wm. Owens. M.D. 

• 

"The value of mercury in syphilis has been so amply vin- 
dicated by Mr. Hutchinson that we may be excused from 
looking longer on this side of the picture; but there is an- 
other which is of equal or greater interest. As well pointed 
out by Mr Hutchinson, syphilis is a malady more or less ap- 
proximating to the characters of an eruptive fever, and tend- 
ing like these to terminate of its own accord, with the evolu- 
tion of certain symptoms. What Mr. Hutchinson lays down 
as regards mercury, and what in another column Dr. Wilks 
corroborates, is that mercury distinctly interferes with the 
evolution of these symptoms, cuts the various stages short, 
and acts as an antidote to the specific poison which gives 
rise to the symptoms in question. But whether the due 



1 6 Cincin natl Jlft dlcal Advajice, 

course of the malady be interfered with or not, it «ends to 
limit itself and come to a spontaneous end. But when the 
end has come, the individual does not cease to be liable to 
suffering; he ceases to be a source of danger to others, for 
the disease in this stage can no longer be propagated by him 
— except, indeed, we accept the theory recently advanced 
by Mr. DeMe'rie, that a simple sore in such a patient is ca- 
pable of propagating syphilis. But he becomes liable to cer- 
tain evils of no mean importance, such as perisostitis, disease 
of bones, deposits of gummy matter in nearly all the organs 
of the body, rupia and spreading ulcers of the skin and other 
parts, to say nothing of the waxy degeneration of many dif- 
ferent organs. Now, these evils are directly consequent on 
syphilis, yet they are not, strictly speaking, due to syphilis; 
they are sequelae, and must be treated in a totally difterent 
fashion from syphilis itself. During the period of syphilitic 
eruption it is questionable whether iodide of potassium is of 
the slightest value, whilst mercury undoubtedly exercises a 
most important influence on the evolution of the disease; but 
in this stage, which is commonly spoken of as the tertiary 
stage of syphilis, the value of iodide of potassium is just as 
unquestionable as is the value of mercury in the earlier 
phases of the malady. It is a very important question for us 
to settle — if settle it we can — What is the value of mercury 
in this a'ter stage of syphilis? Suppose we see a patient 
with well-marked rupia, with periostitic pains, and other 
signs of tertiary syphilis, who, nevertheless, has not taken 
mercury, what should we do.? The first thing to note is that 
such symptoms, though usually sequela), may occur in the 
active stage of syphilis; and as long as syphilis is active, mer- 
cury will be of use; but as soon as the active symptoms have 
passed away, and the so-called tertiary stage begins, we must 
abandon the attempt to cure by mercury — we must give 
iodide of potassium. It is not always easy to say where the 
one stage ends and the other begins, but, broadly speaking, 
tertiary syphilis, or the sequellae of syphilis, may be laid down 
as beginning with the stage of gummy deposits; and wher- 
ever these exist, iodide of potassium, and not mercury, 
should be given. 



t^irgery. 17 

"There is one matter of great interest with regard to the 
giving of iodide of potassium in such cases. Under ordinary 
circumstances, if we give a patient a dose of fifteen grains 
three times a day, we shall soon have him running at the eyeii 
and nose, and with a rash all over his skin; but in the se- 
quelae of syphilis we may give twenty, thirty, or even sixty 
grains every four hours, and only benefits accrue. There is 
no rash and no other symptoms of iodide of potassium is not 
the only remedy to be given in such cases. Iron and qui- 
nine are always of service, as we might almost conclude a 
priori from the pallid and anoemic look of such patients; but 
cod-liver oil seems often of even greater value, as it is in 
chronic rheumatism. But, over and above these, sarsaparilla 
is of undoubted efficacy. Many people think little of its ef- 
fects and are inclined to sneer at its use. This most fre- 
quently arises from the mode in which it is given, for the 
decQCtion should be given, not by the ounce, but by the pint; 
and, so given, its value is great. 

"It is therefore of the first importance to be able to recog- 
nize the stage in which a patient is at the time when seen. 
Whatever the nature of the symptoms of syphilis, if the dis- 
ease is in process of evolution, mercury will do good; but if 
that be past, and only the sequelae left, it will as certainly do 
harm. Then is the time for iodide of potassium and sarsa- 
parilla." 

Remarks. — There can be no doubt that the above state- 
ment, taken from the Medical Times and Gazette^ is a correct 
presentation of the relations of mercury and iodide of potash 
to the treatment of syphilis and sequelae. The do-^es, how- 
ever, of the potash are much too large; one grain doses 
answer quite as well as twenty, thirty or forty grains, and 
should never be pushed beyond the development of catarrhal 
symptoms, then it should be suspended until •these symp- 
toms subside, when it may be resumed again, and at the 
first indications of coryza, it should be suspended. 

Bone pains; rheumatism; periostitis; gummy deposit; spas- 
modic contractions of the muscles; hemiplegia; paraplegia; 
May-2 



18 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

violent tearing, rending or lacerating pains, aggravated dur- 
ing rest, relieved in the open air, — are, if the sequelae of 
syphilis or mercurial poisoning, relieved very promptly by 
iodide of potash, in grain doses twice a day. 

The homoeopathic physician effects a cure according to a 
law, and is therefore enabled to dispense with the large doses 
usually administered by our allopathic friends, and thereby 
avoiding many of the evil consequences that result there- 
from. 



♦ ♦■ 



Esmarch's Bloodless Operation. By Wm. Owens, M. D. 

This eminently practical and humane method of operating, 
has now been used here many times with the most satisfactory 
results. It consists in the very simple process of reducing the 
blood in the member to be operated, upon as much as possible, 
this is accomplished by means of an elastic bandage applied to 
the limb from below upward, with such firmness, as to at once 
arrest the flow of blood into the limb, and expel that already 
there. The blood by this bandage is carried to a point above 
that at which the intended operation is to be performed — where 
it is retained until another bandage or cord is passed around 
the 1-lmb, and the enveloping bandage is then removed, when 
the operation is performed in the usual manner. 

The following reported cases will serve more fully to describe 
the use of the bandage and method of operating : 

" On the 16th of February the patient was brought before the 
class, chloroformed, and Esmarch's elastic bandage applied by 
my friend, f)r. Kastenbine, from the fingers to the mid-arm. 
Immediately above the bandage a rubber cord was wound 
tightly several times around the limb to compress the aflPerent 
vessels, and tied. The bandage was now removed and the 



Surgery. 1 9 

nsual incisions made. Not a drop of blood followed. The 
operation was in all respects as easy and as quick of execution 
as though done on the cadaver. The tissues were almost of a 
waxy whiteness. The sac wfis exposed, opened, and its con- 
tents turned out ; the wound in the artery was broupjht clearly 
into view, the vessel itself being entirely empty ; a ligature 
was thrown above and below the puncture, and all without 
soiling my lingers or the knife. The rubber cord was now re- 
moved, when the limb, before completely blanched, quickly 
flushed, and blood began to ooze from the cut surfaces. The 
torsion of a few vessels, the elevation of the limb, and a cold 
sponge? or two quickly stanched the blood. The ligatures used 
being carbolized and their ends cut short, the edges of the 
the wound were sealed with the view of securing immediate 
union. This, however, did not take place, but whether this 
was due to the operation or to other causes I do not i^now. 
The sac was dense and lined by several layers of iibrin. The 
extravasatdd blood was firmly coagulated. The opening in the 
vessel was about the size of a darning-needle. • It was my 
wish to apply the bandage, allow it to remain for some min- 
utes, remove it, and note the effects on the aneurism ; but to 
this the patient positively refused to consent. I shall certain- 
ly try it on the first suitable case. The patient left for his 
home, in a distant part of the state, the third day after the 
operation, with a healthy suppurating wound. 

A little girl, five years old, struck the left tibia twelve 
months ago against a stone ; necrosis foUow^ed, and when ad- 
mitted to hospital a year afterwards asequc8trun\ could be felt 
in the tibia inclosed by a considerable thickness of new bone. 
Whilst the patient was being chloroformed, Mr. McCormac 
applied pretty tightly an ordinary elastic bandage from the 
toes to the middle of the thigh. The bandage was two inches 
wi<le Mid five yards in length, and thus applied, the bandage 
forced all, or nearly all, the blood from the limb into the body. 
When the patient was fully narcotized, a half-inch India-rubber 
rope was wound around the thigh immediately at the upper 
border of the bandage, and sufliciently tight to obstruct all 
the afferent vessels. Hooks previously attached to the extrem- 
ities of the rope furnished a ready means of fastening it, as 



Cincinnati Medical A dtfont 



well as of removing it at pleasure. The bandage first -ipplipdwas I 
DOW unrolled, when the limb presented a bl^inchcd appearance. 
Th« operation wns then comnaeuced ; some new bone removed, I 
no aa to got at and take away a considerable sized cequeatrnr 
During the entire time not a single drop of blood appeared in 1 
tlie wound ; a sponge was not once required, and the facility I 
with which the operation was conducted and finished requires I 
to be aeon to be realized. The tissues were divided, so far i 
bleeding was concerned, just ns they might have been on the I 
dead body. This operation was performed in St. Thomas's il 
Hospitftl on August 16th in the present year, Esniarcb'ail 
method for producing local ancemia being then practiced for I 
the first lime in Britain. Since the operation the little patient I 
hna progressed very favorably, and although carefully watched, [ 
no peculiarity which might be attributed to the use of tlio ap> I 
paratus has been observed either in the wound or in the limb. | 

Since then other operations for necrosis have been perform- 
ed, and an excision of the knee lasting thirty-five minutes, 
also an amputation of the thigh, and in no instance has one 
single drop of blood been lost. The advantages of such a 
plan Mr. McCormac writes, ai^ so palpable as not to need 
much insisting upon. The generality of hospital patients can 
ill spare a serious loss of blood, and such a loss often proves 
inevitable during operations for extensive necrosis of bone. 
In amputations the greater part of the blood of the lost cit- ■ 
tremily is preserved, to the advantage of the patient. The J 
duration of operations will be much shortened, aa there is i 
neither blood nor the constant dabbing of sponges into the 
wound to remove it to interfere with the surgeon's sight. No 
accident or ill consequence at all appears to follow the use of 
the apparatus. In cases where amputation require to be per- 
formed for gangrene, or where there is a deposit of septic 
material in the limb about to be operated upon, there migbt be 
a risk of the elastic bandage forcing some portion of the sep- 
tic material into the circulation. In the further use of the 
apparatus this possibility must be kept in view. Any one will 
be surprised, in trying il upon his own arm, to find what a 



Surgery, 21 

small amount of pressure of the India rubber rope will stop 
the pulsation of the radial artery, and the femoral can also be 
stopped with no great exercise of force. Doubtless the his- 
tory of surgery abounds with many attempts to empty limbs 
of blood previous to amputation, and to arrest hemoiThage 
during their perfonnance. Stromeyer, in 1853, as he remarks 
in his *' Maxims,' adopted a plan precisely similar in principle, 
in an operation on a brachial aneurism. He bandaged the 
limb to a point just above the aneruism, and then applied a 
tourniquet. The loss of blood was very small during the op- 
eration. Bilroth mentions that when lie was assistant to Yon 
Langenbeck, in 1853 and 1854, a somewhat similar plan was 
tried in the clinque in Berlin. Yanzetti, of Padua, relates in 
the Italian Medical Gazette that Mr. Silvestri, in Yicenza, has 
employed bandaging and the India-rubber rope compression 
above it in amputation, but notwithstanding, to Professor £s- 
march must be attributed the credit of making known a most 
simple, practicable, and efficient plan for wholly preventing 
loss of blood during operations, of whatever kind, when per- 
formed upon the extremeties of the body." 

Remarks. — Mr. W. H. Crupp, of St. Bartholomews Hos- 
pital has suggested that which he claims as an improvement 
on Esmarch's bandage. It consists of an elastic cord or tube, 
three-eights of an inch in diameter, and from eighteen- to 
twenty-iive inches in length, with the ends united and tied 
with a string, forming an elastic ring, which is then passed 
around the limb three or four times quite firmly, and is worked 
from below upward by means of a reel, until a point is reached 
above that at which it is designed to operate. 

This simple arrangement serves both purposes, that of re- 
moving the blood, and restraining it from return to the part 
while the operation is going on. M. Demorquaz says in re- 
ference to this plan before employing it, that he had some 
fears which, however, were satisfactorily dissipated. 

First, he convinced himself of the absence of pain which he 
was inclined to ascribe to the presence of the bandage, by ap- 
plying it for twenty minutes to the limb of a woman suffering 
with varicose veins. 



22 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Secondly, that the fears he entertained that throwing all 
of the blood of the limb back into the general circulation would 
have a prejudicial effect upon the system, but this was not the 
case; forEsmarch operated upon two liml)S of the same party, 
and had both limbs compressed at the same time without any 
mischief resulting. 

Thirdly, whether the arrest of the circulation in the limb for 
the period of thirty or forty minutes would not have a detri- 
mental effect upon the operation itself, and whether the pres- 
ence of the India rubber tube would not injure the large vessels. 
Happily all these qnestions were decided in the negative. 

Dr. Arnst, of London, in reporting same case dwells upon 
four points for consideration in the use of either of the fore- 
going methods. 

1. As to the possibility of sloughing from the use of these 
constricting bands, and the length of time they may be with 
safety retained. 

2. The effect on the circulation of the limb after their 
removal. 

3. The difficulty of using the method without chloroform. 

4. Under what circumstances the method might wisely be 
dispensed with. 

And concludes that, in cases of septic abscess and gangren- 
ous condition of the parts, they should be omitted; and in 
cases where the veins are occluded by clots of blood, they are 
of questionable value; and suggest that great risk of apoplexy 
might be incurred in aged persons, in whom the arteries are 
often very brittle. 

While Erichson objects to Esmarch's claims, and says that 
it has no merit above the Edinburgh plan of elevating the 
limb and stroking the blood out of it, and then applying a 
tourniquet, the same "bloodless" result being secured in each 
method. 



Miscdlaiieoua. 28 



@ii%t%llt%mm. 



A Plea for a Popular Medical Sdence. By T. P. W. 

It needs no argument to make it plain that intelligence on 
the part of the people regarding the sciences of anatomy and 
physiology, and of the nature of disease and the best methods 
of curing it, would in the end render certain the tolling of 
the death-knell o^ empiricism. Quacks could then make no 
excuse current but to hang themselves. 

As owls creep into the nest of prairie dogs and feed and 
fatten there, defying expulsion, so empirics have always 
safely burrowed in the don^ain of medical art,, and the power 
of the profession has been wholly inadequate to ejec^V them. 
They have grown vigorously upon the very ground where 
educ ited medieal men have literally starved to death. Men 
of the profession have long and loudly complained of a want 
of appreciation on the part of the public. Much of our honor 
and our incomes have been ruthlessly stolen avvav bv a race 
of quacks. Against these usurpers of oui rights we have in 
vain protested. Our declarations in public and private, our 
resolutions in convention assembled, have not checked their 
progress nor abated their influence. Like Canada thistles, 
they have rather spread the more they were cut up. 

But medical science once popularized, once mad*e the prop- 
erty of the people, and there would soon be written over the 
door of every base pretender in our art those potent, pro- 
phetic words which foretold and determined the fall of 
Babylon. They would be weighed in the balance and found 
wantmg. 



24 



t Madicul Adoatiei 



Write it down, then, that our scheme insures this onfij 
grnnd, desirable result — the extinction of quacks. And, ; 
very iiHlural and necessary sequence, we would surely attain I 
this otlier equally desirable end, the elevation of those worthy 1 
and well qualilied to practice our profession. Merit wuuldl 
not only he recognised and appreciated, but it would be re-M 
warded; while nt the same time the profession would rcnderfl 
itself still more worthy of the confidence of the people. 

These are not fanciful pictures, I never saw a medicalfl 
man whose mind was not painfully impressed with thesol 
things — I mean the prevalence of empiricism on the 
liiind, and, on the other, the failure of medical men to holdl 
that high and influential position in society which is justly I 
their due. No man worthy to be u physician is fully saiis-f 
fled with the position he is compelled to sustain in society.! 
He may be in enjoyment of extensive patronage; the richi 
and poor may alike crowd to his door for relief; he may ride^ 
like a lord in his costly carriage; be may live like a prince f 
in his elegant mansion; he may have a library crowded with 
rich stores of thought; he may have at hand all the valuable 
and varied instruments of modern medical and surgical art; 
honor and wealth may conspire to raise him as a man to the 
highest point compassed by human ambition: yet will he 
have an unmistakable longing for a better and higher des- 
tiny for his profession. J 

Now what is the remedy that has been suggested? WhyJ 
from eyery quarter the wind can blow, the cry comes up,' 
We mitul tlevate the utatiilarti of the medical prof esaiim. Our 
hope of success must He in our achievement of excel- 
lence. When we become wiser and more skillful, the world 
will give us due honor. We must place our science and art 
so high that quacks will be abashed at the thought of imilat- 
ig us. 

Now, I'm not Chancellor of the Exchequer, nor Secre- 
tary of the Treasury; but 1 think I could suggest a principle 
in finance that would startle a Gladstone, or a Boutwell. These 
learned gentlemen have long Ix'en puzzling iheir heads on 



Miscellaneous, 25 

the best means of preventing counterfeits. So far, they have 
tried the plan of making the genuine too perfect to be imi- 
tated, and of course failed; whereas the only true plan is, to 
educate the people; make them all good judges of money, 
and you have the work accomplished. 

So of medicine: it may be far from perfect, and doctors 
may be none too wise or good; but, bless you, in the present 
state of public intelligence, the batter you make them the more 
difficult it will be for the people to judge of their worth. We 
are all passable judges of bituminous coal, but how few of 
us are posted on diamonds. 

"We must educate," says old Dr. Beecher, "we must edu- 
cate, or we must perish." But how stiyjendous the folly for 
medical men to repeat the error of the political and religious 
leaders of the past, in educating the few at the expense of 
the many! No man can be judged wholly as an individual; 
no set of men can be viewed as isolated in any of their rela- 
tions. We are but integral parts of one great whole, which 
is man. And any predominance in excellence of individuals 
or classes is but an expression of what lies deep in the hearts 
of the people. Every great man and every superior class 
are but focal points of elements that inhere in the masses. 
You can not impoverish the people, and enrich their leaders. 
He that is greatest among us is the servant of all, and the 
servant is not above his master. 

In religious and political matters these things have been 
fully demonstrated. The divine right of kings and the in- 
herited privileges of a race of nobles are completely exploded 
in our democratic government. But in medical matters the 
severest autocracy prevails. In ages gone, 'tis said Heaven 
sent forth the fiat to man. Know thyself; but the command 
has not yet reached earth. Better say the dispatch was in- 
tercepted and kept hid from those to whom it belonged by 
a class of interested persons. Better say the birthright to 
humanity was surreptitiously withheld from the people. 
And the result of the wrong has been to recoil upon. the 
heads of the wrong-doers. If the medical art has been 



26 Cincimiati Medical Advance. 



cursed by a set of ignorant practitioners, it is because those 
practitioners have been made or kept ignorant by ignorant 
patrons. Or, to state it in other words, they have simply 
been all their patrons desired them to be. 

But we have not done with the argument, and shall give 
more of this anon. 



-•-•■ 



A Chapter 0& Pood* By Louise S. Hotchkiss. 

Everything exterior to man seems to exist in shape possi- 
ble for analyzing, systematizing and putting into harmony 
with natural law. But man himself does not fall into line of 
comprehension and order so easily. Science has studied the 
material man diligently and laboriously since his creation. 
Science studies the material horse a quarter of a year, and 
gains knowledge sufficient to control all diseases of this quad- 
ruped for half a century. Granted that man has a soul and 
the horse has not, does the action of thought, the sentiment 
of affection, the attributes of taste, hope, and ambition, so af- 
fect the nervc"^, membrane, and blood of the body that it must 
needs be subject every year to a new form of disease so com- 
plicated that medical skill is baffled, and at its wits' ends to 
know hovv to cope with this newly developed monster.? 

The horse eats his food, and is seldom sick. Man partakes 
of nearly everything that' grows out of the ground, lives on 
the earth, flies in the air, or swims in the sea. Enter any of 
our large hotels, and looking over the bill of fare, we find 
there advertised some unknown animal, or some known ani- 
mal with an unknown name, that has left its own happy 
home in the brook or mud-puddle and come hither; or some 
botanical plant that has ceased to beautify the face of the 
earth; and is now to stuff the greedy stomach. Behold, some 



Miscellmieous, 21 

ingenious Yankee has risked his life in the experiment, eaten of 
the article and lived ; got out a patent for it, sold it to the hotel 
keepers, pocketed twenty thousand dollars, and here we have 
it,— pate cle lily, frog, or snake. At the progress we are making 
in the art of eating, it can not be long before every plant and 
animal will have its day in the stew-pan; and man himself 
may be happy if he escapes this gormandizing period. I do 
not wish to credit the horse with more strength of character 
than he is worthy of; undoubtedly if he had a tongue he 
would not be content with his limited bill of fare, but would 
ask for beefsteak, roast beef, and mutton-chop, with a little 
wine to savor his cup of cold water. This speechless organ 
is doubtless his physical salvation. One can speculate that 
this is the missing link that separates the animal creation 
from the human — the tongue to speak, the food to eat, and 
thus- onward in the scale of civilization. Men act as though 
this were their creed: that to become highly human they 
must eat every thinor, and eat continually; that Mother Eve's 
way to get knowledge was to eat for it; that she was in the 
right, after all, and her example they were bound to follow. 
When dyspepsia becomes too conspicuous, in sallow faces, 
sunken eyes, and drooping spirits, there bursts forth an army 
of dietetic reformers in great gusto; but none of these agree 
in their modus operandL Meat is too animal, says one; vege- 
table diet is too feeble, says another; wine is too stimulating, 
says a third; wine in moderate quantity is invigorating, says 
a fourth. So the poor, distracted dyspeptic runs from one 
prescribed dish to another, groaning louder and longer over 
every theory he follows, and ends in condemnation of water 
cures and health journals as severe as ever were lashed upon 
'quack pill boxes and patent medicines. Meantime we kejgp 

eating; and experimenting in new dishes, and wishing- Wi^ 
enjoyed better health. 

I am acquainted with a woman who has thoroughly fitted 

herself for medical practice — who has been abroad and spent 

large sums of money to obtain a professional education. She 

returned and began her work. In less than a year she shut 

up her office, and threw away her medicines, as she said, to- 



Vincirinati Medical Advance. 



tally disgusted with the business of patching up health laws'! 
that people were constantly breaking by over-eating ar 
norant living. If all the doctors would make such u noble I 
sacrifice of themselves, is it not likely tiiis sick woild would I 
soon be well? for who would be so foolish as to run the risk ,| 
of breaking laws, when there was no one to mend them? I 
it not probable there would be as many broken necks a 
there are now broken arms and legs, were there as sure 
method of repairs for the former as the latter? 

If not all the sin and crime in the world arises from unlaw 
ful eating and drinking, yet so large is the proportion tha^j 
the remaining causes would be exceedingly few in number. J 
The blood tliiU is fed from unhealthy meat, strong drink,.] 
scrofulous pork, half-cooked dough and vegetables, frumJ 
stomachs overloaded with food, indigestible because i 
quantity, frequency of eating, and improper hours. gO' 
coursing through the veins, carrying its black and poisonous^ 
matter to the brain. Here this vile stimulant is lodged. \ 
sets up its frightful images of murder, theft, and licentious. J 
ness. Often result these terrible crimes; qnite frequcntlyJ 
cross words, the sudden blow, the abuse of all the passions,! 
the blasted home. All the governing faculties are enfeebIed;J 
the hand is weak, the M'jll paralyzed, or crazed; the inde-l 
pendent man is lost in the sickly material that cncompassea! 
him, and he is obliged to depend upon exterior force to con'-T 
trol his actions. Bad blood delights most in bad deeds, is theg 
universal law. But what a multitude of words are wasted iili 
moral exhortations, because of the absolute ignorance of 1 
primary principle of well-being. 

"Be pure in heart, and love the Lord," entreats the minis^ 
ter from his desk on a beautiful Sunday morning — his audi-| 
cnce stupid and half asleep under the Influence of bakedV 
beans, that have wallowed for twenty-four hours in pots of-J 
greasy pork fat. "Live a pure life," says the mother to her! 
son, as she bids him good-by on his way to yonder college^ 
the blood of his system stimulated with richly seasoned meat8r| 
highly spiced cake, and strong colfee— food that has been hia 
constant diet from his childhood, prepared by her hand. 



'• ^ 



Miscellaneous, 29 

modest and lady-like," the same mother says to her young 
daughter (blood in the same condition,) as she goes down 
town to her private school, there to flirt with the young men 
across the way, and spend half her time, and all her thoughts, 
in writing love notes of questionable contents. 

I believe that Nature has spread her table for man with a 
great abundance and vast variety of food; that the whole- 
some meats, rich fruits, and even pure wines, are all for him 
to enjoy, and by which he may be benefitted; and that he has 
the inalienable right to choose of which he will partake, pro- 
vided he acquaints himself first with the law that the blood of 
the body must be pure and healthy; that it must flow in regu- 
lar currents through the system, that the nerves may be in 
normal action, and the brain, which is under control of the 
blood, capable of governing the appetites of the man. Not 
all the seducing viands of the earth would tempt a man to 
rub poison into the pores of his hands, even though the pro- 
cess were as agreeable as the fasting of these viands would 
be to the palate. The eflect of the poisonous matter upon 
the exterior surface would be at once apparent, and the pro- 
cess visible to the naked eye. Let the vast network of inte- 
rior physical laws and their relation to intellectual and spirit- 
ual life be as well understood, and though the land overflow 
with milk and honey — or rum, gin, and brandy — man will 
take care that this house he lives in is not poisoned or injured 
by any of these. Temperance societies and liquor saloons 
alike will both quickly disappear, for there will be no busi- 
ness for either. 



♦ ♦■ 



The Magic Lantern as an Aid to Instruction in Chemical and 

Hiysical Lectures. By Prof. Hermann Vogel. 

Two years ago I called the attention to the use of the magic 
lantern in lectures, as has long been the custom in America 
in large and small educational institutions. The instrument 



30 Cincinnati MtcUcal Advance, 

permits small figures, whether pen sketches, wood cuts or 
photographs, from nature, two inches square, to be enlarged 
to four or five feet, so that in this way almost every wood 
cut in chemical and physical text books may be converted 
into a sort of wall chart, which can be conveniently exhib- 
ited to large audiences. 

The construction of the instrument is very simple. It con- 
sists of three principal parts : First, the source of light, which 
in large lanterns consists of an electric or calcium light, in 
smaller ones of a petroleum lamp. Second, a condenser, as it 
is called, consisting of two plano-convex lenses of short cur- 
vature with tlie curved sides towards each other, Q Q. Their 
only use is to concentrate the light upon the object magnified, 
for the stronger the illumination the more it will bear enlarg- 
ing. Third, a system of magnifying lenses, usually a portrait 
objective, such as is employed by photographers.* This 
throws an enlarged picture of a small original, which is placed 
just in front of the condenser, on a screen formed of white 
paper or white muslin calsomined. The electric light is too 
troublesome for general use. The calcium light is more con- 
venient, for the oxygen may be prepared before hand and 
preserved for weeks in rubber bags. Petroleum furnish e?^ the 
most simple light, and, with a suitably arranged apparatus, 
is intense enough for a lecture room holding 50 to 70 persons, 
provided the pictures do not exceed 11-2 meters square. The 
petroleum lamps formerly used were unsatisfactory, but Tal- 
bot, 11 Karlstr., Berlin, has introduced a lantern with a pe- 
troleum light which surpasses all those previously construct- 
ed. The light was so intense that I was able to obtain an 
objective spectrum, eight inches long. For using this appa- 
ratus in the day time it is necessary to have tight shutters or 
thick curtains which can be closed. 

The pictures for the magic lantern I have prepared either 
by photographing larger pictures or by fastening wood cuts 
printed on silk paper, or drawings made on such paper, di- 
rectly to the glass by means of negative varnish (shellac dis- 

*The UBual portrait lens consists of two double convex crown glass lenses, 
corrected by plano-concave flint lenses placed between them. 



Miscelkmeous. 31 

solved in alcohol). The varnish is poured on a glass plate 
held in a horizontal position and the wood cut laid upon it, 
care being taken to avoid air bubbles, and held firm while the 
varnish flows off. When dry the plate is slightly warmed 
and again flowed over it, the plate being turned round as the 
varnish runs off. Suitable impressions of wood cuts can now 
be obtained only of the publishers of scientific works, but on 
the general introduction of the lantern they would soon come 
into market. 

!N^ot only can pictures be exhibited but certain interesting 
experiments shown, such as the rise of the thermometer in 
a solidifying solution of hyposulphite of soda, and the fall of 
temperature in a mixture of sulphocyanides and water. To 
prevent heating the solutions by the lamp, a cell containing 
water, or better an alum solution may be interposed. 

The diagrams shown at the meeting of the Chemical Society 
on the 9th of November, by. the aid of Talbot's lantern were 
partly photographs of Bun sen's diagrams, partly wood cuts 
from Koscoe's spectrum analysis, obtained from Fred. Vieweg 
and Son, in Braunschweig, partly the so-called relief prints 
on glass, made by Woodbury's photographic printing process, 
and partly original photographs from the spectrum itself. — 
Journal of Applied Chemistry. 



-» ♦- 



The Production of Iodine in France. 

From Prof Beilstein's report on the Great Chemical In- 
dustries at the Vienna Exposition we extract the following 
in regard to the manufacture of iodine and its compounds: 

The crude material which is used in Franco for obtaining 
iodine is sea weed, which grows on the low lands of the 



32 I 



:-iii<ili Mtf/ic'il A/ivai 



coasts of Normandy, BKttany, Irclaiul and Scotland, which 
are under water at high tide, but out of water at iow tide- 
Theae woeda are collected twice a year, in March and Octo- 
ber. Owing to the scarcity of fuel in these parts, the weeds i 
were very early used for beating purposes, as also for ferti- 
lizers. Toward the end of the 17th cenlury a systematio 
burning of the weeds began, which was done then as now, | 
twice a year, in round or rectangular pits in the open air on 
the sea-shore. The wrack soda, or kolp, thus obtained waa 
employed for making glass until "the discovery of another 
method of making soda Another use was therefore sought 
for kelp, and in 1798 a manufactory conducted by Couturier 
was started at Cherbourg, for the purpose of separating the 
dilt'crent kinds of kelp, in order to furnish the glass makeis 
with a better material. In 1811, a saltpetre manufacturer 
iu Paris, named Courtois, discovered iodine in the mother ' 
liquid of these salts. In 1824, Tissier, of Cherbourg, founded 
the first wor'is for manufacturing iodine. SoOn after, in 
1827, he erected a second manufactory there for Couturier 
and in 1829 the two were united under the firm of Couturier i 
et file In 1830, Tissier founded an iodine factory in Con- 
quet, which is now the most important of all, the annual 
production being sixteen to eighteen tons of iodine and 
iodide of potassium. Since that time the number of fac- 
tories has increased to nine. 

The nine firms mentioned annually consume 12,000 tone 
of crude kelp, obtained from 540,000 tona of green sea weeds, 
and produce 2,400 tons of saltpetre, 2,000 tona of chloride of 1 
potassium, l.SOO tons of common salt, 1,520 tons sulphate of J 
potash, 120 tons Glauber salt, 40 tons pure iodine, 4 tons { 
bromine and 15 tons sulphur. The residue, when drj-, eon- 
taiua 22.4 per cent carbonate of limo and 9.4 per cent sul- ] 
pbate of lime, and is employed as a fertilisei-. 

The improvementB claimed by the exhibitors in this de- 
partment are, calcining the plants in continuously -ope rating, 
closed furnaces, and the precipitation of iodine by means of 
the oxygen of the air,— Jour, of Applied Chemhtri/, 



Miscellaneous, 33 



Proceedings of the Montgomery Connty Medical Society. HeUl 

in Dayton O., Nov. 12, 1873. * 

The society held its twenty- sixth regular session in the 
Beckel House p:irlor, acconling to its old established custom. 

The meeting was called in order at 10 A. M., by Dr. J. B. 
Owens, the president in the chair. After prayer by the chap- 
lain Dr. J. Geiger, the roll was called and minutes of previous 
meeting read#and ap})roved. After which Dr. J.-E. Lowes 
brouglit before the society a pathological case of considerable 
interest ; a young man with chronic abscess of long standing. 
Dr. H. F. Baker of Xenia was elected amember of .the society 

The election of officers for the ensuing year, being in order, 
the following persons were elected to serve one year, viz : 

J. B. Owens, M. D., President ; J. E. Lowes, M. D., Vice- 
President ; W. Webster, M. D., Secretary ; W. D., Linn, M. D., 
Treasurer ; F. W. Thomas, M. D., C. W. Stumm, M. D., and J. 
Geiger, M. D., Censors. 

Reports from regular committees came next in order ; and 
Dr. J. M. Parks reported on optica. 

Dr. C. W. Stumm reported on Cholera Infantum — giving its 
peculiar symptoms, and the best remedies for the same. 

He uses arsenic, ipec, nux vom., veratrum, alb., antimon., 
crude, china and carbo veget. The latter for watery , offensive 
and painful stools. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The meeting was called to order at 1 :30 o'clock, P. M. the pres- 
ident in the chair, discussion of Dr. Stumm's paper resumed. 
Dr. Stumm recomended rice water and milk fresh from the 
the cow as a diet for infants. Dr. W. D. Linn uses graham 
flour boiled in water one hour, strained and sweetened. Dr 
Owens uses the same preparation, but strains it twice. Dr. 
Stumm's report was accepted. 

• The manuBcript Bent us promptly by the Secretary, was lost and only 
jast brought to light again. Matters of interest, which it contains impel up 
to g^ve it even at this late date — Ekl. 

May.3 



34 Cincinnati Medico! Advance. 

Dr. J. Geiger made a report on the adaptation -of low poten- 
cies. 

Dr. Parks uses all the potencies, from the lowest to the 
highest. • 

Dr. Stumm uses from the third to the thirtieth ; had no suc- 
cess with the five thousandth. 

Dr. Owens fomerly used very low potencies, but has dis- 
carded them altogether, and now uses high attenuations ex- 
clusively, both in acute and chronic diseases. He uses from 
the forty thousandth to the eighty-five thousandth. 

He related a case of spasms in a child which were promptly 
relieved by the use of bell., the forty thousandth potency. 
He makes one exception, in the case of gelsemim, which he 
uses from mother tincture to the thirtieth potency because 4ie 
has no proving of a higher potency. 

He considers ^^elsemim a superior remedy in irregular labor 
pains. If worrying pains about the umbilicus he uses nux 
vom., one dose generally removes the whole difficulty at once. 
Dr. Linn thinks we often overlook applications and give the 
credit, improperly, to the high potency. 

Dr. Parks denies that any virtue exists in the high potencies 
of metals. 

Mrs. Ada L. Adams, M. D., read a highly instructive essay 
on Uterine Diseases. * 

« 

Report accepted, and Mrs. Adams requested to furnish a 
copy for publication. 

Dr. F. W. Thomas read an interesting report on Dysentery, 
as it prevails in military camps and the civil practice, report 
accepted. 

Dr. Wolf reported on Chronic Opththalmia. He has had no 
good results with low potencies in this disease. He uses the 
thirtieth attenuation with fine effect. Generally relies upon 
arsen. 30th, and sulph., 30th. 

Dr. Linn reported an interesting case of Gonorrhoea Oph- 
thalmia in a child, and asked counsel of the members, as to 
the best mode of treatment. The society recommended the 

See Nov. No. 1873. 



MisceUaneoua, 35 

higher potencies of salph., arsenic, bell., calc, carb. and mere, 
iodotus. 

On motion the society adjourned to meet in Dayton on the 
first Thursday in May, 1874. 

W. Webster, M. D. 

/Secretary, 



Trial for Malpractice. A. Shepherd M. D. Glendale, Ohio, 
Defendant. 

This case has excited considerable interest and we regret 
that we are able to give only a condensed statement of it. 
The doctor was charged with ignorantly treating a lady for 
cancer of the womb and that she proved to be pregnant and 
was delivered of a dead child in the month of March, 1S70, 
and subsequently died in the following December. 

Damages laid at five thousand dollars 

The defendant in his answer did not deny that the patient 
was pregnant but asserted that it was also true that she had 
carcinoma (cauliflower) of the cervix uteri; that it was that 
which caused her to abort and afterwards occasioned her 
death. 

The question before experts was chiefly this: Could a 
woman with such a disease become pregnant? Dr. Richard- 
son testified as to the generally fatal character of cancer. May 
run a course of four or ^\q years generally not longer than 
eighteen months. A woman pregnant and having such a 
disease would probably, if not certainly, miscarry. There is 
no reason why a patient having cauliflower disease of the 
womb might not become pregnant. Dr. W. B. Davis said, 
cauliflower excrescence could not be mistaken for pregnancy. 
A condition of pregnancy is possible with such a disease but 



SB 



Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



not likely to occur in the latter stages. Cauliflower occurs at 
tlie mouth and neck of the womb. Its growth is vaiialjle. 
The discharge is offensive. The growtli has a granulated 
gristly appearance, easily broken, and bleeds profusely. It 
is not always easy to determine a condition of pregnancy. 
The best physicians are sometimes deceived. Dr. Comegys 
said, such a disease would cause the womb Co enlarge at the 
neck and the body also if attiicked. The only infallible test 
of pregnancy is the sound of the fcetal heart. Milk in the 
breast not infallible. The tendency of thecauliflower growth 
would be to destroy the child; still it might not. 

Dr. Vattier said, a physician of ordinary skill would not 
confound cauliflower excrescence with pregnancy. The 
health of the ftctus would be affected by the disease when co- 
existent. It would not discolor the fielus. The disease is 
almost sure to be fatal, The pains of cancer are sharp burn- 
ing lancinating. The pains of labor are dull or hard and 
strong. If fcBlus dies it will in a few days become discolored 
if not delivered. 

Dr. Freeman testiSed: cases of cauliflower excrescences if 
not malignant could he saved. A diagnosis coultl be made 
by means of touch or by the aid of the speculum the former 
is preferable. 

Dr John A. Hubinger testified, that he visited the patient 
with Dr. Shepherd some time before her death. Made digital 
examination, found cauliflower excrescence. As !o pregnancy 
did not consider that an important question as if there was a 
child there it would be dead. I was present— Dr. Shepherd 
being absent elsewhere — ^and delivered the child. There 
were four or five ladies present. No attempt was made at 
concealment. The labor was about twenty minutes, I per- 
formed the autopsy. The cause of death was clearly cancer. 

We have not the minutes of the other physicians who tes- 
tified in the case. They all joined in exhonorating the de- 
fendant from all blame. And the jury in a few moments 
after the case was submitted to them brought in a verdict of 
no cause of action. Messrs. S. C, Carpenter and S. F. Hunt, 
Esqrs. ably conducted the defense. 



Miscellaneous, 87 



A Bow among " The Begnlars." 

• 

It is pleasant to see the brethren dweUing together in 
unity. It would make " Aaron's beard " look unctious, could 
it be applied to that ancient patriarchs hirsute appendage. 
Dr. Maley, the coroner of Cincinnati, arrests Dr. Craig, on 
charge of abortion, at the instance of a woman. Having been 
duly heralded through all the city papers, the case comes into 
court and is not sustained, the woman's testimony not con- 
firmed, and she being of easy virture and not open to the 
charge of telling the truth. 

Then the Academy of Medicine in the interest of Dr. Craig, 
proposes to expell Dr. Maley for making^ the arrest " without 
even presumptive evidence of guilt." Dr. Reamy then came 
to the front and said : ** He did not see how Dr. Maley could 
be expected to know the character of the woman who applied 
to him, or that the man who had come with her was unreli- 
able. It was a serious matter for a physcian to be wrongly 
charged with, committing a crime ; and h^ deserved sympathy, 
but, at the same time, they must not shut their eyes to the pre v.- « 
lence of abortion. There were too many medical men to-day 
whose hands were soiled with the wicked crime — men who are 
in fair standing in the community^n fair standing in every 
thing but that. It was not only Dr. Maley's duty, but it was 
every man's duty to bring to the attention of the police per- 
sons on whom that guilt was believed to rest." 

Dr. Murphy then took the floor. " He wanted to know what 
Dr. Reamy, meant by his words. Who were they in the pro- 
fession, who stood so fair and so high, who were in the habit 
of practicing abortion ? What were their names ? Would 
he have everybody believe they were all in that habit ? The 
community was always ready to believe evil of any man. Dr. 
Reamy had soiled his own nefit in thus speaking of the 
doctors." 

" Dr. Reamy believed that the members of the Academy 
were as free from the sin as the members of any other Acad- 



88 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance. 

emy on earth ; but it was no use to deny the fact, that abor- 
tions were committed on married women as well as single, and 
the doctors winked at it — doctors who stood otherwise high in 
the profession. Abortion was the crime of the christian age. 
It was the darkest stain on the record of the American nation ; 
a darker one than all the intemperance in the latid. " 

Considerable discussion followed, and then Dr. Maley was 
suspended for six months. The following week, the Academy 
again met, and an attempt was made to bring Dr. Reamy to 
trial for using language that was " wantonly slanderous of the 
regular medical profession. " It is needless to say the contest 
was sharp, but neither short nor decisive. The whole matter 
was given to the committee on ethics, and we hope they may 
be able to find out if the " regulars " are all or only in part 
" regular" abortionists. Perhaps the matter might be given 
into the hands of the women and a crusade inaugurated, 
which would certaintly be desirable if it be really true ; that 
it is a crime '' darker than all the intemperance in the land." 

It might be a matter about which the ladies knew more than 
they do of whisky selling. We press this point from this con- 
sideration that one of the woman who brought us the pledge, 
and who is a ferocious crusader is now pregnant, and she de- 
clares she will produce an abortion on herself, only she wants a 
little help, and this she will doubtless procure as soon as she 
gets a discharge from the whisky war. 



•» ♦ 



Our Pickwick. 

"How old is that horse, my friend?" inquiied Mr. Pick- 
wick, rubbing his nose with the shilling he had reserved for the 
fare. 

"Forty-two," replied the driver, eyeing him askant. 



Miscellaneoua, 39 

" What ! " ejaculated Mr, Pickwick, laying his hand upon 
his note-book. The driver reiterated his foimer statement. 
Mr. Pickwick looked very hard at the man's face, but his fea- 
tures were immovable; so he noted down the fact forthwith. 

**And how long do you keep him out at a time ?" inquired 
Mr. Pickwick, searching for further information. 

" Two or three weeks," replied the man. 

" Weeks ! " said Mr. Pickwick in astonishment — and out 
came the note -book again. 

"He lives at Pentonvil when he's at home," observed the 
driver, coolly, " but ve seldom takes him home, on account of 
his veakness. " 

" On account of his weakness ? " reiterated the perplexed 
Mr. Pickwick. 

" He always falls down, when he's took out o' the cab,' 
continued the driver, " but when he's in it, we bears him up 
werry tight, and takes him in werry short, as he can't werry 
well fall down, and we've got a pair o' precious large wheels 
on ; so ven he does move, they run after him, and he must go 
on — he can't help it." 

Mr. Pickwick entered every word of this statement in his 
note-book, with the view of communicating it to the club, 
as a singular instance of the tenacity of life in horses under 
trying circumstances. — Posthumous papers qf the Pickwick 
club. 

Dear Advance : — Have we a " Pickwick " amongst us ? 
Is there not something from him in our Materia Medica? 

And have we not the " characteristics and kev-notes " of bis 
fellows in the Pickwick club, " Mr. Tupman," " Mr. Snod- 
grass " and " Mr. Winkle ? " 

When may we look for the publication of the valuable 
gatherings of fifty years, from the Pickwick Medical " noble- 
book ? " 

Will it be posthumous or antehumous? 

Yours in the pure faith, 

Enquirer. 





0) 


4-1 




CA 


• 

a, 


4-1 


o 


O 






> 

C3 
CO 


c 






o 


bD 


08 

E 










c 


a, 




o 

(A 

a; 

4irf 


a. 

c 



u 


4-» 

3 

3 
C3 


CA 

bD 














o 






•^■4 








c 




Cm 
O 


4-1 

3 




3 


o 










O 


• 9^ 


T3 


o 


CA 






j2 


E 

o 






a. 

3 


3 


■ 


O 






^^ 


a 


tt. 


> 




4-* 


O 


C3 






O 


c 


'o 


o 


'TS 


bD 

• 


> 






o 


o 


> 


O 


3 


71 


8 






^ 


4-1 







^ 


a> 






> 


c 


(A 


C5 

u 

a, 


0) 

(A 


4> 




a; 

4-* 




C/2 


4-I 




15 

a. 
o 

8 

E 

o 

53 
o 

4-* 





a, 

t4 


CA 


Si 

u 


C8 




o 
c 

u 


c « 

s.s 

t/i 


9S 

4-* 

CA 

o 

a, 
1) 


4>J 



3 

3 


'm 

o 


• 

s: 

4.* 

u 
O 


3 

u 

C8 
O4 

CA 

3 




o 


O 




c 


4^ 



3 


4-* 


u 
O 

3 


3 

.2 


4^ 

3 

CO 


• • 

3 






• V4 


O 




4-1 





4-1 


• ^* 


3 






3 

3 
O 

4-I 

Vm 

O 

c 

3 
O 

E 

es 

bx) 

r* 


a. 

4-* 


CA 



-a 


u 

3 

E 

CA 

C 

(A 
CA 

o 

JZ 
*J 

Vm 

o 

CA 

W 


4^ 


3 






4>< 


OS 

E 

be 


> 
> 

H 
< 

o 
u 


4-* 

Cm 
O 

bD 
c 

c 

i3 

(A 

c 


4iirf 

CA 

E 

4^ 

bX) 

c 

o 

4-1 
(^ 



4>J 

c 
g 


73 

u 

1) 

CA 

15 

4^ 

CJ 

^^ 

4irf 

u 

4-1 


CA 
.S 

*u 
o 

CA 

.s 

3 

3 
O 


4^ 

o 

CA 

u 
O 

CA 

CA 

o 

Vm 

o 

V. 




3 

a> 

4^ 

3 

u 


a, 
E 

£> 

> 


3 

w-4 

s: 

4-» 

c 

j: 

u 

4^ 




C3 


u 


3 


u 


c: 


E 

3 
3 




7^ 






-a 

3 
■^^ 
(Si 


4-1 
4-1 

CA 


C5 


Vm 






4^ 




CA 

C8 

3 




*3 


>^ 


-a 


CA 


4^ 

3 


O 
^ 


4.* 






4-I 

o 




(A 


(A 

c 

c 
o 


5 

CA 


CA 

cs 




-a 
a; 

u 


CA 


0) 

CA 

4^ 




a; 


^ 




« 




3 


u 







^4 


(A 

1> 


08 




CA 

• Vi4 


3 


€8 


c3 


a 




O 

c 






E 


0^ 


on 

k. 


E 

4-* 

o 


4~l 

C8 

3 




> 

• Vi4 

4irf 








3 
O 






CA 

0S 


3 

/CO 


06 



|5 



5?» 



9b 



a 
o 

4 
9 



"2 
I 



-a 

a 



0k 






i 

5 



K 

O 
H 

O 






O ONvO 



too 



to 



00000 
eO CO to to to 



000 

to«-» to 



tr. O O 
b^ N^ ^4 



v8 



O 



m 



Q Q Q Q Q ^Q o o 
voo O 0^0^ Ot^»o 

^e- o 



vO ONVO O tOOO vo to to 



N tOX) CO O O Q N ON 
t^t>.0 Tj-u^t>.vOvO w-> 
O00O(>0COCOCO00'>DCO 



• .— 3 

rt Is ^ 



u 
O 



-* CA 



Ji 3 
E o 






o oTii o bf^ 

*- -^ -^ ^ Q U ^=^ 



.3 --J — •- b/) o "^ 



o c8 
3 " 



n Q- l» ;3 t; T-! 
'J U CA — 'U c ?, 



bjc »* .-. .- .^ M .- 



3 
3 
C3 



_ 3 



3 J2 ^ j: :=:.3 

r* 4-< 4-< .^ O "*-• 

t^ CC C8 C3 rj •* 



r. oucxcu'^ 



e8 
;S|JiJB £ E E^ E 



Miscellan eous. 4 1 



Bequirements for Graduation. 

PuLTE Medical College, Cincinnati. Twenty-one 
years of age — moral character— two courses of lectures, the 
last in this college — written examinations. 

Boston University. Twenty -one years of age — moral 
character — three years study — two full courses, the last in this 
school— an original thesis. Women admitted. 

Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital, Chi- 
cago. Twenty-one years of age — moral character — one 
course in this college — a thesis. Women admitted. 

Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia. Twenty- 
one years of age — moral character— sufficient preliminary ed- 
ucation — attended two full courses, the last in this college — 
studied medicine three years and been a student with a pri- 
vate practioner two years — one course of practical anatomy — 
an original thesis. 

HoMcEOPATHic HospiTAL CoLLEGE, Cleveland. Twenty- 
one yearsof age — moral character — two full courses, the last 
in this college — studied medicine three years under some re- 
putable physician — written examinations— reputable English 
education. Women admitted. 

Homoeopathic Medical College, St. Louis. Twenty- 
one years of age — moral character — studied medicine three 
years — attended two full courses, the last in this college — an 
original thesis. Women admitted 

HoMCEOPATHic Medical College, New York. Twenty- 
one years of age — moral character — studied medicine three 
3'ears with a qualified physician — one course of practical anat- 
omy, a thesis. 

Medical College and Hospital for Women, New 
York. Twenty-one years of age — moral character — two 
courses, the last in this college — good English education. 



42 CincinncUi Medical Advance. 



Obsoryations. By S. R. Kirby, M. D., New York. 

A man goes through a strange experience often when he 
knows it not; and his most exalted moments are when, what 
seems to be that isolation from authorities of the learned. 

Man may never know how closely he is allied to all nature. 
On every side there is drawing one upon another, and all 
closely connected to God. How futile and how absurd are 
those theories which make men think that they create and 
control circumstances. 

I wish I could trace through the distinct and separate exist- 
ences of matter the attraction which is of the spirit, and the 
gravity which belongs to matter, I would like to take up an 
atom of any kind and quality and tell everything connected 
with it. 

How wondrous is that power of thought which flashes 
out a reality from the spirit, before it has had time to go 
through the body, here is a point, it is the intellect that de- 
prives thought of its power, and allows it to be adulterated 
bv the scum of false education. 

Physicians will have to note the eflects of thought upon 
the body, and see how far it undermines health. It puzzles 
me to know how so many manage to exist and live out their 
days under such strange conditions; for instance, those whose 
aflections have not one single chance or possibility of being 
natural. 

God manifests love every where all the time, and every one 
should be a messenger of love. Love sees and feels all things. 
There is nothing that comes within its range which is not 
adjusted by wisdom and hope. How wondrous is love and 
how much there is to understand in connection with it and 
its workings in the human heart. The simplicity of the laws 
which operate for and against human happiness is the great- 
est of all possible studies. 



Book Notices, |.) 



^u\ MMtn. 



Transactions of the American Institute of HomoBopatliy 

1S73. By R. J. McClatchey, M. D., Secretary. 

This is by all odds the best volnrae that has yet been issued. 
In matter and arrangment it is something to be quite proud of. 
Both the secretary and the official stenographer of the Insti- 
tute (Dr. C. R. Morgan) have done themselves great credit. 
In looking over its ample and well filled pages, we have this 
to regret ; that it is not possible to place a copy of the trans- 
actions in the hands of every member of our school. There 
is only one way in which this can be done, and' that is, for 
every one of them to join the Institute. Those who have en- 
joyed the yearly meetings, and who know how much real good 
(barring many things about them not so enjoyable) comes out of 
these annual gatherings, will seriously miss any meeting they 
may not be able to attend ; but it is a far greater loss not to 
be able to place these annual volumes in one's library. A 
synopsis of all the good things to be found in the volume, 
would overflow our pages. It is the best evidence we have of 
the steady growth of our school. 



B^ertory to the Materia Medica— Eyes.— By E. W. 

Bebbidge, M. D., Alfred Heath, London. 

This is a neat volume of 325 pagps, printed and bound with 
care, which is more than we can say of all the works that pre- 
sent themselves for criticism. Dr. Berridge attempts to 
classify all the eye symptoms found in '* the HomoBopathic 



44 



Cincinnati Medical Adeance. 



lintem Medica ; " whether all of the works on Materia MeiHr. 
ca, or a part only are inclailed, he does not explicitly say. Ha 
says, page 11, " C. Hering's Mati^ria Meuica, which is the most 
complete in arratigcment and eseeulion of any yet published, 
has been used so far as it has pxtended, { i. c. up to I'ormica ) 
as the basis of this Repertory, but I have added some adtli 
tional symptoms from later provings." 

Whose provings we would be glad to know 1 And then hal 
says : " I have added many valuable symptoraB from cases of 
poisoning reported in Allopathic journals." And this is all 
the information vouchsafed to us as to the sources from which 
he has cotn|)i1ed his work. 

We do not pmposc to call in question the excellence of the 
work done by the author. Assuming his "basis "to be cor- 
^^1 rect, he has done a noble thing ; and if it fails to become a 

^^H work of great practical vuhie, it will be because his Materia 

^^M Medica is unsound. But until we settle the intrinsic value 

^^r itnd thorough reliableness of our symptomatology, it seoma 

^H premature to spend so much time and labor in arranging it into 

^K so elaborate a repertory. Tho book before us is only part 

^^B of the work the author is preparing of the entii-e Materia 

^^M Medicit. This part, devoted to " oj-es," possesses a consider- 

^^M able interest to us and we have given it unusually cai-eful ex- 

^^M smination. Wo have no doubt the general practitioner, 

^H unacquainted with the pathology of the eye, will search the 

^^M rubrics with interest ;but the s^Ktcialist, having in mind the real 

^^K nature of the morbid sffection, whatever may be the symp- 

^^H toros by which it is manifested, will Ite sorely puKzIcd to apply 

^^H all that he may lind laid down in the book. Under "Lena" 

^^H we have TO I'emedies enumerated. What they are able to do 

^^H with the lens is not stated, there nor elsewhere, except 38 nf 

^^H them put down under certain indications which we shall men- 

^^H tion. Under " Cataract " we have the 70 remedies repeated, 

^^H but whether any or all of iheni have ever been known to cure 

^^H or modify cataract, is not stated, and we are left to conjecture. 

^^H " Reticulated " cataract has two remedies, A " Black " lens 

^^H S3 remedies. "Green," " Gray " and "White" lenses have a 

b" — rr: 



I 



of I 



Book Notices, 45 

its wonderful pathology jmd its raultitudinous changes of 
color and shape, has just two drugs assigned it. These consti- 
tute a serious drawback ; and while it is easy to spc how they 
occur, it is none the less dej)lorable. The book seems to us a 
fine superstructure on a sandy foundation. Still we have it in 
daily use at our eye clinic, and hope to discover and utilize 
its value if it has any. 



On the Beprodactire Organs and the Yenereal. By John 

M. ScuDDKR, M. D., Cincinnati Ohio. 

Every new text book brings with it the question : What 
better is this than its predecessors and contemporaries ? No 
author has the right to trouble us with such a book unless the 
book contains valuable improvements. Writing books in 
order to make money, is not out of the question, but we have 
no time to examine such books and no heart to commend 
them to the public. 

A true author writes because he sees a necessity for jnst 
such a book as he is able to make. And in a medical way this 
want may pertain not to the profession at large but only to a 
particular school. A work may be entirely suitable to the 
class of readers it addresses and entirely unsuitable to an- 
other class. 

Dr. Scudder writes for the Eclectic school. No man knows 
what that schools wants better than he. We are sure no 
author in the Allopathic school would put forth such u work as 
he has written. We are equally sure the Homoeopathic school 
ba^ outgrown the use of works of this sort though they are 
yet being written and will be so long as any one can be found 
willing to buy them. 

The literature of the Eclectic school has not yet reached a 
very high point. So long as one man can write text books on 
all sorts of subjects ; first on Materia Medica, then on Practice 
and then on Surgery, not forgetting to issue a work now and 



46 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

then on some Rpecialty and so lon^ as such books are accepted 
as the standard works of a Medical school, the literature of 
that school must occupy a relatively low place. It cannot be so 
unless that school lacks in men of ability, lacks in men devoted to 
special departments and who are able out of their large, varied 
individual experience to create a text book of a high order. 

It is not the fault of any man that he is willing to write 
books that his school will buy. Every school has to go 
through this phase of development viz., one or two men creat- 
ing its literature. But it is time the Eclectic school demand- 
ed and was able to command works in all departments of the 
highest order. While conceding to Dr. Scudder abilities of 
a high order, it is but just to sa^ that he attempts too much as 
a writer of text books. His work on venereal and the repro- 
ductive organs is full of valuable suggestions, and n^ay be 
studied with profit; it is neveitheless elementary and tenta- 
tive. It shows haste and incompleteness, which a second or 
third edition will doubtless rectify. We have no space here to 
point out its many excellences. In the light of our brief 
criticism we commend it to all our readers. 



€imi% %M$. 



A Copy of this number of the Advance will be placed in 
the hands of every homoeopathic physician in the State of 
Ohio. We earnestly request that every one of these will 
make a complete list of the address of every practitioner of 
our school known to them and residing in the state. We are 
in need of a complete directory and we can get it in no other 
way so well. The lists should be sent to the society at 
Springfield care of the secretary or to this journal. 

The last annual report of the Cincinnati Hospital shows 
that the yearly expenditure for ''Drugs and Medicines" was 
$5,961,85. There were used 38 gallons of brandy, 11 gallons 



Editor's Table, 47 

of Catawba wine, *]2 gallons of sherry wine, 23 gallons of port 
wine, 216 gallons of whisky, 132 gallons of alcohol, 94odoz- 
ens of ale, besides rum and gin. And this yt^ry considerable 
amount of liquor cost the neat sum of over $2,000. 

We are not disposed to complain of the general results of 
the hospital practice, but it is plain that here is a matter that 
might be remedied. 

The use of stimulants to such an extent in medical practice 
is in many ways a serious evil. It is in the first place a con- 
stant temptation to the medical and surgical staff and to the 
internes and the nurses all of whom have easv access to the 
liquor supply. In the second place if the liquors were all 
pure they would still disastrously effect the patients given in 
such quantities, but when we consider what is the real nature 
of the villainous compounds given under the name of brandy, 
sherry and port wine, we are convinced that the doctors are 
only adding the poison of drugs to the poison of disease and 
for no good purpose. 

In the third place a large number of medical students go to 
the hospital for the purpose of learning the best method of 
practicing medicine and if they are taught to give stimulants 
with such dangerous freedom they can be only damaged by 
such instruction. It is needless to claim that this is a necessary 
part of the hospital practice. The claim can not be substan- 
tiated by uniform medical testimony. We might not go to 
the extreme of utterly abolishing stimulants, but intelligent 
physicians should use alcohol and its compounds with a spar- 
ing hand. In a public institution like our hospital, abuses 
will sometimes creep in unobserved but here is a glaring evil 
that should receive serious attention. 

The Bureau of Diseases of Children has selected the follow- 
ing subject for consideration and discussion at the Niagara 
Falls meeting of the American Institute: 

Cholera Infantum: its nature, causes and treatment. 

This young Bureau is very desirous of obtaining the views, 
observation and experience of your many readers residing in 
all parts of our common country. T. C. Duncan M. D., Chair 
man, 287 W Randolph St, Chicago. 



48 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Kentucky Homoeopathic Medical Society next annual meet- 
ing in Louisville, Tuesday, May 26. A large and interesting 
gathering is expected. Dr. W. L. Breyfogle, President, Dr. 
J. W. Kline, Secretary. 

Homoeopathic Medical Society of Ohio meets in Spring- 
field, May 12. A large number of committees have been ap- 
pointed to report. We look for a large turn out. Dr. J. D. 
Buck, President, Dr. H. H. Baxter, Secretary. 

The Society of Homoeopathic Physicians of Iowa meets at 
Fairfield, lowra. May 20. Dr. Geo. H. Blair, President, Dr. G. 
H. Patchen, Secretary. 

Indiana Institute of Homoeopathy next annual meeting at 
Indianapolis, the 13th and 14th of May. Dr. J. B. Hunt, Presi. 
dent. Dr. Wm. Eggert, Secretary. 

Montgomery County Homoeopathic medical society meets 
at Dayton, on the first Thursday in May, 1874. 

Dr. L. Drais having returned from a year's sojourn in 
Europe among the Hospitals, has opened an office for prac- 
tice in this city. 

Drs. Howard and Goss have opened in the Poli-Clinic a 
department for Diseases of Females. They will be found in 
the clinic rooms every day at i o'clock P. M. 

Dr. Kate M. Goss, recently of Cleveland, a young lady 
of excellent acquirements, well read in her profession and 
full of enthusiasm, has commenced practice in Cincinnati, at 
165 Elm street. 

A. C. Recker M. D., a graduate of Pulte Medical College, 
has been appointed Resident Physician to the Dayton Free 
Homoeopathic Dispensary. The institution is under the care 
of the Women's Christian Association and is in a very flour- 
ishing condition. 

Our old friend the veteran Dr. A. O. Blair, one of the first 
men to practice Homoeopathy in the State of Ohio and who 
for years has been the foremost teacher of our system in the 
West has retired from general practice and settled on a farm 
at Westerville, Ohio. He writes that henceforth he will make 
"cows, pigs and poultry a specialty." We heartily wish him 
many years of quiet happy life. 



THE 



HittcltMtali Mthitd ^hHut. 






VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, 0.— JUNE, 1874. [NO. 2. 



'Subscriptions to the Advance should be sent to Dr. T. C. Bradford, P. i\ 
Drawer 1284, Cincinnati, Ohio. $3.00 a year, in advance. 

All business communications, relating^ to the publication or to advertising, should Vt- 
addressed to Dr. T. P. Wilson, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Mound Sts., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Ai^L ABOARD for the American Institute of Homoeopii- 
thy, which meets at Niagara Falls, June 9th. 

The "Transactions" of the last meeting of the Instituu* 
are ready for all who have paid up their dues. So saith 
Secretary McClatchey. 

The "Surgical Clinic" of the B. U. School of Medicine 
is a curiosity. H. M. Jernegan, M, D., seems to be the fig- 
ure head, and F. W. Payne, M. D., does the reporting and 
performs all the operations. The first three cases arc, two 
of pterygium and one of trichiasis. Why they are reported 
is diflScult to see, unless to show that "Dr. F. W, Payne*' 
operated. There is n't a single novel feature about them 
except the close relation existing between the reporter an<l 
operator. 

June-i 49 



Cincinnnli Medical Atlvana 



AUen's Enoychpedia of Materia Medica promistis speedily 
to make itn appearance. Mcshps. Boerieke and Co. have | 
given us a aample by way of the pathogeneais of acoaite. | 
This eolicitfl from the profession both subacriptiona and I 
critieisms. We have besought several gentlemen, distiu-| 
guiehed in that brnncb, to give their views on the saniplfl 
presented. They have failed to respond. As several t 
them have signalized themselves by opposing such 
materia medii'a, we liopc they will not be bashful in speaking 
out their minds jiiBt now. The labor bestowed upon the pres- I 
cnt work is immense, and we congratulate the author and I 
publishers and co-laborers on the BUccesH they are likely to i 
attain. 

A FRIEND from the North fcnda ua a circular issued by J 
certain parties in this city sotting forth the marvelous vir- | 
tnes of a certain instrument called the "Eustnehiau Vibra-] 
tor." We are assured that it is "the result of years of study I 
and experiment ;" that it ia an instrument which "will pro-, 
ducc rcnults almost miraculous" — "the only inatrumeotJ 
which will enable the deaf to hear at church and public I 
assemblies." 

The years of stndy and experiment spokitn of have ena-; 
bled the inventor to obtain the following knowledge : 

"The mechanism of the ear is exceedingly complicated. I 
Although many minute parts compose this organ, yet the 
seat of diseases are few. The membrana tympani, the moat 
delicate portion, in situated near the middle of the Eastackian 
tube, which extends from the external opening in the ear to J 
the nose and throat, and forming a partition in this tube, 
the air on one side ruaL-liing the membrana tymj>ani frotd 
the ear, the other side from the nose and throat. The pro- 
fess of hearing is as follows : The vibrations of the air an- 
<'oi.vcyed through the eustachian to the membrana tympani, 
which is thereby thrown into vibrations, and these 
transmitted by the chain of bones to the more internal e 



rto;^H 
>be^ 
^ot^^^l 

JPO- 

ari- 

e a»H 
dea^H 



JSditorial. 1 

on which the nerves are expanded and convey the impres- 
sions to the brain. The vibrations of the membrana tym- 
pani are also communicated to the innermost cavity of the 
ear, which is called the cochlea. Deafness is caused from 
scrofula, catarrh, ruptures, severe cold in the head, risings 
and discharges from the ears, spotted fever, effects of qui- 
nine, and from various other diseases." 

The inventor assures us that the instrument fits into the 
efi^r and **i8 not perceptable." 

"It is made of diflTerent materials, so as to perform the 
functions of the diseased parts. It gives a clear canal for 
the passage of air, and condenses and concentrates sound, 
thus giving to this small instrument all the power of in- 
creasing sound, possessed by the most powerful ear trumpet." 

Possessed of such rare knowledge the inventor is well 
fitted to take in his "five dollars a pair" — for his vibrators ; 
but it is not clear that his instrument will fit many cases of 
deafness. A fellow in Madison, Ind., is selling "Artificial 
Ear Drums," and there is a strange similarity between the 
circulars issued by both parties. They are in fact using the 
same instrument which is only an instrument now almost 
wholly discarded by intc^Uigent aurists. While these fel- 
lows fraudulently offer them as a cure for all sorts of deaf- 
ness, they were never useful except where the membrane 
was perforated, and are now superceded by better appli- 
ances. 

And all this only serves to point the moral in our de- 
mand for a better knowledge of medical science among the 
people. 

Since writing the above, we have seen our instrument 
maker and he assures us, that for these parties he makes 
hundreds of these instruments, for which he charges TScts., 
and they in turn charge their victims the modest sum of 
five dollars. 



5 2 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 




m%tt% 



Inguinal Hernia. By F. B. Sherbourne, M. D., Bellefontaine, O. 

Mr. D., aet 83, native of this country, general good health, 
never was sick in his life, was feeling as- well as usual this 
morning. At noon felt a slight pain in his stomach and abdo- 
men, while lying on the bed water ran from his mouth to the 
amount of half a pint. The pain soon became more severe, of* 
a cramping nature; vomiting soon set in which lasted more than 
an hour. 

Some two hours after the attack, I found him with very se- 
vere pain in stomach and bowels, with much nausea but no 
vonfiiting, also an oblique inguinal hernia, right side (which 
had troubled him slightly for Heveral years). The rupture had 
not troubled him for some time, until the vomiting set in, which 
brought the gut down larger than ever before. Size, length 
5 inches, breadth 3 inches, and very painful; had never pained 
him but little before, and never used a support of any kind. 
Treatment: nux. and colo., in alternation, every ten minutes, 
for cramping in the stomach; in the course ol* an hour the pain 
left, but with an increase of pain in the hernia: for reducing it 
raised the hips, used taxis steadily for more than an hour with 
no benefit. The operation produced great suffering; decided 
to let him rest a few hours before another trial. Gave nux 
every half hour, and applied hot fomentations to the tumor, 
changing every five or ten minutes; kept him on his back, with 
the foot of the bed raised six inches. £ight hours from first 
trial by taxis, the gut went back without assistance. He is 
now fully as well as usual, with the exception of weakness. 



Surgery. 



53 



Artificial XMbs. 



We have received several letters 
of inquiry regarding the biest make 
of artificial limbs. We have the 
pleasure of laying before our read- 
ers a representation of an artificial leg 
made by Mr. Wm. Autenreith, of 
this city. It is chiefly valuable on ac- 
count of its extreme lightness, great 
durability and comparative cheap- 
ness. The heaviest weighs but 5 lbs., 
aud the lightest 3 lbs. 6 oz. The cost 
is from $75. to $icx> The material is 
principally sole leather, stiflened and made impervious to mois- 
ture. 




STBhilis. 

An able and exhaustive paper upon this subject was pre- 
sented by Dr. Geo. H. Blair at the last meeting of the Iowa 
Society. After briefly referring to the history of the disease 
and carefully defining the chara<5leristic appearances of the 
hunterian chancre and the simple chancre or chancroid he 
goes on to say: 

*^It is not deemed necessary to sub-divide these ulcers into 
the various forms adopted by writers who enter minutely into 
the consideration of this subje<5t. The two varieties just de- 
scribed constitute, in fa<5t, the source of all others; and hence 



Cinainnati Medical Advance, 



llie phagedenic, the sloughing, and, indeed, all the other de- 
scribed Eorcs of venereal origin are but modifications or com- 
plications with other vitiated conditions arising from the two 
forms. Indeed, lo be precisely correft, we may attribute the 
remote source n{ all forms of Syphilitic ulcer to Irue chaaere 
alone, since Ihe distint5tions are of comparatively recent date., 
Ricord lias stated that, for the first live or six days of ita 
existence, chancre may be always considered a striftly local 
affection, and the opinion is undoubtedly correift. Hence, lo- 
cal treatment should be resorted to, with a ceriainty, if 
promptly and energetically applied, that no secondary results 
will follow. Were we absolutely certain of the nature of the 
primary sore we might possibly leave it to take care of itself, 
if a simpleone; but since it frequently is complicated in its 
nature, and occasionally might deceive the most skillful 
diagnostician, it were best to use an indiscriminate treatment, 
in all forms of chancre. For this purpose, in the cascjof an 
individual of largely scrofulous or strumous diathesis, 
whom the lymphatics are easily agitated and irritated, theua«i 
of the knife is earnestly advised — complete extirpation of thei 
ulcer, including the additional surrounding tissue to a breadth 
at least equal to the diameter of the surface of the ulcer, un> 
less there should exist an abnormal hiemorrhagic tendency, 
when cauterization should be prefeired. In the ordinary 
forms of ulcer the remedies lo be employed for their removal 
are — relatively to their importance — Nitric Acid, Nitrate t^ 
Silver, Paste of Sulpk. And and Charcoal, and Cauttio 
Potauh, always bearing in mind the importance of a thorough 
and deep application, one sufficient lo penetrate to the sub- 
cellular mucous tissue, which is ihe base of the chancre. The 
highly lauded Vienna Paste has proved in my hands very 
unsatisfaAory. for the reason that, forming a crust over the 
top of the ulcer, docs not allow a knowledge of the extent to 
which it has penetrated; and if we wait for its removal and 
successive applications, too much time is lost for purposes of 
safety. One thing, however, must especially be borne 
mind: That no energetic treatment/or t/ie speedff dastrtictit 
Iff the ulttr should be resorted to a/Ctr well-dejined induration 



1 



ihirgery. 5r> 

present^ as this is a certain indication that the disease has 
already become constitutional. 

The lesson to be impressed is this: Whether the sore be 
either chancre or chancroid, its quick removal may prevent 
secondary results, and in any event can prove of no disad- 
vantage. Those who through ignorance, for it can be called 
nothing else, oppose local treatment, not only protra<5t the dis- 
ease, but endanger the health and the lives of their patients. 

After the reprodu<5tive process commences, evidenced by 
granulations, exudation of healthy un-inoculable pus, simple 
dressings of lint, saturated with pure water are sufficient, un- 
less, indeed, the progress should seem somewhat indolent, 
when a weak solution of some stimulating application, as the 
Sulphates of Copper or Zinc, may be used with advantage. 

As before remarked, the primary indication or early stage 
of chancre, needs but a local treatment, but lest a possible 
mistake in diagnosis may occur, an anticipatory or preventive 
means may be properly encouraged, inasmuch as under no 
circumstances can any bad result follow under our system of 
medication. A low regimen, frequent bathing, entire freedom 
from sexual excitement and the administration of the proper 
remedies, should not be negledled. In individuals of scrofu- 
lous diatheses Hepar Sulph., Cctl, Curb., SiUcia, or Sepia may 
be given; but in the majority of cases the different prepara- 
tions of Merc, particularly the Iodide and Biniodide wili 
prove of most value. More will be said of the different phai>es 
of ulcer when we come to treat of remedies and the indica- 
tions for their use. 

We come now to consider the more serious aspe<5ls of this 
often-timcs frightful disease as manifest in its second or con- 
stitutional stage. If not controlled in its first or inceptive pe- 
riod within the limited time suggested — say dve or six days — 
the poison becomes absorbed by the lymphatics — not b}' the 
veins as formerly supposed— and is first evidenced by the 
formation of Bubo This manifestation may proceed from 
either the true or the simple chancre; indeed may result from 
gonorrhoea or other irritating causes; but when appearing in 
connection with, or following a primary sore, their nature is, 



56 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

of course, easily determined. In men, the inguinal gland, if 
from inoculation of the penis, is the ordinary seat of bubo. In 
women, as frequently, it may be found situated between the 
labise and the thighs, or round ligaments. But wherever 
manifesting themselves or whatever the point of inoculation, 
the treatment should be the same — always taking into consid- 
eration, however, the chara<5ler of the virus from which they 
spring. Considering then, that the bubo arising from simple 
chancre or chancroid, as our modern writers term it, is the 
termination and ultimatum of the disease, it were better per- 
haps, if possible, to disperse it before suppuration takes place, 
inasmuch as no further ill consequences will ensue. For this 
purpose pencillings with Iodine Tinct. or the application of 
Iodine ointment, together with the administration of the same 
remedy internally, in dilution, will ordinarily suffice, provided 
always that its application is early. If, however, the abscess 
progresses to an extent where flu<5luation may be distin<5lly 
felt, our obje(5l should be to promote suppuration as speedily 
as possible, until the point of safely using the lancet is reached. 
Silicia, Hep. Sulph., or Apis, claim a consideration here, 
together with the use of warm emollient poultices. But if 
the progress of the bubo be particularly slow, with much 
swelling, involving the surrounding parts, it will be advisable 
to give outlet to the deep seated and scanty pus, by means of 
Cattstic Potash, Particularly if there be reason to suspe6t 
ramifications into cellular and sub-cellular tissue, will this 
prove the most available, as well as most satisfa6tory means 
of evacuation. Pressure, under these circumstances, by means 
of adhesive straps, is also an advisable auxiliary in expediting 
a cure. 

In my estimation it is neither desirable nor proper to at- 
tempt the suppression of bubo where a consecutive of the true 
chancre. On the contrary, every endeavor should be made 
to hasten its consummation, that the virus may have in part 
a means of escape, without expending its full force through- 
out the general circulation. The means to be employed are 
identical with those employed for promoting suppuration in 
the other form of bubo; but whereas in chancroid abscess a 



Surgery, 67 

speedy eflfort should be made to heal the wound, if languid 
and indolent, we should on the other hand probably favor 
the long discharge of pus in the bubo arising from true 
chancre. In this connection it may be mentioned that the 
pus of either variety of bubo is inoculable, each transmitting 
its own peculiar virus, and hence care should be exercised in 
its contadt." 

"We come now to the consideration of the graver stage of 
the affedlion, wherein the general constitution has become 
poisoned, and technically termed Ijues Venerea, Most au- 
thors have divided this into a Secondary and Tertiary stage — 
the latter of which should more properly be called the Mer- 
curial stage, inasmuch as I undertake to say that nearly every 
symptom conne<5ted with it, is either the dire<5t result of mer- 
curial poisoning alone, or its complication with, or aggrava- 
tion of the original disease. Out of the multitude of cases 
passing under my immediate observation, I have yet to see 
one unconnected with a system thoroughly saturated with 
mercury, even aflfedted with periosteal inflammation which 
might not have arisen from other than a Syphilitic cause; nor 
under an enlightened Homoeopathic treatment exclusively, 
have I met with a single instance of nodes, caries, or necrosis. 

Usually, secondary symptoms develope themselves in from 
three to six weeks, although there are both earlier and later 
exceptions. As a general rule, no manifestations of an un- 
usual character, except the light febrile disturbance which 
frequently attends all abscesses, as well as bubo, are the pre- 
cursors of its existence. In my own experience the throat 
has given the earliest indication of the general taint, though 
perhaps the skin rs as often the index. The throat, tonsils 
and fauces take on but little of the soreness and inflammation 
which commonly precede the formation of an ulcer— indeed 
the full development of ulcer being sometimes the first ob- 
servable sign of any affeClion of the parts. Generally, how- 
ever, the tonsils assume a pale or dark appearance; there is a 
.slight exudation of mucous over the surface, the center of 
which grows rapidly darker, and terminates in an ulceration, 
the secretion from which is of a peculiarly sticky character. 



Cincinnati Mtdicat Advance. 



In 



s instances of a virulent nature, sloughing takes place I 
1 gangrene, occosionallj', though rarely, may follow; 



but tlii 
struma, and more often v 
afleiflion or coincident w 
their appearance, and in : 
almost defy descriptii 



nplicated with scrofula, 
ilh mercury. Following the throat 1 
ith it, eruptions of the skin make J 
o mnny and diverse forms as 
ilhout means of ocular demonstra* 



tion. However, for the sake of partial completeness, sc 
of the more prominent manifestations will be mentioned, 
leaving a more diversified description to be embraced in 
symptoms which call for the appropriately selected drii^ I 
remedies. 

Ordinarily the skin, especially in the neighborhood of the ] 
penis and vulva', between tlie thighs and nates; under the 1 
arm-pits, and in other proteAed parts becomes afTe^cd witli ] 
small mucous papules. They are of a copper caste, slightly T 
elevated and usually granulated. Over the general surface of I 
the body, but more particularly the chest and forehead, they f 
assume the appearance of smalt, hard lumps, exuding a 
cretion which dries quickly, is easily rubbed off, and is again I 
reformed. They are generally circular in form, small in size, 
and as a rule, terminate without serious painful annoyance, 
although they occasionally ulcerate, and sometimes degenerate I 
even tu sloughing. They are known under the name of 1 
mucous tuberclet. 

In the milder forms of constitutional taiiiC, roseola pern 
phigus, herpes and the lesser manifestations of exanthenix ,] 
and erythema develope themselves, and nothing but a kno 
edge of the history of the case would lead to a suspicion of I 
their venereal origin. In fai5^t it is questionable whether they f 
be tile direfl or indirefl results of syphilitic virus. 

Of the various forms of lichen, lepra, psoriasis and even ofl 
vesicular eruptions, it were impossible to speak at length in f 
this article. 

Aside from the a<5tual knowledge of the early history of the I 
case, perhaps the most prominent indication for a suspicion] 
of the true nature of the disease is the almost universal pres- 
ence of the copper color attending. Even Hahnemann 



Surgery, 69 

tached so much importance to this peculiar coloring, that he 
regarded its disappearance as a diagnostic sign of a speedy, il 
not already radical cure. Allopecia, induration of the testicles 
and pulmonary syphilis are conditions of so questionable a 
nature as being the direct result of specific virus, as not to 
merit present consideration. As before remarked, the so- 
called tertiary stage, being the effedl of mercurial abuse, will 
also be ignored in the examination of syphilis proper; but the 
complications evolved will be considered when we make our 
selection of remedies." 

We hope to make further extradts from this paper in a sub- 
sequent number. 



♦ ♦■ 



^^drophoblft. By Wm. Owens, M. D. 

We have already published several articles upon this topic. 
We have practically taken ground against the idea of the 
existence of the disease as ordinarily understood ; and we 
now present the following in confirmation^ in part^ at least, 
of the views we have advanced. 

**7^ there Evidence sufficient to warrant us in connecting the 
Group qf Symptoms which we term Hydrophobia with the Bite 
0^ a Rabid Animalf 

Many will, no doubt, consider this question superfluous, and 
some will think it absurd. I venture to submit the following 
considerations as at least justifying its discussion. 

1. The period of incubation which the received theory as- 
sumes — a period ranging from a few weeks up to twelve months 
or more — being entirely without parallel in the history of dis- 
ease, demands very strong evidence for its acceptance. 



Cincinnati Medical Advc 



2, In the infinite variety proeentcd by spaHmodic nervoMil 
dieeaHes of idiopathic origin, eases occur whicli can not be 
ily difltinguiBhed from bydroiihohia. For proof of this I r 
to the second of the two cases recorded in Watson's PracticX 
of Physic, of which it is said that "aeveral medical men c 
much sagacity and experience" believed the patient to be snl 
fering from hysteria, 

S, Authority on dogs are not agreed as to vhat disease i( 
ia which, when engrafted uponnian, develops into hydrophobia. 
Witness the recent controvereieB in the Times. Generally wc 
are told that rabies in the dog produces hydrophobia in man. 
Not at all says Grantly Berkeley; it is hydrophobia in dogs 
which produces hydrophobia in man. Canine rabies and canine 
hydrophobia are, according to Mr. Berkeley, two distinct dia- 
eases. The former is common, not attended with dread of.J 
water, capable of easy cure, not communicable to man. The! 
latter ia rare, marked by horror of water, communicable to man J 
and absolutely mortal to both man and dog. Mr. Berkeley, no^ 
doubt writes from his own observation when he insists on thej 
innocence and curability of rabies. In his views respecting^ 
canine hydrophobia, one may be allowed to suspect an uncon^l 
scions mental compromise with the popular theory. 

4. There must be in the community a very large number a 
persons, who within the previous twelve months have been ei-| 
ther bitten or licked by & dog or cat ; and these persons, no lee 
than others, will be liable to idiopathic nervous disorders, 

5. The idea of the connection between hydrophobia and the 
bite of an animal having once taken hold of the mind, evidence 
of a bite, if it cau not be discovered, will generally be invented. 
Every one knows how constantly facts are distorted to tit p 
conceived notions. 

e. Kotwtthfltandtng the operation of the two last named 
causes, cases are every now and then reported in which it i 
audited that no evidence of a bite could be supplied by e' 
the patient or his friends. The first of the two cases which S 
Thomas Watson relates may fairly be said to come within t 
definition. The back of the patient's head had been "struck* 




ITieory and Practice. 61 

by" the teeth of a terrier, but the testimony is positive that no 
wound had been inflicted. 

7. In a large proportion of cases of hydrophobia, there is no 
proof whatever of the animal which gave the bite having been 
mad. In many cases it was a strange dog, of which nothing 
further was known. In others, the dog was undoubtedly iU, 
but was destroyed before the nature of the illness could be de- 
termined by a competent authority. It is worthy of note that 
in neither of Sir Thomas Watson's two cades is it shown that 
the dog was mad. In the first case, the point is not referred 
to. In the second, the only evidence is that of the ^^mob of 
boys'' who had been pelting and chasing the luckless hound. 

8. The late Mr. Youatt was many times bitten by mad dogs, 
yet never contracted hydrophobia. He may, it is true, be in- 
susceptible to the disease, or the precautions which he took may 
have protected him. These considerations, however, while 
they weaken, do not destroy the value of the argument derived 
from his exemption. 

9. It is in accordance with observed facts to hold that the 
force of imagination might be sufficient to develop the symp- 
toms of hydrophobia in persons of a nervous temperament, who, 
having been bitten by an animal supposed to be mad, had been 
thereafter haunted by the apprehension of the terrible conse- 
quences believed to be impending. The occurrence of several 
cases in the dame district about the same time might be so ex- 
plained, and would be no more wonderful than many of the 
epidemics of imitative nervous disease with which the records 
of medicine abound. 

10. In a discussion on the etiology of disease, it can not be 
out of place to insist on the tendency of the human mind, in all 
times and places, to assign to every malady some outward and 
palpable cause. Epileptics were formerly "possessed of a devil." 
Witchcraft, in later times, has been made responsible for most 
of the ills that flesh is heir to. The untrained mind abhors a 
vacuum, and can not endure not to know. Hence it happens 
that progress in pathology is marked not less by the exposure 
of old fallacies thun by the development of new truths. In our 



62 Cincinnati Medicai Advance. 

own day some reputed causes of disease have been, or are being 
abandoned, and perhaps others are destined to share the same 
fate." — Brit Med. JonmaL 



-♦-♦- 



%\$^t% mi ^tuiiti. 



On the Diffusion of Typhdd by Means of SrinUng Water. By 

Austin Flint, M.D. 

We condense from the Buffalo Medical and Surgical Journal 
the following: 

"1. Typhoid fever is rarely, if ever, communicated by 
means of emanations from the bodies of patients affected with 
the disease. 

2. Isolated cases of typhoid fever are numerous, occurring 
in situations and under circumstances which preclude the pos- 
sibility of the disease being due to contagion. 

8. Outbreaks .of typhoid fever have repeatedly occurred in 
houses and public institutions in consequence of morbilBc ema- 
nations from sewers, cess-pools, or drains, and from their con- 
tents either exposed upon the surface of the ground or per- 
meating the soil. 

4. Certain outbreaks of typhoid fever are evidently depen- 
dent on the importation of cases of the disease, the circumstan- 
ces being such as to furnish logical proof that the outbreaks 
«'ire due to the diffusion in some way of a contagion. 



Theory and I^acHce, 68 

These four propositions are submitted as embodying funda- 
mental facts which can be fully establinhed by logical proof. 

The scope of this paper will not permit me to adduce the 
proof which might be brought forward for the establishment 
of each of the propositions. I must, therefore, take it for 
granted that the facts embodied in the propositions can be ful- 
ly substantiated. Assuming this, it follows that typhoid fever 
may or may not be contagious. 

Between it and typhus fever there is this difference, namely, 
typhoid fever is not, like typhus, communicable by means of 
impalpable emanations from patients affected with the disease. 
At least, if it be ever communicated in this way, the instances 
are rare exceptions to the general rule. As a rule, when ty- 
phoid fever occurs in isolated cases, there is no propf of its hav. 
ing been caused by contagion — in this respect differing from 
typhus fever. Typhoid fever may be produced by elements 
derived from healthy persons, which we have no reason to be- 
lieve is ever a source of typhus fever. But typhoid fever is 
capable of producing a eontagium by means of which the dis- 
ease is diffused, herein affiliating with typhus fever. Typhoid 
fever thus may occur sporadically, endemically, and epidemi- 
cally. 

I come now to inquire as to the source of the typhoid fever 
eontagium. If it be not contained in emanations from the body 
it does not, of course, proceed from either the skin or the air 
passages, and there is certainly no palpable product containing 
it on the surface of the body. We are, therefore, brought, rea- 
soning by way of exclusion, to seek for it in the alvine dejections. 
If it be contained in these, by what avenue does it gain entrance 
into the system? If the dejections containing eontagium are con- 
veyed from the dwelling by soil pipes, we can understand that it 
may pervade the atmosphere of houses, in consequence of defec- 
tive provisions against the escape of sewer emanations, and if 
excrementatious matter be depositied on the surface of the 
ground, the atmosphere within a certain area may be polluted 
by emanations therefrom, which contain the eontagium. But 
there is logical proof of the diffusion of the disease by contagion 
under circumstances which render it vastly improbable that the 



64 Cinctn/uUi Medical Advance. 

contaginm is inbale^; and, therefore, reaeoning again by waj 
of exclusion, wearebrongfal to consider the alimentary uanal aa 
the avenue through which the contagium enters the sygtem, 
Tlins we are rationally led to the oonclasiontbnt dnnking wa- 
ter \b b. medium by which typhoid fever may be communi(!abIe, 

I liave spoken of this concluflion aa a late discovery. The 
supposition or theory that drinking water is a vehicle by whiol^- 
the typhoid contagium is carried into the system is not of very 
recent date. It was enunciaied by Canstott, in Germany, ia 
1847, and it has been inculcated since an earlier date by Prof, 
Von Gictt, uf Munich. Riccku, also a German, author of ■ 
treatiseon special pathology nnd therapeutics, published in 1 
reported several outbreaks that were traceable to drinking 
water polluted with sewage. More recently observations have 
been contributed by British writers, and especially by Dr. Wm. 
Budd which seem to furnish demonstrative proof of the com- 
municability of the disease in this way.* Budd, however, and 
others, have contended for the existence of r contagium in the 
typhoid dejections received into the syatem either by means of 
drinking water or atmospherical emanations, as exclusively the 
oauae of the disease. They claim that the dejections contain % 
virus not less specific than that of small-pox, and that typhoid 
fever is never produced otherwise than by the introduction of 
this virus into the system. Facts i-ender such a doctrine un- 
tenable. If the pro) positions which have been at.ited are correct, 
com munic ability through a contagium in the alvine dejections 
will account for the connection in only a certain proportion of 
instances. 

The discovei-y of the comraunicability of typhoid fever by 
means of a contagium derived from the alimentary canal, while 
it furnishes a striking point of distinction from typhus fever, 
yet shows an interesting point of analogy to the latter disease. 
In typhus the contiigium is doubtless cuutaincd in the emana- 
tions from the body, either in the brearh or in tlie exhaiations 
from the skin or perhaps both and typhus may be caused irre- 
spective of contagion, by a morbid matter produced in eoucen- 



I 



•My authority for ibese sUWinentB ie Murchiwn. Vidi- work oi 
ond edition, 1873. 



Theory and Practice. 66 

trated emanations from healthy bodies. In typhoid fever, the 
contagion is in the dejections, and this fever may be and gen- 
erally is, caused by a morbific matter produced in decomposing 
excrement from healthy bodies. . 

As regards prevention, the diffusion of typhus contagion is to 
be avoided by the isolation of cases in respect of those who are 
susceptible, conjoined with the freest possible ventilation. The 
spontaneous occurrence of this disease is to be avoided by 
guarding against overcrowding dwellings or apartments, to- 
gether with complete ventilation. The diffusion of typhoid 
fever by contagium is to be avoided by the disinfection of the 
dejecta from typhoid patients, and by ample protection against 
the pollution therewith of water or air. The spontaneous oc- 
currence of this disease is to be avoided by complete protection 
against the pollution of water or air by the dejecta from healthy 
persons. This involves safeguards, especially in cities, relating 
to sewers, drains, cesspools, soilpipes and the waste pipes con- 
nected with the latter, as well as to the final disposition of the 
ezcremcntitious material. These safeguards, in the City of 
New York, are largely disregarded, and therein is a source of 
not only typhoid fever, but probably other diseases, the causa- 
tive connection of which with this source is not as yet so well 
established. 

Within the past few months, the interest and importance be- 
longing to the subject of this paper have been curiously ex 
emplified by the diffusion of typhoid fever through the agency 
of milk. Several outbreaks in England have been imputed to 
infected milk; but in the recent instance referred to, tlie proof 
of this having been the source seems sufficiently conclusive. 
This outbreak was in one of the healthiest parishes in the 
West End of London. About 600 cases of typhoid fever were 
distributed in 104 families in this parish. Of these 104 fami- 
lies, ninety-six were known to have used milk from the same 
dairy; the facts with regard to the milk supply in the remain- 
ing eight families not having been ascertained. It was ascer- 
tained that, in one of the farms belonging to this dairy, there 
had been cases of typhoid fever, and the sanitary conditions 
were exceedingly bad. Other details, which I do not intro- 
June-2 



66 Cincinnati MediccU Advance. 

duce, corroborated the conclusion that the diffasion of the dis- 
ease was due to the milk supply, and no other source was dis- 
coverable. 

The infection, or the contagium in milk is, of course, derived 
from the water used in washing the milk-cans, and, perhaps, in 
the dilution of the milk. The diffusion of the disease in this 
way therefore, is through the medium of drinking water. 

The discovery of the causation of typhoid fever through this 
medium naturally has led to the inquiry whether other diseases 
may not be traced to drinking water which either contains vi- 
ruses of contagion or is polluted by divers kinds of morbific 
matter. The facts to which it has been the object of this pa- 
per to call attention, have opened up a new field for investiga- 
tion in etiology, and further researches in this direction may 
shed much light on the causation of numerous diseases. Al- 
ready, in the opinion of many, there is ground for assuming 
that epidemic cholera is diffused by means of a contagium, de- 
rived from the alimentary canal, with which drinking water is 
liable to become infected. This opinion is based on analogical 
reasoning rather than on logical proof. That water polluted 
by any kind of morbific matter may prove an exciting or an 
auxiliary cause of an attack of cholera, during the epidemic 
prevalence of the disease, is highly probable; but that the dis- 
sease in this or any other way is communicable, seem to me to 
be a question concerning which the most to be conceded is, that 
it admits of discussion. To enter upon such a discussion would 
not be a small undertaking, and I have already occupied as 
much time as I have a right to appropriate. 



■♦ #■ 



The Allopatliic Matexia Medica. 

We find in the Druggists^ Circular the following viewsof the 
present state of the materia medica of the old school. It 
must be quite disheartening to look at the subject in this light. 



Theory and Practice. 67 

Pity these gentlemen couldn't better acquaint themselves with 
what has been done and is being done by the homoeopathic 
school, in the matter of obtaining a more perfect knowledge of 
onr drugs. In the light of our provings what ''our grand- 
mothers and aunties" know seems of little worth. 

*'The Medical Botany of the United States comprises a very 
large class of herbs, plants and trees, which possess medicinal 
properties, and which could be often advantageously adopted 
in place of the imported ones. The number of indigenous 
agents, however, used in regular practice is comparatively 
small, the profession seeming content to rest on the experience 
of their predecessors, and halting at Che boundary of research 
already reached. This is indeed unfortunate, and permits a 
rich field of knowledge to lie uncultivated, in which the re- 
searches of the explorer would be indeed amply compensated. 
At present there exists a more extensive knowledge of these 
materials outside of the profession than in it; among our grand- 
mothers and aunties a great many valuable hints might be 
gathered, and w^e could also profit by the experience of irregu- 
lar practitioners. The difficulty, however, in obtaining reliable 
information from these men, they being so very prone to ex- 
aggerate the merits of these and claim results not obtained by 
regular physicians, has destroyed confidence in therapeutical 
assumptions emanating from that source. Formerly there was 
an indisposition in the medical profession to accept anything 
as orthodox in medicine that originated outside of its authority, 
or that trespassed beyond the boundary it had predetermined. 
I am possitive, nevertheless, that the prejudices and dogmati- 
cal spirit so prominent a few years ago have no existence with 
the progressive and intelligent physicians of the present day. 
Even the proscriptive treatment shown towards every improve- 
ment and all progress, no longer meets the one who dares to 
question the experience and laws of his predecessors. The 
time was, when it was regarded an unpardonable professional 
sin to doubt the use of the lancet or the wholesale abuse in 
the use of mercurials, and this within the period of my pro- 
fessional experience; but these are things of the past. 'The 
science of guessing' has been succeeded by a rational and in- 



68 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

ductive system of medicine, broad and liberal in its views, 
seeking to embrace in its domain every fact in pathology and 
physiology, every agent obtained from whatever source, which 
can be applied to the cure of disease and the amelioration of 
human suffering." 

This is commendable candor. , It will if sincerely followed 
lead these parties to see the value of our homoeopathic materia 
medica. The idea that we do all the exagerating, as implied, 
is amusing, when we consider what has been done in that line 
by our allopathic friends. Do they forget the history of cod 
liver oil, the hypophosphites, chloral and the bromides? It 
wont do gentlemen to throw stones while you live in glabs 
houses. 



%Pl&^Itt(0lQgy. 



Ophthalmology and Other Modem Sdences. By T. P. Wilson 

M. D. 

Isolation is an obsolete term. At least it ought to be, for 
there is no such thing in nature or art. It is because we are 
short-sighted and uninformed, that we can not see the relation 
which everything bears to everything else. The tiny needle 
of the compass which gives a trembling answer to the 
cyclones that sweep across the face of the sun, is only a visi- 
ble manifestation of that inscrutable sympathy that binds in 
unbroken cords all parts and particles of the known universe. 

Poets aud orators in their impassioned bursts of fancy have 
always claimed just what every new fa6l in science makes 
more and more plain, viz: that truth in all its diversified forms 



Ophthalmology^ 69 

is one and the same. We may not always see it, but the fa6t 
stands all the same, that nothing is so small or hidden or pe- 
culiar that it does not affedt or is not affedted by every other 
existence. 

There has always been an attempt made to isolate medical 
science from its surroundings. It has been held as having 
nothing to do with matters exterior to it. As a profession, as 
an art, as a system of truths, it has been kept apart from other 
systems, arts and professions. The reason of this is clearly in 
the pride, selfishness and ignorance of its pradtitioners. 

But the spirit of modern times is breaking down these fac- 
titious barriers and opening into the broad fields of universal 
truth, wide doors of ingress and egress and he is the man 
truest to his calling who makes subsidiary to his wants the 
largest part of the universe. 

We used to talk of the ^'collateral sciences," meaning thereby 
two or three subjects that seemed to ally themselves to medi- 
cine. But even these to the student were optional, because 
in effedt, they were more ornamental than pra6lical. Now 
we have new departments of science created and the old sci- 
ences have been re-created and the whole world is alive and 
bristling with new forms of truth. And none of them stands 
isolated from medicine. They may hold a varied relation but 
they are indisputably related. 

Astronomy might seem a subject altogether too far re- 
moved from medicine to be worthy of the physician's atten- 
tion. But when we consider what has been revealed to us of 
late concerning the origin of some of the great epidemics of 
disease, when we come to know how far these things are un- 
der solar and lunar influences; we may well push the question, 
What have planetary and stellar influences to do with them? 
and what benign or baleful influences do comets and meteors 
exert over the earth and its inhabitants? 

This is no reversion to ancient superstition, but it shows us 
how true after all was the instindt cf the primal unlettered 
man. What he vaguely guessed and what his posterity scorn- 
fully rejected, science is now demonstrating to be true. Our 



10 



Cincinnati Jlfediccti Advance. 



profession is to-day fighting some of its hardest battles. On 
the one hand it is guarding from the attacks of a bitter foei 
anit on the other it is pushing forwiird to vitSory. It behooves 
U5 therefore to make a compafl for bolh olTcnsiveand defen- 
sive purposes with what arecalled the modern sciences. For 
we will ultimately stand or fall by tests which these sciences 
will apply to our doctrines and praAices. We can no longer 
isolate ourselves and build up and elaborate a system heedless 
and in defiance of other systems. Biology, sociology, psy- 
chology, anthropology, possibly geology, botany, astronomy, 
and for aught I know theology and paleontology present 
faifls and principles with which our theories and practices 
must be made to square themselves. 

And all this is inlroduiAory to this particular statement I 
desire to make and briefly illustrate. The statement is this: The 
comparatively recent departments of Ophthalmology and Otol- 
ogy which have been established and acknowledged as integ- 
ral parts of medical science arc more than any other depart- 
ments closely related to general scientific subjects, On this 
side of medicine, we reach out into vastly wider fields of J 
investigation than we do on any other side. 

Amid the chaos and confusion of mingled error and truth, 
which filled the world and blinded and misled, astronomy I 
stood forth and became the pattern science in giving right i 
methods of investigation, and in showing how phenomena ( 
could be traced to well understood causes. So Ophthalmic 
science, yet in its infancy, is giving laws to medicine. It is 
leaching tlje anatomist, the surgeon, the pathologist and the I 
physiologist how best they can get an accurate insight into 1 
the puzzling problems that confront them. 

First of all in our investigation of Ophthalmology, we ei 
upon the study of light. And he who masters this, holds in | 
his hands the produa of the labor of many centuries, 
holds the key that is able to unlock the mysteries of astrono- ! 
my, that is able to unlock the secrets of geology, that can open J 
the door that shuts from our understanding the wonders orjl 
botany; I may add ethnology; and it might puzzle us to sayl 



Ophthalmology. 71 

what department of science it would not open and illuminate. 

This done, we enter upon a study of the strudure of the 
visual organ. We know that here as no where else, nothing 
was made in vain. Every part bears a vital relation to the 
design had in view at its creation. And for systematic mode 
in study, we may ever hold to the anatomy of the eye as the 
highest known model. Both topographically and histologic- 
ally, it is the eye that must take the highest rank. 

Then we come to the study of the fun<5tions of the eye. 
The function of the brain is not to-day a more inscrutable 
mystery than was the fun<^ion of the eye not many centuries 
ago. True, we have not solved all the fundional problems of 
eye, but only see what has been done toward this within our 
recolle<^ions! May we not hope that such patient investiga- 
tions as have yielded us such a goodly result in the study of 
sight, will yet give us noble results when applied to the phe- 
nomena of mind? 

The next step in our course of study carries us into the do- 
main of psychology. We come to deal with perception of 
sight and have for factors the objective phenomena already 
alluded to, viz: the eye and light and their mutual interaiftion^ 
these on the one hand, and, on the other hand, we have the 
subjective cerebral phenomena, by which these outer mani- 
festations are transmuted into perception and thought 

Physiologists have long been searching for the ''North west 
passage,** by which the world of matter below could be defi- 
nitely conne<5led with the world of thought above. Might 
we modestly suggest, that it is through the long negle<5ted 
avenue of sight this desired end can ever be reached. So far, 
these investigators have sought for entrance by way of the 
spinal nerves and cord. Since the time of Sir Chas. Bell they 
have never ceased to search for an open sesame through me- 
dulla oblongata and cephalic ganglia into the domain of mind. 
How far they have fallen short of their hopes I need not stop 
to tell. 

But now if we turn to the admirable ledlures of Ilelmholtz 
on *'The recent Progress of the Theory of Vision," and then 



Cincinnati JffmUcal Advance. 



stuJy the cli<-ii>ters on the eye in Strieker's Histology, 
thus enabled to follow the ray of light as it sweeps through 1 
the refrafling media — confessing' its vassalage by its ohse- , 
quious bending — until it strikes upon the outward termini of 
the rods and cones of Jacob, we find ourselves standing before 
the hitherto veiled mysteries of thouglit, with but another step 
to make before we are in the "holiest of holy" and arc able to 
eomprehend the a<ftion of the mind. 

But the subjefl of Ophthalmology presents itself under an- 
other and more practical aspect. It is not s study merely 1 
pleasing or instruflive in its charafler, but of widely benefi- 
cent use. Nothing is complete here until we have mastered | 
the pathology of the eye. Only he who has essayed the task 
knows of its variety and complexity. And thank Heaven ! 
we can, nevertheless, say of it what can be said of no other | 
department of medicine: it is not often involved in obscurity. 
It is not left for a tardy post mortem to make a revelation al' 
too late for the welfare of our patients. 

There is no design on our part of setting up for this science 
an unwarranted claim of perfeflion. It is only when we 
compare the more precise and successful methods of Oph- 
thalmology with the ruder methods of other departments of 
medicine that we can fully appreciate its special excellence. 
ludged only by itself or brought to the test of a reasonable 
ideal standaid of excellence, we find much remains to be done 
in placing this science and art at the wished for point of per- 
fcdion. 

In illustration of the statement made a moment ago, that 
Ophthalmology held n special kinship to the general sciences, 
I desire to call your attention to tlie subjeA of 

God, who spreads out to our view and our understanding 
the universe, forever hides himself from our sight. So light 
the great revclator is never itself revealed. What is light? 
has been the one great puzzling question of the ages. We 
may never know what it is. But we have to-day : 
reasouable hypothesis which gives us a very satisfactory so- I 



Ophthalmology, IS 

lution to the question. So long as it holds good, when ap- 
plied to all known phenomena, we may rest content until we 
have a better hypothesis presented. 

Waves of water seem simple enough to be readily under- 
stood. Still, as a scientific question, they have vexed wiser 
heads than ours. A child may make or break them with a 
pebble, but it might task a philosopher's mind to comprehend 
them. Let us represent them by a waving line like this: 

Any substance whose particles are easily displaced when 
suddenly agitated, will move in this manner. There will be 
a succession of rising and falling from a given line. 

Agitate the air and you have the same result. Set it in 
motion and it instantly assumes the to and fro, up and down 
action. Let us comprehend another fa6l: The gentle ripple 
that creeps like a shudder over the placid stream, and the 
mighty waves 

^That thunder strike the walls 
Of rock built cities, bidding nations qnake 
And monarchs tremble in their capitals," 

The half born sigh that 'scapes the lips of the sorrowing 
soul, and the vengeful blast that uproots forests and devastates 
the city are representative of forces similar in kind, but differ- 
ing in quantity. That is to say they are all waves only unlike 
in their size and velocity. And in their results they are corre- 
spondingly different. 

Now to bridge over from these comparatively simple phe- 
nomena to the complex phenomena of light, is an easy matter 
if you do but allow us to make a trifling assumption. The 
coarser the medium the coarser the waves. We can not get 
sound out of water, for it is too gross and clumsy. Air wil f 
easily make sound, because it can be made to vibrate with 
sufficient rapidity. But we could as soon transmute granite 
into diamond as make light out of air. But we know of n o 
substance lighter than air and its analagous gases. 

Besides, this air, is of the earth earthy; beyond, in the re- 
gions of space, we know there is no air. Hence, our assump- 
tion of an imponderable omnipresent ether which knows n o 



74 



Cincinnati Mtdieal Advance. 



iimil save Ihe boundary (if there be any such) of the 
verse. And if we say light is this ether set in motion, we can 1 
readily compare it with the motions of water and air and so | 
come to a pretty clear understanding of its character. 

Therefore, what wc have given to represent waves of water J 
answer quite well representing waves of air and we have 
it, also, a view of the waves of ether. It is proper to say that J 
as these substances — water, air and ether, differ in thci 
tures, so their waves are unlike. Pra6tically this has no effect ] 
upon the point we have in view and I venture to ignore it. 

Light prescntsacomplcx idea. We have the agitating agent j 
the substance agitated and the multiform results. Il 
light which travels along the ether. There is no such thing I 
as an active principle called light. First, we have the force; I 
this force sets ether in motion and then under certain condi* 
tions we have Hght as the result. What we ate cognizant of I 
is the effect produced upon [he brain. 

We catch waves of water with our hands; we catch waves I 
of air with our ears and we can catch waves of ether only by 1 
the most delicute of all known anatomical instruments the I 
eye. But uur hands do not feel, our ears do hear, nor do our 1 
eyes see. They all catch a peculiar impulse and send, not ] 
that impulse, hut only a corresponding sensation to the 
Ears that are deaf to all ordinary sounds that have n 
jective perception, yet roar like the ocean, ring like fire bells ! 
and give to the brain sounds like trumpet blasts. Eyes that I 
are blind and upon which the vibrating ether falls rcsuttles 
do yet see all the colors of the spectrum. Nay, if you do take, I 
the eye ball wholly out, you have but to irritate the optic . I 
nerve and you have veritable light. A blow, a scratch, an J 
electric current will give us sensations of light, quite as easily i 
though not so faultlessly as waves of ether. 

There is no color to ether when either quiescent or active. 
What we deem colors have no objective existence — they are 
simply our conscious modification of brain structure. 

I hesitate to carry the statement further lest I trespass on 
the domain of psychology. I only wish to insist upon this; 
that, as scientific men, we must possess ourselves of this ab- 



Ophthalmology, 75 

stract idea of light, and whenever we do, we find the subject 
stripped of many of its popular fallacies. 

All vibrations of the air are not audible to the ear. All vi- 
brations of ether are not visible to the eye. That is to say, 
there are sounds we can not hear and there is lisrht we can 
not see. These vibrations have to come within certain limits 
before we are conscious of them in a given way. To speak 
only of light; the largest waves of ether we can become con- 
scious of are 36,918 to the inch and the smallest are 64,631 to 
the inch Between these points are all the colors of the spec- 
trum. And each color is determined simply by the size of 
the wave or what is just the same, the rapidity of the wave, 
or in other words, the number of waves to the inch. 

So far, I have only touched incidentally upon a few of the 
topics that spring out of this interesting subject. I must leave 
it, however imperfectly I have treated it, for your own inves- 
tigations to complete. 

The ancients worshiped the sun. Doubtless the Persian Fire 
Worshiper of to-day, bows in adoration before the mighty 
orb, as his chariot wheels mount up the Eastern horizon 
and falls in supplication as they roll down the Western verge 
of heaven. But that which a blind superstition leads him to 
do, we, who perchance are wiser, might well do in the light 
of the revelations of modern science. 

If the sun be not God, he is truly god-like. He warms, vivi 
iies and enlightens throughout a universe, which neither the 
eye nor the mind of man can fathom. He beats the invisible 
ether with his shining wings and bids it brighten and flow in 
endless streams of light. These multituduous waves strike 
the Earth's dull face and waken from its cold clods the 
wondrous creations of the vegetable world. And day after 
day its beating pulses thrill and animate all the fair surface of 
our great world. 

It is well for us that these waves are not so vast and irre- 
sistible as the waves of the ocean, else we would have been 
long ago beaten to dust It is well for our eyes that these 
ether beats are not so material as those of the air, or our 



76 CincinnoUi Medical Advance, 

retinas would under the ceasless impact, have lost all sem- 
blance of organic form. 

It is well for us that there exists this wondrous adaptation 
of man^s complex organism to the operations of nature^s laws. 
It is this which gives beauty to the eye and music to the ear, 
which fills all the universe with glory and the soul of man 
with happiness. 



flpialagg* 



The Heart's Acttcn. By J. D. Buck, M. D. 

The heart is sometimes regarded as a force-pump; some- 
times as a reservoir, and again as a receptacle for the separa- 
tion of the venous and arterial blood. As the central organ of 
the circulation, it is frequently regarded as the sole cause of 
that phenomenon. Involved as it is, either direAly or indirectly, 
in many pathological lesions, if not in all, it becomes a matter 
of importance to ascertain what are its precise relations to 
circulation. 

In this relation two fa^s are worthy of consideration, viz: 
first, that circulation not only takes place entirely independ- 
ently of the hearths action, as in capillary and lymphatic systems, 
but continues for a considerable time afler the heart has 
ceased to a6t, or has even been removed from the body; and, 
second, that the heart's a^ion may continue afler circulation 
has ceased, though the organ be removed from the body, or 
may be excited even alter it has been quartered. 



Physiology, 11 

The phenomena of the circulation, then, involve the a6lion 
of the heart, the a<^ion of the circulatory vessels, and the cir- 
culating fluid. The mechanism of the heart, or its valvular 
structure and a6tion, we shall not here consider, but rather its 
impulse and rhythm. That the impulse of this organ is ref- 
erable to the sympathetic ganglia lodged writhin its substance, 
and to which attention, I believe, was first called by Prof. 
Foster, of Edinburgh, may be easily demonstrated by section, 
when that part most liberally supplied with these little maga- 
zines of force will be found to respond most strongly, and for 
a greater length of time to the applied stimulus. 

As "magazines of force," these ganglia sustain the heart's 
action, while the strength and frequency of its pulsations are 
under control of the pneumogastric nerves. As the invariable 
effect of dividing these nerves is to increase the frequency and 
diminish the force of the heart's action. M. Marey's experi- 
ments show that ^^the heart always performs an amount of 
work sensibly uniform (the innervation remaining constant) 
its beats being rare when each of them has to overcome con- 
siderable resistance, and frequent, on the contrary, when the 
resistance diminishes. The resistance is the pressure of blood 
in the arteries." The force of the pulsation is always in an 
inverse ratio to its velocity. With regard to the propulsion 
of the blood through the vessels, there is a division and an 
adjustment of labor between the heart and arteries. The heart 
originally appears as a dilation of the circulatory vessels; both 
heart and arteries being composed of muscular and serous 
tissue, and supplied with nerve filaments. 

The dire6t force of the heart upon the column of blood has 
been estimated at about 13 lbs., which suffices to fill the arte- 
ries and distend their coats, while the contra6t:io{i of the ar- 
teries drives the blood to the extremities and produces the 
phenomena oi the pulse. When from a pathological condition, 
as for example, arterial congestion, the resistance to the heart's 
impulse is increased, we find a corresponding increase in the 
force and decrease in the frequency of its pulsations. When, 
on the other hand, the resistance to the heart's impulse is de- 
creased, as from anemia, the force of the heart's action is de- 
creased, while its pulsations are increased. 



\ 

78 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

This relation of arterial resistance to the heart's a6tion is not 
only seen from many pathological conditions, but has been 
demonstrated after the removal of the heart from the body. 

"In order to study the effedts of varying arterial pressure, 
in a heart detached from all exterior nervous influence, he 
(M. Marey*) removed the heart of a tortoise and fitted to it an 
artificial circulatory apparatus, formed of caoutchouc tubes in 
which circulated fresh calf's blood. From a raised reservoir, 
the blood was brought by a siphon into the veins and the 
auricles; passing from the ventricles to the arteries it was 
forced into the elastic tubes which conveyed it back to the 
reservoir. These last tubes represented arteries and small 
vessels; and various apparatuses could be applied in order to 
study the physical phenomena of this circulation. 

Notwithstanding a high temperature, the circulation con- 
tinued over five hours, and the following experiment was 
frequently repeated: Whenever the pressure of blood in the 
arteries was increased, either by contra(5ting the orifice of 
outflow, or by raising it, the heart's movements were retarded; 
whenever the pressure was diminished, the beats were accel- 
erated." 

There is, then, upon mechanical principles, a definite rela- 
tion between the a<Slion of the heart and the resistance offered 
by the blood in the arteries. With regard to this resistance, 
aside from local congestions and the like, innervation has very 
much to do. There are cases of frequent occurrence in which 
the heart's a(5tion is very much disturbed, and which are diag- 
nosed and treated as cardiac diseases, in which the heart is 
not involved primarily at all, but in which the resis*^ance to the 
heart's impulse offered by the arteries is so altered from the 
normal standard as to deceive the physician, and especially 
him who regards symptomatology as the sole basis of treatment 

One case will illustrate the point. A dispensary clinic ap- 
plied last winter for treatment, who had been for two years an 
inmate of the penitentiary, and during that time deprived of 
nourishing food and proper exercise; sleeping in a poorly 
ventilated cell; he had also been a masturbator. The pulse was 
habitually lOo; the heart's action being rapid and feeble, its 

•Half-yearly Compend., vol. xlii. p. 16 



Physiology* 79 

tumultuous action the principal complaint of the patient. The 
true indication tor treatment was here the physiological con- 
dition. Increased nutrition, stopping of masturbation, and the 
supply of the phosphites in which the system was deficient, 
was regarded as the proper mode of treatment, rather than 
the administration of remedies to reduce the heart's adlion. As 
nutrition and the' general tone of the system improved and 
greater resistance was offered to the heart's action, its pulsa- 
tions decreased. Stopping the loss of seminal fluid and im- 
proved nutrition a(5ted here like ballast to a vessel, which, when 
light freighted, rolls and tumoles with every passing wave. 

Many cases are treated as organic disease of the heart, diag- 
nosticated as atrophy or hypertrophy, when that organ is entire- 
ly healthy, and when the disturbance present is referable solely 
to other and remote causes, and general rather than local les- 
ion. Many cases of hysteria are so regarded, and an irritable» 
congested or ulcerated uterus will be found responsible for 
the disturbance of the heart's action. 

A symptomatology which regards only the local manifes- 
tation, and which leaves out of account those general and pre- 
disposing causes, which an accurate knowledge of physiolo- 
gy alone can comprehend, is not a safe basis for medica{ prac- 
tice. There is however a wide difference between the practice 
based on either symptomatology or physiology alone. A 
symptom is but the sign of distress, pointing to the localized 
lesion, yet so often of a reflex or sympathetic chara<Sler as to 
mislead diagnosis, and often hinder recovecy. To attempt 
the removal of this without further consideration is like shoot- 
ing down the flag of distress which a ship hangs out at sea, 
and then sailing by under the delusion that the necessary re* 
lief has been aflbrded. While, to disregard the symptom sig- 
nal and attempt relief on general principles, would be like 
coasting around in the dark in search of a sinking ship which 
is quite as likely to be run down and sunk as piloted to safety 

Physiology and hygiene — the natural functions of the body 
and the maintenance of health by observance of its laws, 
must go hand in hand with therapeutics. The administration 
of drugs in either large or small doses will not take the place 



80 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

of such observances. Nor can physiology offer one sugges- 
tion as to the administration of drugs, and here comes in the 
symptom as an indication, aided by actual experiment. Phys- 
iology and therapentics, then, are by no means conflidting or 
antagonistic, but supplementary. Were the patient compelled 
to choose whether he would be treated by a physician who 
knew nothing of medicine save symptomatology, or by one 
who knew everything else and disregarded the relation of 
drug to symptom, he should not long hesitate in choosing the 
former. But he is not compelled so to choose, and there is 
n o excuse for the physician who ignores either the therapeutic 
law, or the collateral departments of medicine. 



Mi%u\lt^um%. 



Tital Force. 

Vital force is transformed into physical and chemical forces; 
but it is not on that account identical with physical and chem- 
ical force, and therefore we ought not, as some would have ns, 
discard the term vital force. There are two opposite er- 
rors on this subject : one is the old error of regarding vital 
force as something innate, underived, having no relation to the 
force of Nature ; the other is, the new error of regarding the 
forces of the living body as nothing but ordinary physical and 
chemical forces, and therefore insisting that the use of the 
terra vital force is absurd and injurious to science. The old 
error is still prevalent in the popular mind, and still haunts the 
minds of many physiologists ; the new error is apparently a 
revelation from the other, and is therefore common among the 



Miscellaneous. 81 

most advanced scientific minds. There are many of the best 
scientists who ridicule the use of the term vital force, or vital- 
ity, as a remnant of superstition ; and yet the same men use 
words gravity, magnetic force, chemical force, physical force, 
etc. Vital force is not underived — is not unrelated to other 
forces — is, in fact, correlated with them ; but it is neverthe- 
less a distinct form of force, far more distinct than any other 
form, unless it be still higher forms, and therefore better en- 
titled to a distinct name than any lower form. Each form of 
force gives rise to a peculiar group of phenomena, and the 
study of these to a peculiar department of science. Now, 
the group of phenomena called vital is more peculiar, and dif* 
fereut from other groups, than these are from each other ; and 
the science of physiology is a more distinct department than 
either physics or chemistry ; and therefore the form of force 
which determines these phenomena is more distinct, and better 
entitled to a distinct name, than either physical or chemical 
forces. De CandoUe, in a recent paper, suggests the term 
Yltal movement instead of vital force ; but can we conceive of 
movement without force ? And, if the movement is peculiar, 
80 also is the form of force. — Popular Science Monthly, 



Origin of Species. 

Spontaneous generation represents one phase of the "the- 
ory of evolution." The other is: given a typical plant, or a 
typical plant and animal, all plants and animals proceed there- 
from by infinite permutation, extending over indelinite peri- 
ods. In other words, the highest plants proceed from the 
lowest by a series of gradations; the highest plants and lowest 
animals merge into each other, and from the lowest animals 
the highest are ultimately 'produced. The latter doctrine is 
partly, but only partly, true. Plants and animals once created, 
June-3 



82 . Cincinnati Mtdical Advance. 

endowed with vital powers and capable of reproducing 
themselves, may, under varying conditions and within certain 
limits, alter their several foims and even their constitutions. 
I say within certain limits, for the variation is in no case in- 
definite. A horse remains a horse, and a dog a dog, what- 
ever be the size, shape, and temper of those animals. While 
a horse and an ass are fruitful, their product — the mule and 
hinney — are invariably barren. An animal may not depart 
from its original type indefinitely, and hope to perpetuate 
itself. This would introduce endless confusion. In reality, 
the limits within which reproduction is possible are exceed- 
ingly circumscribed; and confined in all cases to specific dif- 
ferences. The generic peculiarities remain always exactly 
the same under all circumstances. Civilization is based on 
the capacity fop variation within certain limits. Education 
proceeds on the possible progression of the individual. 

The doctrine of evolution has had an unusually able advo- 
cate in Darwin, a gentleman whose industry and learning are 
only equalled by his integrity and courage. Darwin, with 
infinite ingenuity and quite a plethora of fact, h*as endeavored 
to show that: given one or more fundamental forms, the in- 
numerable tribes of plants and animals may proceed there- 
from by natural selection and by infinite permutations in in- 
finite time. In other words, separate acts of creation are not 
necessary to produce species, and it is just possible not even 
genera. Darwin's collossal does not necessarily clash with 
that of a creative agency — it simply regards creation as a pro- 
gressive rather than a finished work. 

External conditions, in Darwin's opinion, modify in the ful- 
ness of time both plant and animal, and both advance in the 
scale of being — i. e., plants and animals improve upon their 
former selves, the fittest always surviving. Darwin's law of 
the ^^ survival of the JittesV^ affords another illustration of the 
interaction of the natural forces, for it shows that climatic, 
geological and other physical changes modify the form and 
functions of plants and animals — in oljier words, modify and 
alter within certain limits the form and constitution of or- 
gainic beings. 



Miscellaneous, 83 

Darwin's hypothesis has thrown much light upon the com- 
pHcated questions of natural affinity, the homologies of or- 
gans in various animals; and the recurrence in the embryos of 
the higher animals of structural peculiaritic^s found \x\ the 
lower ones. It has connected as by a silver thread the vari 
ous paleontological forms in time and the several faunas and 
floras in space. It has endeavored to establish an actuaV ge- 
nealogy and consanguinity of organisms. As time advances 
fresh links binding apparently irreconcilable types together 
are found, and in the old geological records of the past the 
actual transitional form mav be traced. 

Few in the present day will doubt that many of the forms 
regarded by naturalists as distinct species of the .same genus 
were originally derived from the same primitive form; but 
the major question is still subjudice It is not yet determined 
that "all mammals are derived from one original marsupinal, 
all vertebrates from a primitive lancelet, and all plants and 
animals from the slimy protoplasm of a protiston." If. how- 
ever, this should be proved at some future period to be the 
case, it will simply have the effect of reducing the number of 
separate creations; it will not obliterate our belief in a First 
Cause. It will neither impeach nor impugn the power of the 
Creator; still less will it disprove his continued operation 
through eternal and immutable laws. — Med, News, 



How Dr. Livingstone^fl Bemains were Identified.— Sir William 

Furguson in the London Lancet. 

It has fallen to my lot to have the honor of being selected 
to make the crucial examination to this end [identification 
of the remains,] and I have accordingly performed that duty. 
From what I have seen I am much, impressed with the in- 



64 



Innati 3fedical Ailoanve, 



^en'oua manner in which those who have contrived to secure 
that tbe body should he carried tLroagli the long distauce . 
from where Livingstone died until it could reach a place i 
where transit was comparatively easy, accomplished their 
task. The lower limbs wore bo severed from the trunk that 
tie length of the bulk of package was reduced to a little . 
over four feet. Tbe soft tissues aeem to have been removed 
to a great extent from the bones, and these latter were eo < 
disposed that by doubling and otherwise, the shortening 
was accomplished. Tbe abdominal viscera were absent, and ' 
BO were those of the chest, including, of course, heart and 
lungs. There hud been made a large opening in fVontof the 
abdomen, and through that the native operators had ingeni- 
ously contrived to remove the contents of the chest as well 
as of the abdomen. The skin over chest, sternum and ribs ' 
had been untouched. i 

Before these points were clearly ascertained, some coarse 
tapes had to be loosened, which set free some rough linen 
material — a striped colored bit of cotton cloth, such as might 
have been an attractive material for the natives among 
whom Livingstone triiveled — a coarse cotton shirt, which 
doubtless belonged to the traveler's scanty wardrobe, and in i 
particular a large portion of tbe bark of a tree, which has 
formed the principal part of the package— the case thereof | 
no doubt, The skin of the trunk, from the pelvis to the I 
crown of the bead, had been untouched. Everywhere was 
that shriveling which might have been expected after salting, 
baking in the sun, and eleven months oi time. The features I 
of the face could not be recognized. The hair on the scalp 
was plentiful, and much longer than be wore it when last in 
England. A mustache could not be recognijied, but whis- 
kers were in abundance. The forehead was in shape such 
as we are familiar with (Vom memory, and from the pictures J 
and busts now extant. The circumference of the cranium, i 
from the occiput to the brow, was 23J inches, which was rec- I 
ogniKcd by some present to be in accordance with such \ 
measurements when alive. 



Miscellaneotis. 85 

In particular the arms attracted attention. They lay as if 
placed in ordinary fashion, each down hy the side. The skin ' 
and tissues under were on each side shrunk almost to skele- 
ton bulk, and at a glance to practiced eyes — there were five, 
I may say six, professional men present — the state of the 
left arm was such as to convince every one present who had 
examined it during life that the limb was Livingstone's. Ex- 
actly in the region of the attachment of the deltoid to the 
humerus there were the indications of an oblique fracture. 
On moving the arm there were the indications of the ununi- 
ted fracture. A closer investigation and dissection displayed 
the false joint which had long ago been so well recognized 
by those who had examined the arm in former days. The 
Bev. Br. Hoffat, and in particular Dr. Kirk, late of Zanzibar, 
and Dr. Loudon, of Hamilton, in Scotland, at once recog- 
nized the condition. Having myself been consulted regard- 
ing the state of the limb when Livingstone was last in Lon- 
don, I was convinced that the remains of the great traveler 
lay before us. Thousands of heads with a like large circum- 
ference might have been under similar scrutiny; the skele- 
tons of hundreds of thousands might have been so; the hu- 
merus in each might have been perfect; if one or both had 
been broken during life it would have united again in such a 
manner that a tyro could easily have detected the peculiarity. 
The condition of ununited fracture in this locality is exceed- 
ingly rare. I say this from my personal professional expe- 
rience, and that such a specimen should have turned up in 
London from the center of Africa, excepting in the body of 
Dr. Livingstone, where it was known by competent author- 
ity to have existed, is beyond human credibility. 



Vincmnati Medical Advance. 



On Looaliaation of the Cerebral runoUoDB. 

M FoLirniei-, in n recent i-onmuuii cation to the Acaaemie de J 
Medicini', tninslflted in the London Medical Record, Biirain 
MH the lesulis of hin investigsitioiis in an interesting paper, il- 
lustrated by the nccornpativinp iliairrnm. 




No. 1 clunoles the region of ihe nerves of inipi-ession, that is I 
to say, the nerves svhieli c-onvfj lo the brain the result of aal 
impression received, and which ai-e Milualed in the posteriori 
part of the spinal oord. These nerves end iu region f 
known under the name of the optic thalamus, and which isj 
mostly cMjmposcd of nerve-cells; tibres start from this centr^ 
like rays, and uonimnnieale on one hand with region No. 9,1 
wliich is composed of cells, ami called the cortical layer of th«^ 
brail); and on the other, with region No. 4, which is aluo c 
posed of cells, and called the corpus striatum. From this Iat<J 
ter part tlie motor nerves are given off, which occupy regionl 
No. 5, the anterior part of the spinal cord. These five regions 1 
represienl the majority of the facts as to localization hitherto I 
a'^certained by science. It remains to determine their f uuc- J 



Miscellaneous, 87 

The following is Professor Ferrier's summary of his very 
important "Experimental Researches in Cerebral Physiology 
and Pathology," which appeared originally in the BrUiah 
Medical Journal for April 26, 1873, and subsequently, with a 
full account of the experiments, in the West Riding Lunatic 
Asylum Medical Heports^ vol. iii. There is no doubt that 
those experiments open up a most important field and mode of 
research. To be ^ble to stimulate directly limited parts of the 
brain in a living animal is a great step in advauce of anything 
as yet attempted in investigation of cerebral function. It is 
not only what Professor Ferrier's experiments prove, but what 
they suggest, and will undoubtedly lead to, that gives them 
their superlative interest to all students of brain function. 

1. The anterior portions of the cerebral hemispheres are the 
chief centres of voluntary motion and the active outward mani- 
festation of intelligence. 

2. The individual convolutions are separate and distinct 
centres; and in certain definite groups of convolutions (to 
some exteat indicated by the researches of Fritsch and Hitzig) 
and in corresponding regions of non-convoluted brains, are lo- 
calized the centres for the various movements of the eyelids, 
the face, the mouth (and tongue,) the ear, the neck, the hand, 
foot and tail. Striking differences corresponding with the 
habits of the animal are to be found in the differentiation of 
the centres. Thus the centres for the tail in dogs, the paw in 

. cats, and the lips and mouth in rabbits, are highly differenti- 
ated and pronounced. 

3. The action of the hemisphere is in general crossed; but 
certain movements of the mouth, tongue and neck, are bilater- 
ally co-ordinated from each cerebral hemisphere. 

4. The proximate causes of the different epilepsies are, as 
Dr. Hughlings Jackson supposes, discharging lesions of the 
different centres in the cerebral hemispheres. The affection 
may be limited artificially to one muscle, or group of muscles, 
or may be made to involve all the muscles represented in the 
cerebral hemispheres, with foaming at the mouth, biting the 
tongue and loss of consciousness. When induced artificially 
in animals, the affection as a rule first invades the muscles 



68 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

most in voluntary use, in striking harmony with llie clinical ' 
observationR of Dr. Unghlings Jackson. 

5. Chorea is of the same nature as epilepsy, <1epend4?nt i 
momentary {and successive) discharging lesions of the indi- 
vidual cerebral centres. In this n^pecl Dr. Hnghlings Jack- 
son's views are Dgain os peri men tally conBrmpd. 

6. The corpora striata have crossed action and arc ceiitrea I 
for the mnscles of the opposite side of the body. Powerful ir- I 
ritation of one canses rigid pleuroBthotonos, the flexors pre- 
dominating over the extensors. 

7. The optic thalamus, fornix, hippocampnii major, and con- 
volutions groupeil aronnd it, have no motor signification (and 1 
are probably coniieeted with sensation). 

B. The optic lobes or corpora quadrigemina, besides being I 
concerned with vision and the movements of the iris, are < 
tres for the extensor mnscles of the head, tmnk and legs. Ir- 
ritation of these centres causes rigid opisthotonos (and trismus). 

0. Tlie cerebellum is the co-ordinating centre for the mus- 
cles of the eyeball. Each separate lobnlc (in rabbits) is a dis- 
tinct centre for special alterations of the optic axon. 

10. On the integrity of these centres depends the mainte- 
nance of the equilibrium of the body. 

U. Nystngmns, or oscillation of the eyeballs, is an epi- 
leptiform affection of the cerebellar ocnlo-motorial centres. 

12. These results expl.iin many hitherto obscure symptoms 
of cerebral disease, and enable ns to localise with greater cer- 
tainty many forms of cerebral lesion. — JIulfyearly Compeiid. 



Doctors. ByJ. D. B. 

We have doctors of divinity, doctors of law, and doctors of 
medicine. Doctors of divinity, but few eloquent preachers; 
doctors of law, but few eminent jurists; and not every doctor 



Miscellaneous. 89 

of medicine is a physician. One's profession may be either a 
trade, the sole end of which is to secure subsistence, with a 

* 

sarplus in bank, or it may be a calling into which the true 
physician fits like a squarely hewn stone in the building of the 
temple. .There is an "eternal fitness" here as elswhere. Men 
measure success by different standards. The public measure 
doctors by one standard, physicians measure each other by 
quite another. 

People somehow imagine that the doctor can cure disease, 
and if most of the cases which come under his treatment get 
out of his, hands alive, he is called "a successful physician," 
although his fellow doctora may come to a different verdict. 

The physician who rests his claim to immortality on the 
praises of the fickle popukce is generally doomed to disap- 
pointment, for no sooner does he come in contact with a rival 
who better understands the arts called agreeable, than his fame 
takes wings and his bubble bursts. 

Medical men are longer and better known in medical litera- 
ture, by such real improvements as they may make in the 
healing ait. If he is a real benefactor of his race who makes 
two blades of grass grow where but one grew before, how 
much more worthy of the plaudits of mankind is he who les- 
sens the misery of human life, and decreases the moitality of 
disease. 

The most eminent physicians have not infrequently to re- 
cord the greater number of deaths; consulted as they are in 
the more difficult or dangerous cases, they must necessarily 
lose more than he who is only consulted in the milder forms of 
disease and in cases which as soon as they become really dan- 
gerous pass out of his hands. And so we find that the most 
popular doctors have often been the greatest of charlatans. 

It is related of an Eastern prince who had received from a 
fairy not only the power of disguising his appearance so as to 
defy detection, but who was also possessed of the power called 
sometimes "second sight" and who labored under a chronic 
malady which had long baffled the skill of the court physicians, 
that he disguised himself and wondered through the streets of 
his capital determined to find some one who could cure him. 



90 Cincin7icUi Medical Advance. 

Passing through the streets where lived the most famous of 
the, craft he was not a little surprised to lind their dwellings 
besieged by the spirits of those whose exit from the form visi- 
ble to the natural eye had been facilitated by these famous 
doctors. The streets literally swarmed with these gnostly pa- 
tients, and strangest of all, the home of the court physicians 
presented the largest retinue. 

Discouraged and disheartened he wandered on till passing 
through an obscure street he came upon the house of a doctor 
upon whose steps was seated a solitary ghost. Taking courage 
he entered and made known his complaint. His confidence 
was further increased by the white locks and flowing beard of 
the venerable disciple of Esculapins, who disparaging the treat- 
ment which the prince had already received by nothing more 
than an elevation of the eyebrows, and a shrug of the shoulders 
promised a cure. 

Overjoyed at the.prospect of a speedy restoration to health 
the grateful invalid poured golden thanks on the doctor's table 
whereupon the doctor ventured to inquire by what good for^- 
tune he had been induced to seek his advice. The prince was 
curious to know the reason for so strange a question, "Oh sir'* 
said the doctor, because I considered myself the most unfor- 
tunate man in Bagdad until this happy moment; for I have 
been settled in this noble and wealthy city for these last fifteen 
years, and have only been able to obtain one single patient," 
"Oh!" cried the prince in despair, "then it must be that poor 
solitary, unhappy- looking ghost that is now sitting on your 
steps." 

All who consult the. doctors must die sooner or later, and 
what we call a long list of patients, is only another name for a 
retinue of ghosts. Think of it, O ye doctors! how will your 
ghostly hair stand on end, when you come to face such a 
vengeful array. Better then the solitary patient with whom 
you can cope on more equal terms, with the hope if you survive 
the tussle, of retalliating on your brother physic who helped 
you off the stage, and over whom you may possess an advan- 
tage which your earthly experience perhaps did not afford, by 
your longer experience in ghostly warfare. 



Miscellaneous, 91 

Thongh we doctors may bury our mistakes, tbey may not 
rest so quietly in their graves after all as we imagine. 

Though doctors may be jealous and quarrelsome among 
themselves, they sooner or later recognize real merit, wherever 
it is found in the profession, and he who serves only self, and 
panders to a perverted public taste has little upon which to 
base an enduring reputation here, and if there be any truth in 
the Eastern fable, has much to fear hereafter. One man labors 
by every honorable means to build up his profession and to 
this end will sacrifice time and money whenever and wherever 
there is a just demand. Another is content forever to reap 
where he has not sowed; to gather where he has not strewn. 
The labor of the former seldom reaches the eye of the public, 
while the latter gathers in the loaves and fishes, and receives 
the plaudits of the people whom he dupes. 

The profession of medicine swarms with these intellectual 
"dead beats" who have neither the honesty nor the brains \o 
win success by legitimate and manly methods, but who are 
forever climbing up some other way, and who despite their 
liveried popularity, are professional thieves and robbers. There 
is, after all, an under-current in society, which, like the deep 
tones of the sea outlive the foam and bubbles on its surface, 
and which like the all-devouring sea will in time swallow its 
betrayers. Let none be deceived and let no true physician be 
discouraged, so long as he labors to open to humanity a little 
wider the door through which health and peace may enter. 



Allen's Encyclopedia of Homosopatluo Matexia Medica.— Aconite. 

We have received Boericke and Tafel's Quarterly Bulletin, 
issued in February, containing a specimen of what is proposed 
in Dr. Allens's New Materia Medica, and it is expected that, 
as Journalists, we will have something to say on the subject. 

Homoeopathy, as a system of special therapeutics, rests upon 
two grand pillars — the law Similia and a, pure Materia Medica. 



02 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Nature lias furnished us the first, through Hahnemann, and 
the second is to be wrought out by faithful and unctasing-j 
experiinenliitiun. 

As [he law is perfect, the character and success of Homoeo- 
pathy must depend upon the quality of its Materia Medica 
alone. 

If the experiments in pathogenesy are wrongly conducted, 
and the notation of symptoms badly made, who can calculntfr] 
the results? And if the fountain is impure what muet the 
streams be that flow from itP 

These questions, daily recurring, as we look over the rap- 
idly accumulating folios of drug symptoms, in Journals and 
volumes of transactions, create feelings of great concern. 

The character of provers, the mode- of proving, the drugs 
proved and the multitudinous symptoms reported, are not al- 
ways such as to command our confidence and much less our 
reliance in the sick room, where suffering is to be relieved 
and danger averted. 

Looking along the pathway of such provings, when once 
issued, and seeing them, cut up into detachments, bearing the 
names of varions regions, organs or functions, arranged in 
repertories, Imiled down into characteristics by clinical 
experience, and copied (rom one book on practice into 
another, ad infinitum, does not le.-sen our concern for the sci- 
entific, and successful future ol Homceopathy. 

We fail to find the streams any more pure than the foun- 
tain whence they flow. 

Well Dr. Allen has undertaken to furnish the profession 
with a faithful collection of all the provings of drugs extant 
in ail the literatuie of Homceopathy 

We do not doubt the ability, nor the faithfulness of the 
doctor, in making such a collection; but we must express 
some doubts as to any increased reliability in the general col- 
lection, as compared with those made before. 

A very serious mistake has been made in the use of various 
styles of tyjie and other signs to denote the comparative value 
of the different symptoms. For example, the "heavy, full- 
faced type," inlended to denote symptoms of the greatest 
value, of the highest grade of reliability, is used forsymptomsj 



I 



Miscellamous. 93 

"repeatedly verified" in clinical practice; whereas, it should 
be used for symptoms occurring in the greatest number of 
healthy competent proners. Italics, intended to denote the 
third rate symptoms, are used for such as have been "repeat- 
edly observed," or such as really merit the "heavy full-faced 
type." 

He should have admitted "tlinical symptoms," neither "re- 
luctantly," nor otherwise. 

He should have omitted the symptoms from Greding en- 
tirely. 

The omission of the symptoms attributed to the 40th dilu- 
tion, and to the 60th dilution, would not have lessened the 
value of Dr. Allen's work in our opinion. 

Symptoms clearly proven to be spurious have been retained, 
in brackets; and some have been retained, without brackets, 
that would have been much safer within such a prudential 
enclosure. 

It must be understood that Dr. Allen is striving to bring his 
publication within some reasonable bounds, and consequently 
must omit many references and explanations, that would be 
very satisfactory to those who will come after him, as well as 
to the critical student and teacher of Materia Medica, in our 
own day. 

This publication of Aconite, as the latest and most improved 
pathogenesis of that grand old remedy, is a complete refuta- 
tion of all arguments in favor of any purification of the 
homoeopathic Materia Medica by clinical tests. 

Experience seems to have corrected nothing; nor has much 
been cast out when clearly proven, by proper research, to 
have been spurious. 

What was an error of observation or of notation in the be- 
ginning is an error still, and none can tell when, as such, it 
will cease to be paraded in our works on Materia Medica. 

We have very little sympathy with that over-pious regard 
for the "provings," that does not admit of corrections, when 
clearly pointed out. 

The necessity for an institution, founded for drug experi- 
mentation, and supplied with requisite officers, provers and 



t 
94 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance, 

apparatus, is more and more clearly dertionstrated by every 
publication on Materia Medica. 

Till we have the fruits of such an institution Dr. Allen's 
work is our best. 

In the old order of things, taking the provings, as furnished 
by one and another, here, there and everywhere, Dr. Allen 
will give us the best and all, he can finti. 

We hope the doctor will soon have subscribers enough to 
enable him to go on with his great undertaking. 

Subscriptions should be sent to his publishers, Boericke & 
Tafel, 145 Grand Street, New York. 



'» » ' 



Proceedings of the Montgomery Cotinty Homoeopatliio Mecdoal 
Society. 

The Society met in the parlors of the Beckel House, in 
Dayton, Ohio, at 10 o'clock A. M., May 7th, 1874; the Presi- 
dent, Dr. J, B. Owens, in the chair. The roll was called; the 
minutes of the previous meeting read and approved. 

Dr. A. C. Recker was elected a member of the Society. 

Dr. J. M. Parks read an essay on Transmissible Diseases: 
on motion the paper was accepted. 

Dr. C. W. Stumm forwarded a report on Dysentery, which 
was read by the Secretary. Dr. Stumm recommends aeon., 
bryonia, cham., arsen,, china, colocyuth, nux vom., mere, viv., 
mere. corr. and sulphun 

Dr. J. E. Lowes recommended dioscorea villosa and injec- 
tions of morphine. 

Dr. Webster recommends aeon, ist and mere. sub. corr. 3d. 

Dr. Owens uses bell. 40" for constant, passing, urgent pain 
then mere. 50" and nux. 50". He related cases of bilious dys- 
entery cured promptly with bell. 50" and mere, 50". On mo- 
tion, Dr. Stumm's paper was accepted. On motion, adjourned 
till after dinner. 



Miscellaneovs, 05 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

Meeting called to order at 2 P. M. 

Dr. G. S. Foster read a report on Nervous Diseases, con- 
fining his report mostly to neuralgia. Aeon, and bell, are his 
chief remedies 

In gastralgia, he relied mostly on nux vom. as the most 
potent remedy. He uses cham. in odontalgia, and arnica in 
otalgia. Arscn., ipecac, bell, and aeon, in sick headache. Ve- 
ratrum viride in prostration and nausea and red streak on the 
tongue. 

In hemicrania, disturbances of fifth pair of nerves, he uses 
bell., nux vom., sepia, ignatia and arsen. 

In congestion of head, he uses bell., gels., aeon, and sepia. 

In affections of abdominal nerves, he uses aeon., bell, and 
nux vom. 

After some discussion of Dr. Foster's paper, on motion, it 
was accepted. 

The balance of the committee failed to report and was con- 
tinued till the next meeting. 

The President delivered his inaugural address. His remarks 
were confined, principally, to the consideration of Florida as 
a sanitary place for invalids; he having spent the past winter 
in that State. 

On motion, the address was adopted as the sentiments of 
the Society. 

At the suggestion of Dr. J. E. Lowes, Dr. A. C. Williamson 
was invited to address the Society, and gave an account of 
the Hot Springs, of Arkansas; he having spent several sea- 
sons there in charge of a hospital and in the treatment of 
chronic patients. 

The large majority of the patients there are sufferers from 
venereal diseases. 

It is the Doctor's opinion that hot rain water or hot well 
water, here in the North, will be as beneficial in the treatment 
of chronic diseases as the Hot Springs, of Arkansas. 

Dr. Webster was appointed a delegate to the Ohio State 
Homceopathic Medical Society, to meet in Springfield, in June. 

The subject of electricity was brought before the Society 
and hotly discussed by the members present. 



96 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

The following commit ees were appointed to read essays 
at the next meeting: 

Dv S. E. Adams, haemorrhoids; Dr. B. F. Lukens, electric- 
ity; Dr. W. D. Linn, chronic diseases; Dr. Ada L. Adams 
uterine diseases; Dr. F. W. Thomas, diphtheria; Dr. W. W 
Wolf, scrofula; Dr. A. C. Recker, cholera infantum; Dr. J 
Q. A. Coffeen, neuralgia; Dr. A. Shepherd, dropsy; Dr. J 
M. Parks, Asiatic cholera; Dr. G. S. Foster, tinea capitis; Dr 
E. Wehster, diseases of throat and lungs. 

On motion, the Society adjourned to meet on the ist Thurs- 
day in November, 1S74, at 10 o'clock A. M. 

W. Webster, M. D., Secretary. 



€HUi^ ^M$. 



Dr. F. W. Stilwell, a recent graduate of the Pulte, has 
opened an office for pra6tice in Rochester, New York. 

Dr. T. B. Benedict recently died at Ionia Michigan in the 
midst of a life of great usefulness. 

Dr. T. S. Hoyne, of Chicago, Dr. P. Dudley, of Philadel- 
phia, and Dr. H. M. Paine, of Albany, have each sent us care- 
fully prepared directories of the homoeopathic physicians of 
their respe6tive states. Their example should be followed in 
every State of the Union. 

Dr. W. L. Peck, so long connected with the Central Asy- 
lum at Columbus, as its chief officer, has just taken charge of 
the Cincinnati Sanitarium, His extended experience and well 
known abilities in the treatment of mental diseases make his 
accession to this institution a matter of the first importance 

Dr. E. C. Beckwith, renr.oves to Columbus and will en- 
gage in general practice. 

A National Industrial Institute has been incorpor- 
ated in Washington, D. C. Our old friend Dr. Jehu Brainerd 
is one of the incorporators, and likely to prove one of its most 
useful teachers. The object of the association is to receive 
pupils from all parts of the country, and give them a higher 
education and let them sustain themselves by labor on a 
model farm and in model workshops. 



THE' 



Hiitdiwiiili ^(6kal ieWattt^* 






VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.-JULY, 1874. [NO. 8. 



'Subscriptions to the Advancx should be sent to Dr. T. C. Bradford, P. O. 
Drawer laSf, Cincinnati, Ohio.— ^3.00 a year, in advance. 

All business communications, relating to the publication or to advertising, should he 
addressed to Dr. T. P. Wilson, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Mound SU., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Cincinnati has six medical colleges. 

We erred slightly in regard to the Chicago college. It was 
established in 1860. Its general Fees are $85. 

Copies of "The Rejected Address/' for gratuitous circu- 
lation, may be obtained at this office. 

So far no cholera reported anywhere through the South. 
We need have no fear of its recurrence, if the hygienic 
conditions of our cities are attended to. 

The attractive face of Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand 
Helmholtz we are pleased to find in the Popular Science 
Manthlyy for June. None of our readers can be unaware 
of the high position held by this gentleman in the joint 
spheres of medicine and general science, nor how greatly 
July. I 97 



98 Cindmiati Medical Advance, 

we are indebted to him for valuable contributions to our 
art ; among which we may name^ as chief^ the invention of 
the Ophthalmoscope. 

The Chicago school goes back on the women. During 
the coming session and "for the last time'^ tliey will be ad- 
mitted to lectures in that sacred institution. Very good, 
the women can stand it if the Chicago school can. Detroit, 
•Cleveland and Boston, if they treat their patrons properly, 
may reap the benefit of Chicago's folly. 

The annual report of the Board of Health of Cincinnati, 
is just to hand. This is not an early date for the year end- 
ing December 31st, 1873. However, the care taken in pre- 
paring the tables of mortality and the maps and diagrams 
illustrating the localities and the daily number of cases of 
various diseases may account and amply compensate for 
the delay. The report is an excellent one, and full of in- 
terest to the reader, and especially to the medical man. 
Dr. Quinn, the health officer, treats exhaustively of the 
cholera epidemic of 1873, arguing pretty conclusively as 
he thinks against the contagioui^ness of the disease, and, 
for that matter, he makes a pretty good showing out of the 
data he possesses of its appearance and progress in this city. 

How hard some men are to please ! There is William 
Todd Helmuth who has recently written an excellent 
work on Surgery. It was not so excellent, however, but 
that the critics had their say about it. They attacked its 
weak points in a very kindly way, whereupon Helmuth 
waxed wroth. He, in turn, assailed the critics on account 
of their impertinence. To be sure it was not Helmuth in 
person, but one of his friends who did this, because this 
friend, better than any living man, could lash the critics as 
one might a pack of curs. 

And now Allen is writing a book, a valuable and costly 
work on materia medica, and he sends out sample sheets for 




Editorial. 

patronage and criticism. But the critics are dumb. It is 
not known if they hold to a "disdainful silence" or are 
"hufihed by admiration." It is all the same, Allen by proxy 
becomes irate. This same Aaron, a valued spokesman, and 
mutual friend of the two authors bursts with indignation 
upon tJie dumbfounded critics because they don't come to 
time. And not the critics alone, but the whole profession 
is rated like a pack of rascals. They are gently upbraided 
with being possessed with a "chronic cussedness." Says, 
this sweet babbler : "If he never pens another line Dr. Al-** 
len can go into history as the man who hermetically sealed 
the many monthed Cerberus of criticism." It is our opin- 
ion that, if I>r. Allen will seal just one more mouth — the 
mouth of this hasty hot-headed champion of other people's 
progeny, he will save himself and his friends from lasting 
injury. Do this, O mighty Allen, and live in the remem- 
brance of all your well wishers ! 

Joseph Adolphus, A. M., M. D., attempts to enlighten 
the readers of the MtdmU Review on "some points on tlie 
treatment of inflammatory diseases of the eye." Early in 
his essay, he makes a "point" in this manner, "Foreign 
bodies striking the cornea near it«'pupilary margin are apt 
to cause a simultaneous inflammation in both cornea and 
iris." That is the first we knew of the cornea having a 
pupilary margin. Joseph Adolphus also spells it "opthal- 
mia" which is quite a saving when one has to use the wonl 
80 often. He informs us that "The extremely delicate and 
fragile nature of the tissues of the eye will not withstand 
any protracted and active inflammatory action in and around 
them, hence the great danger of all inflammation of thi.4 
organ." If this is not a strained statement in pathology, 
then, we don't know. It makes a "point" at the expense of 
strict veracity, and so while it sounds well, it is not true. 
His treatment for "purulent opthalmia" is to apply a de- 
coction of "peruvean bark" which, with many other words, 



t V 



1 00 Cincinnati Medical A dvance. 

shows Joseph Adolphns to have had a bad spell while wri- 
ting. And, then, he goes in for quinine and morphine in 
doses fearfully heroic. He says : "They arrest the march 
of the vagrant white discs toward the focus of excitement, 
cause the vessels to contract their caliber, and arouse a re- 
actionary influence in the system, which tends to abort the 
progressive, inflammatory process." There, now, we must 
stop trying to follow a man whose mind is chased with such 

phantoms. 

"In the after treatment, [of iritis] when the activity of 

the inflammation is passing off/^ be condescends to use a 
little atropine as he has seen the severest pain and sufler- 
ing "abait" by this method. And more of this sort consti- 
tutes the substance of an article having more objectionable 
"points" than any article we have seen for many a day. 






What We Eat. % Gerhard Saal, M. D. 

That "Every culture originates in the stomach, " is one of the 
truisms of Fredrick the Great; not so well known, however, as 
another ol his sayings "Let every one be saved according to his 
own fashion." 

His great eontemporary, the most eminent of our modem 
philosophers, £mmanuel Kant, said: "What man eats that he 
is,'^ but more comprehensive is the declaration of Moses. Man's 
life is in his blood. You will doubtless understand why the 



Hygiene. 101 

words of Moses desifl^nate more correctly the relative normal 
condition of men than the words of the philosopher or the 
king It is well known that through the blood and its plasma, 
all the organs are formed, regenerated and all the vast mate- 
rial eliminated. Indispensable to the growth and development 
of every human being is first, pure air; next, water and food; 
further, that even with a great abundance of food and good 
drink health cannot exist if the blood is not fully and properly 
oxydised within the lungs, and the carbonic acid thrown ofiP. 
Retention of carbonic acid within the blood will under the 
most favorable dietetic regimen produce tuberculosis and 
scrofula; hence the necessity of pure air such as only outdoor 
life furnishes to us. 

And this was, in all probability, one of the reasons which in- 
duced Moses to lead his people, emasculated and physically 
debilitated in the mud hovels and slave pens of Egypt for forty 
years over the plains of Arabia, so that a new generation of 
able bodied men might arise capable of carrying out his designs. 

In fact we find that the influence of a nation over others de- 
pends upon its mental culture and its natural resourses, but 
more upon its vigor and health, this latter again depending 
upon a proper knowledge of the natural laws. 

To a people so recently emancipated from bondage and con- 
sequently of low culture Moses was obliged to base his pre- 
cepts upon religious grounds. 

But he accomplished his end and in viitue of these precepts 
so rigildy adhered to because relgiously believed to be of di- 
vine origin his people became strong and healthy, conquered 
the nations around them and gave the moral law to all the 
Western continents as Confucius has done for the Eastern. 

So with the Greeks, who in their earliest culture had a far 
keener preception of hygiene than even the modem nations, in 
as far as they endued hygiene with the rank of a goddess while 
^sculapius the son of Apollo, the father of the healing art was 
merely a demi-god. "We find as the result of such philosophy 
or religion a people grown up and educated into that beautiful 
equilibrium of accomplishments of mind and body and that 



1 C 2 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

perfect health of both, without which, according to their belief, 
no usefulness to the common welfare could be expected from 
the individual. Sana mens in sano corpore. 

We find further the philosophy of Aristotle and Plato 
reaching down and influencing even modem minds and their 
Avorks of art particularly in sculpture and architecture — which 
are nothing more or less than crystallized music — as models in 
our schools and academies of design. 

So as the Hebrews have been the law-givers of morals the 
Greeks furnished us the laws for the culture of art, (lesthetics). 

The kind of food and drink and the manner of its prepara- 
tion shapes in a great degree the character of a nation. The 
speech of the Indian chief gives that pointedly: ^'Do you not 
see that the white man lives on grain, while we live on meat? 
that the meat needs thirty months to grow and becomes often 
scanty? that each of these wonderful grains which they sow in 
the soil remunerates them a hundred fold? that the meat wc 
eat has four legs to escape while we have only two to catch it? 
That the grain which the white man plants remains and grows 
in its place? That the winter, for us the time of the most 
hazardous and toilsome hunt, is to them a season of rest? 
Ti)erefore they have so many children and live longer than we 
do. 

I say therefore to every one of you who is willing to listen: 
In a short time the race of small grain sowers will have exter- 
minated the race of the meat eaters, unless the hunters make 
up their mind to sow also." 

The production and preparation of food forms the founda- 
tion of all human exertion in such a manner that not only one 
person alone in his regulations and aims is influenced hereby, 
but also society and state in their formation. 

Indeed one can say, that this is much more the case with the 
latter than the former. For the one can by some fortunate 
accident either of birth, or in the later years of life, be lifted 
above the proper care for sustenance. 

His provisions are completed without his selection, his food 
is prepared without his direction, his table is spread without 
Ills doing anything for it. 



Hygiene, 103 

But a society, even a small tribe, is very seldom in the 
same situation. The favor of the heaven and of the earth 
lightens perhaps in a great degree the production of food, and 
indeed such food is easily got that needs none or only an easy 
preparation. But always labor is necessary to get it. 

The larger the space, the more complicated the society, the 
more manifold the state becomes developed, the more difficult 
it is to procure food. 

Very often a troublesome and wearisome procedure is need- 
ed to prepare food conformable to the purpose. The peculiar 
art of procuring food defines finally the form of society, the 
people and the state. 

Whether hunting or fishing, raising stock, agriculture' or 
commerce represents the principal way of procuring food that 
decides also the principal direction of human exertion within a 
larger dominion. 

With this is fixed, under a certain necessity, the direction in 
which are developed trade and industry, art and science, mor- 
als and religion. 

It is not paradoxical if we assert, that the entire develo]>- 
ment of mankind is intimately connected with the practicabil- 
ity and kind of food. 

The conveyance of food is a principal condition of our exist- 
ence, and it is one of the most admirable relations of provi- 
dence that we must eat our bread by the sweat of our brows, 
though it appears to the dim eye of man a punishment. 

Hunger is the first and most powerful incitement to labor, 
and labor alone hides in itself experience and progress. 

From the importance of such questions concerning the pro- 
curing food and kind of it, only he has an idea, who knows, 
what immense sums are spent for such wants, and how mil- 
lions would be saved if a right procedure would be put in 
place of the wrong. 

The knowledge of the laws of nourishment will teach us 
with the least means to produce the highest results, and an in- 
crease of population and of greater wealth would be the result. 
And Voit could have added: A higher degree of culture, edu- 
cation and morals. 



104 CincintKUl Medicctl Advance. 



Ozone a Beady Disinfectant. 

The Scientific American., of a late date, gives the following 
account of a convenient method of generating ozone for the 
purpose of purifying the contaminated air of houses which 
liave been rendered insalubrious by disease, or decaying mat- 
ter of whatever kind, that may have been left to undergo the 
slow process of destruction. 

l^Q authority proceeds to say that the use of ozone as a dis- 
infectant in hospital wards and public buildings has amply 
demonstrated its virtue as a purifier of air exhausted by breath- 
ing or poisoned with emanations from corrupt or decaying or- . 
ganic matter. The only bar to its more extended use has been 
the lack of a simple and trustworthy means of generating it, 
safely and continuously, by a process not involving scientitic 
skill or costly materials. 

The latest means suggested certainly bears the palm for 
simplicity, cheapness, accessibility to all. It consists simply 
in the exposure to atmospheric action of common phosphorous 
matches moistened by water, the alleged result being the pro- 
duction of nitrite of ammonia and ozone — ^both active purifi- 
ers of air. 

Knowing the efficiency of moistened phosphorous as a gen- 
erator of ozone, the author of the match method, Mr. Sigis- 
mund Beer, of this city, set out one day to procure a quanity 
of that substance to use in sweetening the atmosphere of a 
room whose musty smell had successfully resisted the power 
of ordinary disinfectants. Failing to find any phosphorus at 
the drug stores in his neighborhood, it occurred to Mr. Beer 
that possibly lucifer matches might furnish the needed element 
in a condition suited to his purpose. He tried them, dipping 
them into warm water for a few moments, then suspending 
them in the obnoxious room. Their effect was prompt and 
salutaiy; and thereafter, by continuing their use, he was able 



Hygiene. 105 

to enjoy "the luxury of pure and refreshing air," notwith- 
standing the room was in the basement of an old cellarless 
house on made land, the air of which was further tainted by a 
quantity of mouldy books and papers. In a paper lately read 
before the Polytechnic branch of the American Institute, Mr. 
Beer narrates a number of subsequent experiments with the 
same simple materials, the success of which convinced him 
that he had made a veritable discovery of great importance. 

Touching the safety of the method he proposes, Mr. Beer is 
confident that no overcharging of the air with ozone or other 
injurious matter may be apprehended from the use of matches 
in the manner he describes. Both the ozone and the nitrite of 
ammonia are generated slowly, and their force is swiftly spent 
by combination with the impurities they are intended to re- 
move. It is obvious that the supply of the purifying agents 
can be easily regulated by increasing or diminishing the num- 
ber of active matches. In the room above mentioned, six bun- 
dles of matches were kept active — some near the ceiling, oth- 
ers near the floor — ^by daily watering. 

In another instance a single bunch is mentioned as having 
sufficed for quickly purifying the air of a room in which sev- 
eral adults and children were lying sick, but in this case the 
air fanned against the matches while they were carried about 
the room, thus heightening their activity. How long a match 
retains its ozonizing power, Mr. Beer does not say. In con- 
clusion, Mr. Beer claims that, whatever may be said of his 
theory of match action, the fact is indisputable that, in the use 
of matches as he suggests, we have a handy, wholesome, and 
inexpensive means of freeing our houses from noxious exhala- 
tions and the long train of evils attendant on the prevalence 
of bad air. The matter is easily tested and certainly well 
worth trying. 



•♦♦- 



106 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance. 




m%$t% 



Spontaneous Practure of the Femur.* By Wm. Owens, M .D. 

Casb IV, Mrs. S., aged 54, weighing 180 pounds, the 
mother of seven childl'en; had usually enjoyed good health, 
as she believed, until August, 1872, when she met with an 
accident by being thrown from her cafriage, producing a 
dislocation of her right shoulder and wrist. She was not 
aware that she had sust£^ined any other injury at the time, 
nor could she trace any of her subsequent suflerings to that 
accident. She states, however, that for several years prev- 
ious she had been in the habit of drinking large quantities of 
water, and wine and, as a consequence, had passed large quan- 
tities of urine, and had a most profuse perspiration all of the 
time during these years, which was increased after excitement 
or exercise. These conditions she attributed to the water and 
wine she had been using. The surgeons who were employed 
to treat the dislocation, utterly failed to make a reduction or 
proper adjustment in either case. As a result, she was con- 
fined to her room about seven weeks, when she was so far 
restored as to be able to visit her neighbors and relatives; and, 
at that time, walked a distance of eight squares or about a 
half mile. On the 17th of November, she was, after walking 
about three squares, seized with severe pains in the hips and 
lower part of the back, which soon extended as high as the 
waist at which point it seemed as if a cord had been tightly 
drawn around her, causing the most agonizing distress. Her 
attending physicians pronounced this trouble to be of a rheu- 
matic character. After treating it as such between six and 
seven weeks, the friends becoming dissatisfied, concluded to 

*Ca8e8 1, 2 and 3 may be found in the first volume of the Advance. 



ikirgery. 107 

try some other physician. I was called and saw her on the 
27th of December, 1872. She had now been under treatment 
between sixteen and seventeen weeks, and was no better, but 
rather worse than at the commencement of it. 

I found her complaining terribly of the pain about the waist, 
causing her to cry aloud in her distress and begging to die. 
There was a slight tingling, pricking and numbness in the 
soles of the feet and extending up the legs, great and uncom- 
fortable thirst. A large quantity of turbid, urine was voided 
every half hour, which, upon standing a short time, deposited 
a yellowish sediment with a reddish line at its superior bor- 
der. The test by boiling and nitric acid yielded about one- 
eighth of its volume in albumen. The pulse as observed was 
113 beats per minute in the morning, and 120 in the evening. 
The tongue was red, dry and parched down the center and 
at the tips and covered with a dark brown yellowish coating 
toward the root The bowels had been moved to the extent 
of ten or twelve times per day by means of cathartics. Phys- 
ical examination revealed no point of tenderness except over 
the left kidney. The pulse intermitting every sixth or seventh 
beat, attended with irregular and sometimes tumultuous action 
of the heart The diagnosis arrived at was, that of acute 
Bright's disease affecting the left kidney. Simulating degen- 
eration of the spinal cord, as indicated by the loss of power, 
numbness, prickling and tingling of the feet and legs, and the 
constriction and pain around the waist. In three days, under 
the use of kali hydriodicum, nux. and phos., she was quite 
relieved of these painful and very unfavorable symptoms, and 
was enabled to sit up and move into another room. 

The thirst and excessive flow of urine were also modified; 
and although it was mid-winter and the temperature of the 
room purposely kept below 60 deg. F., the perspiration liter- 
ally flowed from all parts of her body. She continued to im- 
prove in the use of her limbs until January 20th, 1873, when 
a quite severe pain set in on inner aspect of the upper portion 
of her right thigh. At first, it was thought to be of a neural 
gic character, affecting the anterior crural nerve. After a 
few days a much more severe and painful group of symptoms 



108 Cincinnati Medicctl Advance. 

were added. The pulse arouse to 140 beats per minute, at- 
tended by great heat of the surface. The urine became clear 
and was voided without difficulty. The pain in the back and 
constriction around the waist had entirely disappeared; so, 
also, the numbness, prickling and tingling of the feet and legs, 
except the right in which it was considerably diminished. 
The pain in the thigh became concentrated about the upper 
third, which was quite tender upon pressure at this point. 
This condition increased in severity until the fifth day, when 
it was determined to call counsel. She had not been able to 
sleep or rest during the last five days and nights, and begged 
to be allowed to die. Prof. Wilson was invited to see the 
case; visited her on the evening of that day in consultation 
with me. The pulse was found to be 120 beats per minute; 
heat of body loi degs.; tongue red, dry and slightly parched 
on the back part. The urine was large in quantity and slightly 
turbid; it yielded at this time no albumen; the perspiration 
still excessive, though much less than formerly, which, it was 
thought, was owing to the less quantities of water and wine 
drank. The complexion was of a reddish brown hue. 

To relieve the pain in the thigh, it was deemed best to in- 
ject, hypodermically, 1-4 grain acetate of morph., to give 
her a few hour's sleep. This was partially successful; but 
during the night, while attempting to turn in bed, she felt 
something snap, attended with severe, lacerating pain, and 
the limb gave way. Early in the morning, I was notified of 
the circumstance, and, upon visiting her, found a fracture in 
the trochanteric region of the right thigh. Prof. Wilson was 
immediately summoned, and visited her to verify the inform- 
ation. With his assistance and that of Prof. Beckwith, the 
limb was placed in proper apparatus and carefully attended 
and watched until the 5th of March, when, owing to the un- 
favorable prognosis expressed by those in attendance, it was 
decided to place the patient in the hands of others, who would 
promise more, but who really performed less. At the end 
of fourteen weeks, she was found to be worse, and seeing no 
hope of a favorable termination of the case after their skill 
and patience had been exhausted, they proposed to remedy 



Surgery. 109 

the difficulty by an operation, but, while under the influence 
of chloroform, she expired. 

Thus terminated an exceedingly interesting case. No au- 
topsy was permitted to verify the diagnosis which had been 
based mainly upon the experience of three other cases of a 
similar nature; all of which presented histories similar, and 
so far as could be ascertained were similar in results. Such 
cases tend to confirm the statement made by Craigie in his 
Elements of Pathological Anatomy, that, **In Bright's dis- 
ease of the kidneys, ^there is a great tendency to ulcera- 
tive absorption, or acute necrosis of the osseous structures." 
It is only by a careful study of the history of such cases in 
the light affored by the aid of pathological anatomy, that a 
correct understanding of them can be arrived at. Some 
errors as ure mentioned in cases one and two (see first vol- 
ume Advance) wherein some of our most skilful surgeons 
had failed to ascertain the true condition; this should never 
occur. 

Conditions somewhat similar have been observed in can- 
cerous, scrofulous ana syphilitic patients, but, in such, we 
usually have external openings as in Case No. 3, (reported in 
September No. Advance) where the matters were permit* 
ted to escape, and the system was thus saved the poisonous 
effects resulting from the absorption. In cases one and two, 
no external openings were made, and therefore ail pus or 
other matter formed by the destruction of solid tissus must 
have been carried into the system by absorption, (our own Dr. 
Franklin to the contrary.) Had the presence of pus been 
recognized and promptly discharged, is it likely that the 
result would have been as favorable in these, as in Case 
No. 3? Craigie says, "These cases of acute necrosis usually 
terminate fatally in a few days or may result in recovery, if 
they survive that period." This will, of course, depend upon 
the detection and prompt discharge of any matters that may 
have formed as well as to some extent upon the parts in- 
volved. Dn Franklin denies that the absorption of pus from 
such diseases ever takes place (see Surgery, vol. i, p. 708). 
Markoe confirms Craigie's opinion and illustrates with nu- 



110 Cincinnati MtdiccU Advance. 

merous examples. The history of Mrs. S's. case is very sim- 
ilar to that of cases one, two and three, and, hence, we assume 
that similar conditions existed, though not permitted to verify 
by post mortem examination. 

Attention has been called to other facts as tending to elicit 
enquiry into some obscure pathological conditions in which 
symptomatology would be greatly at a loss to determine their 
true relations; for instance, what relation would the follow- 
ing group of symptoms, great thirst, perspiration, frequent, 
intermittent, irregular pulse and heart action, brownish and 
reddish color of the skin; dry, parched, red tongue; with 
numbness, tingling and prickling of the lower extremities; 
and, above all, the intensely painful, constricting band around 
the waist, have to any known type of disease? and what 
would a diagnosis based upon such a group of symptoms es- 
tablish without other light than that furnished by our works 
on therapeutics. These are clearly indications of some form 
of disease of the kidneys, but the symptoms of degeneration 
of the spinal cord were much more marked; while up to the 
1 6th of January, 1873, not a symptom of necrosis or other 
disease of the bones had manifested itself. The subsequent 
history seemed to develop very suddenly and run its course 
rapidly, and terminated in a fracture wholly inexplicable, ex- 
cept upon the supposition that protracted disease had existed 
previously, but up to this time it had been obscured until when 
at a certain period, under circumstances and conditions un- 
known, a new group of symptoms of great violence suddenly 
developed as they did in the other cases referred to. Nothing 
but the scalpel in the hand of the pathologist could demon- 
strate the value and relation of these symptoms to changes 
which give rise to them. Could an examination have been 
secured on Mrs. S. there is no doubt it would have shown a 
condition similar to the others, and would have been a valua- 
ble contribution to pathological science. 



Proceedings of Societies. ill 



§tHt$Hnp ol Soddi($^ 



Meetaiig of the Iowa State HomoMpathio Medical Society. 

Men who wore glasses, men with manuscripts in their 
pockets, men whose "bay-windows" were well developed, — 
bald-headed, benevolent men, all well dressed and dignified 
and smacking of the typical "Saw-bones," were here in large 
numbers last week. The occasion was the annual meeting of 
the disciples of Hahnemann. Our reporter, although a timid 
man, having been duly vaccinated, and carrying with him 
such prophylactics as he thought might ward off any infection 
which these men, who were once the subject of inquiry "in 
Gilead," might be presumed to carry about them, thus gives 
the proceedings of the meeting. 

On Wednesday, May lo, the Society convened in the 
spacious rooms of the President, Dr. G. H. Blair, of this city. 
The attendance was good. On taking the chair, the Presi- 
dent delivered the usual introductory address, the main 
features of which consisted of a brief review of the rapid 
strides of Homoeopathy during the year past; the urging of 
more liberality of medical opinions; a higher grade of medi- 
cal education; of legislative enactments to check ignorance 
and quackery, and to protect the profession from the obloquy 
which they often sustain through the action of unskilled and 
unprincipled charlatans. Perhaps the principal feature of 
interest was his discussion of the use and abuse of stimulants; 
claiming that in certain cases of typhus and typhoid fevers, 
in some forms of heart disease, in pulmonary complaints, in 
congestive chills, and for the poisoning of venomous reptiles, 
alcohol in some form was a sine qua non. He also claimed 



112 Cincinnati Medical Advance* 

that in some diseases it arrested the process of waste and 
decay, and also stimulated the organs of nutrition to increased 
assimilative action, thus answering the purpose of food in a 
certain important sense. He also pointed out the beneficial 
efiect of stimulation in diseases of a certain character, claim- 
ing that the evil effects resulting^, were in consequence of 
carrying it to the extent of narcotism. In reply to the 
charge that physicians were responsible for the confirmed 
habit of drunkenness which might follow from prescribing 
alcohol, he quoted and endorsed the remarks of Ex-Surgeon- 
General Hammond, who said, "that if he advised a sea 
voyage for a patient, and the vessel being wrecked, and the 
individual lost, he was as directly responsible for that loss as 
he would be if, advising a stimulant as a medicine, and the 
patient having diverted it to another and wicked purpose, he 
should thereby lose his manhood or his life." He denounced 
the habit of physicians publicly preaching one th^ng and 
practicing another. While deprecating the habit of tippling, 
and deploring the evils of drunkenness, he would have his. 
hearers maintain what they knew to be right, regardless of 
excited public sentiment. 

After the address of the President, Dr. G. H. Patchen, the 
able and efficient Secretary for the past two years, was re- 
elected by a unanimous vote. 

The Board of Censors, of which Dr. Virgin, of Burlington, 
was acting chairman, reported favorably upon the admission 
of the following physicians, who were elected to member- 
ship: 

M. R. Wagner, M. D., of DeWitt; Thomas Shaver, M. D., 
Burlington; E. H. Wilson, M. D., Osceola; Dr. A. H. Van- 
Voorhies, Bedford; Edmund Cartwright, M. D., Decorah. 
Dr. W. Danforth and Dr. E. M. Hale, both of Chicago, were 
elected honorary members. 

The Society, after accepting an invitation to tea by the 
Hon. James F. Wilson, adjourned until 2 P. M. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Society was called to order at a o'clock. 



Pf'oceedings %f Societies. 118 

The Chairman of Bureau of Materia Medica, presented a 
partial proving of iris versicolor, by N. J. DuPuy, of Iowa 
Falls, which after some discussion was referred to the Pub- 
lishing Committee. 

In the Bureau of Clinical Medicine, a case of purpura 
hsDmorrhagica, by Dr. Whittacre, of Lescomb; a paper on 
enlargement of the liver due to valvular disease of the heart, 
by Prof. E. M. Hale, of Chicago Hahnemann College. Dr. 
Stillman, of Council Bluffs, contributed an able paper on 
aphasia. An anomalous case of nervous headache in a child 
eleven years of age was presented by Dr. Whittacre. The 
peculiarity of the case was that the hair, naturally of a flaxen 
color, always turned blue in spots over the head, particularly 
on the sides and temples. After the attack the discoloration 
gradually disappeared in the course of one or two weeks. 
Much discussion and speculation ensued as to the cause of 
this phenomenon. None of the members presents had ever 
seen or heard of a similar case before. Dr. Poulson, also of 
Council Bluffs, but temporarily in Salt Lake City, sent an 
interesting paper on the Climatology of Utah, concluding with 
an expression of belief that none but Mormons can stand the 
climate! 

In the Bureau of Obstetrics the interest centered in a dis- 
cussion upon the use of chloroform and the forceps in labor — 
less use of the former and a more frequent application of the 
latter seemed to be demanded. The virtue of caulophyllin in 
obviating the perils of childbirth was generally conceded. 

After much general discusf^ion in relation to the action of 
remedies in differrent diseases, the Society adjourned until 8 
P. M., the time of the annual address. 

. After enjoying the hospitalities of Hon. James F. Wilson, 
the Society assembled at Well's Hall to listen to the annual 
oration by Dr. Dickinson, of Des Moines — a very learned and 
able address, showmg the history and progress of medicine 
from the earliest times. The enjoyment and interest of the 
occasion was greatly increased by the excellent music fur- 
nished by the Fairfield brass band and Library glee club. 
July- 1 



1 14 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



SECOND DAY — MORNING SESSION. 

The Society was called to order promptly at 9 o'clock with 
increased attendance. 

BUREAU OF SURGERY. 

Dr. Dickinson, chairman, reported the following cases: 

1. Fistula in ano, by Dr. DuPuy, of Iowa Falls. 

2. Fracture of ulna and lacerated wound of arm, by Drs. 
Patchen and Shaver, of Burlington. 

3. Successful extirpation of Ovarian tumor, by Prof* 
Danforth, of Chicago Hahnemann College. 

4. Double amputation of legs from railroad accident, with 
recovery and cure; of fracture of radius and ulna in middle 
third, in a child three years of ?ge; wound of rectum, caused 
by a stake entering at the side of Ihe anus and penetrating 
the rectum five and a half inches from the anus. These last 
cases occurred in Dr. Dickinson's practice, and were all car« 
ried to a successful termination. 

An interesting case of spasm of glottis in a child two years 
of age, which, on account of having been mislaid, was carried 
over from yesterday, was read by Dr. Worley, of Davenport. 
The patient had been under the treatment of many physicians 
of all schook), both at home and abroad, with no improve* 
ment. Electricity and the internal use of chlorine, homoeo- 
patbically prepared,, were suggested as worthy of trial. 

Under the Bureau of Hygiene, Dr. Patchen, of Burlington, 
read a paper oa^^The Non-medical Treatment of Disease," 
showing the benefits to be derived from hygienic measures, 
and the importance of a better understanding of this subject 
by physicians. The paper caused considerable discussion 
concerning the application of remedies to disease, and inci- 
dentally induced a regular "rough and tumble" fight between 
the ^^palatable-drug" men and the high dilutionists, each 
party retiring fully satisfied of victory. The " bone of con- 
tention" was the vexed subject of " fever-'n-ager," that ca9U8 
belli at most of the Society's sessions. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 



Proceedings of Societies, ll5 

President — O. T. Palmer, Oskaloosa. 

First Vice-President— J. E. King, Eldora. 

Second Vice-President — Mrs. Clara Yeomans, Clinton. 

Secretary — G. H. Patchen, Burlington. 

On motion, the Society adjourned* to meet at Marshalltown 
on the fourth Wednesday in May, 1875. 

Thus ended the best attended, most harmonious and most 
profitable meeting in the annals of the Society. A notable 
item in the proceedings was the election of Mrs. Clara Yeo- 
mans as one of the Vice-Presidents. This lady is thoroughly 
educated, a successful practitioner, and will do honor to the 
position she occupies. 

In conclusion, we have to say that we have seldom met a 
body of men more cultivated, more social or more devoXed'to 
the interests of their calling, than were the members of this 
convention. Individually and collectively they have left here 
well pleased with their reception, with their Society's pro- 
ceedings, with the city itself; and we should take pleasure in 

welcoming their return. Doctors, our hand! — Fairfield Led" 
ger. 



Indiana Bomosopatliio Institxito. 

FIRST day's SSSSION. 

The State Homoeopathic Institute met in annual convention 
yesterday afternoon in the parlor of Plymouth church. The 
officers of the society are: Dr. J. B. Hunt, President; Dr. J. 
A. Compton, Vice-President; Dr. William Eggert, Secretary. 
Dr. Hunt presided, and in the absence of Dr. Eggert (on ac- 
count of sickness), Dr. O. S. Runnpls was appointed Secre- 
tary. The President introduced Dr. C. T. Corliss, President 
of the Marion County Society, as *'thc veteran Homoeopathic 



116 Cindnnaii Medical Advance, 

physician of Indianapolis." The latter then (taking a "new 
departure*' from the usual routine) read the welcoming ad- 
dress — a poem of decided merit 

The report of Censors followed the address, the candidates 
for admittance retiring to undergo the ordeal of examination 
by the Board of Censors. They returned and reported the 
following names, which were passed upon recommending 
them as members at the Institute: Drs. S. C. Whiting, Vin- 
cennes; M. H. Waters, Terre Haute; W. R. Bachrenbey, In- 
dianapolis; Samuel McGuire, Greensburg; W. G. Runnels, 
Franklin; Wm. L. Morgan, Jamestown; G. W. Riddle, In- 
dianapolis; C. F. Wymond, Indianapolis; J. T. Boyd, Indian- 
apolis; M. Stephens, Cleveland, O. 

Dr. Corliss then presented a paper carefully prepared, treat- 
ing on the subject of rheumatism which was well received by 
the members. Dr. Maguire, Elder, Waters, Whiting and 
Compton related different cases in their own experience, in 
which cures had been effected giving the methods of treat- 
ment employed, etc. A paper was then read from Dr. Davis, 
of Evansville, and received by the institute. After letters 
from several physicians were read, who were not able to be 
present, the meeting adjourned until evening. The Institute 
met at 7:30 o'clock in the evening. The principal feature of 
the occasion was the address of the President, Dr. Hunt. A 
synopsis is presented below, and is well worth the perusal. 
The doctor prefaced his subject as foil ws: 

Ladies and Oentlemeny Members of the Institute: — Laying 
aside the common cares of life, and seizing a short respite 
from the never ending toils of our profession, we have come 
from different parts of the state to rtiingle in friendly com- 
munion and listen to such words of encouragement as the 
occasion may inspire. The success already attained by this as- 
sociation is most gratifying and encouraging. Feeling more 
than I can express the responsibility in which, by your kind- 
ness I am now placed, and believing that I can in no other 
way so fitly fulfil the trust reposed in me I would call your 
attention to the 



Proceedings of Societies, 117 



PROGRESS OP MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

The meaning of the word progress is well understood, and 
yet when we come to apply it to an individual, to a corpora- 
tion or to society in general, we find it diflicult to give it real 
significance, owing to the fact that we do not always know 
what constitutes true progress. We are very apt to think 
that none but those who occupy our standpoint of observation 
and see tilings about as we do, are in the line of progress. 
The great family of doctors are divided into **schools" and 
sects, each advocating some theory or dogma, and each think- 
ing all the others wrong, and they themselves the only expo- 
nents of the law of progress in medicine. Looking back into 
the remote past, to a point beyond which the memory of man 
runneth not, and following the history of our profession down 
to the present time, we find little else than a record of discord 
and conflicting theories. If there is to be no further progress 
in medical science this hope is vain, and heartburnings, dis- 
cord and contentions will continue till the end of time. 

''Tet I donbt not through the ages one increasing parpose rona, 
And the thoughts of men are widened aa the process of the sans." 

To this thought, then, let us turn our attention for a few 
moments. Let us see by the light of the past, if there is not 
this bright hope for the future. ♦ ♦ ♦ In the history of 
medicine we find that at every advancing step a battle has 
been fought. In some cases the battle has been long and 
fierce, but in every stuggle truth has finally triumphed over 
prejudice and error. When some bold thinker proclaims a 
new truth, the world seems instinctively to turn to the past to 
see whether it is true according to the fathers. For many 
centuries the great army of doctors have been marching with 
their faces turned backward. Is it any wonder that progress 
has been slow? Is it surprising that they have stumbled over 
new truths without ever seeing them? With their eyes on 
the past is it a matter of astonishment that they have so often 
Cbund themselves inextricably in a labyrinth? Review with 
me the line of march down along the ages. Every step al- 
most is a stumble. They walk with the fear of a blind man 



118 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance. 

haying no leader. Away down to the further end of the line 
we see them exposing their sick in public places, and implor- 
ing every passer by to propose a remedy for them. A record 
is kept of all the remedies named, and also of all the cures. 
These records become the established rule for medical prac- 
tice. And up the line, for centuries, we see doctors minding 
the same things and walking by the same rule, even under 
the penalty of death if they deviate from the prescribed law of 
the fathers. Looking along down this line of doctors, we see 
once in a while a bright faee turned inquiringly this way. 
These are they who have dared to turn away from the fathers 
and seek for knowledge in some new and untried channel. 
We catch the eyes of Hippocrates, Celsus, Paracelsus, Har- 
vey, Jenner, Hahnemann and a few others, who, in spite of 
the storm of opposition which raged about them, have turned 
their eyes from the musty records of the past and are looking 
this way. But for the act of daring and impiety to the past 
they are at once driven from the ranks. But may we not 
hope that the men of our profession to-day, while not un- 
mindful of the blessings that have come down to us from 
former generations, nor ungrateful to the fathers for their 
contributions to medical science, still have their faces turned 
in the direction of advancement. Grander discoveries than 
any ever yet made are awaiting in unexplored regions to 
honor the coming adventurer. That which is already known 
is almost nothing in comparison with that which is yet to be 
known. On the light of our present medical knowledge, the 
light of new thoughts will yet break *4ike another morn, risen 
on mid-noon." Think not that we shall never have another 
Galen, Harvey or Hahnemann. The grandest discoveries 
and greatest advancements are yet to be made. "We know 
what we are," said poor Ophelia, **but we know not what we 
shall be," and so in reference to our profession we may say 
^'wc know what it has been and what it is,; but we can have 
no adequate conception of what it shall become." All that 
was lost under Adam is to be regained under the reign of 
Christ, the second Adam. Mankind in that good time com- 
ing, which we call millenium, will re-enter the paradise oi 



Proceedings qf Societies, 119 

Eden. Sin, the primal cause of weakness and disease, will 
be no more. The tree of life will yet bloom again in this 
world. Then God's sweet promise that "the child shall die 
an hundred years old'' will be realized. The tree which we 
have met to cultivate this day, will yet, under the blessing of 
God, yield a fruit that will perpetuate the freshness, strength 
and vitality of youth even to old age. Life will then be a 
well-spring of unceasing pleasure, and death will be but little 
else than a translation. 

As the earth moves forward in her journey around the sun, 
the stars which were in the horizon last fall have disappeared 
behind us, and so, in the onward march of medical sience, the 
great men of our profession of to-day, and of an earlier period, 
will sink into oblivion behind the greater ones of coming 
ages. May we each be inspired by a laudable ambition to 
aid in the advancement of all that pertains to the science of 
medicine. Let us patiently pursue the work assigned us, 
and as our knowledge is not yet perfect we should bear with 
each other in our differences, remembering that we are co- 
workers in a common cause. Augustine's well known rule, 
in certis unittu, in dubis libertas, in omnibus charitas, should 
be our motto. In absolute uncertainties we can be united. In 
all doubtful questions the largest liberty should be allowed, 
and in all things we should have that charity which "envieth 
not" and is "kind." 

In ancient times they erected temples in honor of their 
supposed deities. Esculapius the god of medicine, was hon- 
ored in this way; but these temples have long since crumbled 
in decay and ruin. The temple we are building, whose foun- 
dations were laid by the fathers, is made of imperishable ma- 
terial and will stand forever. It must yet be completed. 
The different schools of medicine are only different builders, 
and in the process of the ages it will continue to rise, grand 
*n its proportions, and glorious in its beneficence. Let us then 
not suppose that we, as homoeopaths, are building a temple 
ourselves. There is one temple building — not many. 



120 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Whatever there is good or true in our systems will yet be 
adopted by the entire medical world. It will have its place 
in the walls of the temple. This is the assurance that comes 
to us from the ages. The voice of history proclaims it to our 
ears. That which is true will yet become universal, and that 
which is false will be cast aside. Allow me, then, in closing, 
to exhort every one here to seek to quarry out at least one 
stone from the great mountain of truth, and to prepare it for 
its place in the beautiful temple of medicine. 

SECOND day's session. 

The first business was the election of officers, which result- 
ed as follows: 

President— VV. R. Elder, M. D. 

isl Vice-President— G. C. Whiting, M. D. 

2d Vice-President — J. A. Compton, M. D. 

Treasurer — J. R. Haynes, M. D. 

Secretary — O. S. Runnels, M. D. 

Censors — Drs. Corliss, Bancroft, McGuire, Hunt and Eg- 
gert. 

Bureau of Pix^vings — Dr. Walters read a paper on prov- 
ings in general. 

Bureau of Materia Medica — Dr. W. Eggert read a paper 
on action of glonine and belladonna. 

Bureau of Obstetrics — Dr. Eggert read a paper from Dr. 
Bae on the art of obstetrics, which was followed by a very 
animated discussion. 

Dr. Elder read a paper on the mechanical helps and appli- 
ances to facilitate and expedite parturition and indicated in 
natural labor. 

Dr. Bancroft reported an interesting case of phlegmasia 
alba dolens. 

On motion, Drs. Eggert and Hunt were appointed dele- 
gates to the American Institute. 

The report of the Treasurer was received and accepted. 

Dr. Jennings, of Missouri, was elected an honorary member. 



Proceedings of Societies, 121 



EVENING SESSION. 

The Institute met in the evening at Dr. Eggert's residence. 

The Board of Censors reported favorably upon the admis- 
sion of W. L. Breyfogle. The report was accepted and the 
doctor elected to membership. 

Bureau of Pathology — Dr. Eggert read a paper on the pa- 
thology of diseased bones. 

Bureau of Microscopy — Dr. Haynes read an interesting 
paper on the minute and microscopical anatomy of the kidney, 
accompanied with photographic illustrations. 

Dr. Hoyt reported a proving of solanum nigrum. 

The thanks of the Institute were tendered to Dr. Hunt, the 
President, and Dr. Eggert, the Secretary, for the efficient ser- 
vice rendered during the past year. 

Committee of Arrangements for next year — Drs. Haynes, 
Runnels and Eggert. Adjourned until November, 1874. 



■^^ 



Convention of the Kansas and Missouri Valley Society. 

The HomcBopathic Medical Society of Kansas and the Mis- 
souri Valley convened in regular annual session at the rooms 
of the Young Men's Christian Association yesterday morning, 
at eleven o'clock. 

Dr. G. H. T. Johnson in the chair. The minutes of the last 
annual meeting, held in Kansas City, were read and ap- 
proved. 

Drs. Franklin, of St. Louis, and Hedges, of Warren, Mo., 
were made honorary members of the society. 

The following named persons were presented as members 
of the Kansas Homceopathic Society: Miss Dr. Anna War- 
ren, of Emporia; Mrs. Dr. Wood, of Atchison; Dr. Pratt, of 



122 CinoinncUi Jfedicaf Advance, 

Hiawatha; Dr. Westover, of St. Joe; Dr. Thatcher, of Atchi- 
son; Dr. Charles Bruenger, of Pardee; Dr. Lillie, of Kansas 
City. The Censor Committee having reported favorably, 
they were duly declared membeis. 

The report of the Treasurer was then read and adopted. 

Communications of regret by reason of unavoidable ab- 
sence, and letters of sympathy and co-operation were read by 
the Secretary from Dr. J. W. ^enney, of Salina; Dr. T. C. 
Duncan, of Chicago; Dr. W. W. Sunderlin, of Lawrence; 
Dr. H. W. Miller, of Independence, Kan. The communica- 
tion of Dr. Sunderlin detailed the sad news of the dangerous 
illness of Dr. Huson, ex-President of the society, stating that 
his death was hourly expected. 

The resignation of Dr. Cummins as a member of the so- 
ciety, of Kansas City, was tendered and accepted. 

On motion of Dr. Fisher, of Wichita, a committee of three 
was appointed to draw up resolutions expressing the sympa- 
thy of the society with Dr. Huson in his illness. The chair 
appointed Drs. Fisher, Edic and Grasmuck. 

The following were then elected as officers for the ensuing 
year. 

President — Dr. L. Grasmuck, of Fort Scott. 

Vice-President — Miss. Dr. Anna Warren, of Emporia. 

Secretary— Dr. W. H. Riley, of Olathe. 

Censors — Dr. V. W. Sunderlin, of Lawrence; Dr. J. J. 
Edic, of Leavenworth; Dr. Hubbard, of Atchison. 

Directors — Dr. W. H. Parsons, of Atchison; Dr. J. J. Edic, 
of Leavenworth; Dr. Pratt, of Hiawatha. 

Dr. L. Grasmuck, the President elect, was then called to 
the chair. 

Reports of clinical cases were called, and Dr. Lillie, of 
Kansas City, reported upon one at Kansas City. 

Dr. Hall, of St. Joe, was called to the chair, and Dr. I-.. 
Grasmuck, of Fort Scott, the president, reported a case. This 
report was made in printed form, a number of copies being 
furnished, accompanied by photographs of the case. 

Dr. Franklin, Professor of surgery in the St. Louis Medical 
College, was called for and spoke a few moments relative to 



Proceedings of Societies, 123 

the establishment of a Western Institute of HomcBopathy. 
He was followed by Drs, Lillie, Pratt, Gilley, Parsons, Hed- 
ges, Hubbard, Hall and Johnson, all expressing themselves 
favorably upon the subject. 

On motion of Dr. Fisher, of Wichita, a Committee of three, 
consisting of Drs. Hall, Johnson, and Lillie, were appointed 
to confer in regard to the best manner of inaugurating the 
proposition expressed by Dr. Franklin, with request to report 
immediately. 

The Committee shortly appeared and reported as follows: 

Your Committee to whom was referred the proposition of 
organizing an Institute of HomoBopathic Medicine in the 
West, would respectfully report that they have considered 
the matter as fully as the time and circumstances would per- 
mit, and recommend that this society appoint a committee to 
confer with the physicians in the West, for the object of or- 
ganizing a trans-Mississippi Academy of Homoeopathy. 

Before action was taken on the report, Dr. J. Feld, of Kan- 
sas City, spoke a few moments in opposition to the resolution. 

After considerable discussion the report of the Committee 
was adopted unanimously. 

Dr. G. H. T. Johnson, the outgoing President, then de- 
livered an able farewell address. It was finely written, 
eloquently delivered, and discussed the principles of Homoeo- 
pathy in an able and thorough manner. 

After the transaction of minor business the Convention ad- 
journed to meet at 7 o'clock. 

EVENING SESSION. 

Upon convening in the evening the President, Dr. Gras- 
muck, announced the following appointments: 

Orator, Dr.Jas. Lillie, of Kansas City. 

Essayists, Mrs. Elizabeth Eggert, of Lawrence and Dr. 
Pratt, of Hiawatha. 

Committee on conference on the proposition of organizing 
a Western Institute of Homoeopathy; Drs. Lillie, of Kansas 
City ; Parsons, of Atchison, and Prof. Franklin, of St. Louis. 

The selection of place of next meeting being in order, Otta- 



124 Cincinnati MediccU Advarice. 

wa, Leavenworth and Kansas City were mentioned, and after 
a good deal of discussion Ottawa was decided upon. 

The Board of Censors reported the additional name of Dr. 
E. M. Cowles, of Eldorado and Mrs. Dr. M. P. Henderson, of 
Aubrery, for membership which report was duly accepted 
and adopted. 

Dr. W. G. Hall, of St. Joe, delivered an address entitled 
**HomGBOpathic Therapeutics," which was interesting to the 
members of the profession and an able article. 

Prof. E. C. Franklin, M. D., of the HomcBopathic Medical 
College of Missouri, addressed the society and audience, en- 
couraging the members, and showing a zeal and earnestness 
of manner which evinced strongly his sympathy with the 
organization. 

The President elect, L. Grasmuck, M. D., of Fort Scott, de- 
livered an able address entitled ^^Our Success and Our Re- 
sponsibilities," which we are sorry can not be published in 
full, replete as it was with information not only for the Ho- 
moeopathic physician but also for the laity and the general 
public. As the title would indicate, the address consisted of 
a review of the successes in the sciences of medicine from the 
time of Hippocrates to the present, but dealing more particu- 
larly with the successes and brilliant achievments of the Ho- 
moeopathic Therapia as seen by Homooopathic eyes. The 
doctor closed his remarks as follows: ^^So you will perceive 
the horizon is brightening, the grand onward march of all 
modern schools of medicine for a Therapeutical basis on 
which all will find room to stand, has been inaugurated; and 
the individual who first reaches it will be he who cuts loose 
from the tradition of the fathers, and the idols of dogmatic 
authority and casts himself at the feet of nature and progres- 
sive science. 

Our responsibility then is, that we fit ourselves for the new 
conditions. The world is demanding a higher class of physi- 
cians; men who are not only dispensers of medicine (much or 
little,) but men whose minds are stored with useful knowl- 
edge of natural laws and conditions, as well as the morbid 
processes. Men who are willing to teach what they know. 



Proceedings qf Societies,' 125 

Not mere "HomcEOpathic Doctors," but scientific physicians. 
Men who have learned the science and can practice the art. 
I have but one plea to offer, and that is, that this society, in 
memory of the trials and persecutions to which our young 
school has been subjected in times past, will be so conducted, 
will be so broad and carbolic, that workers and thinkers of 
all shades of opinions and difference of experience may here 
find welcome; that it will estimate its members by their tal- 
ents and their virtue, not by their creeds. Let it subdue its 
prejudices; abandon its follies; bury its animosities; cast down 
all silly barriers which separate good and true men from each 
other; discuss all questions in a tolerant spirit; co-operate 
with every science worker, and, guided by truth alone, 
achieve the redemption of man. 



HomoMpathic Medical Society of Ohio. 

. The tenth annual meeting was held at Springfield, May 12 
and 13, and received the generous hospitalities and conrtesies 
of the physicians and citizens of that city. Tlie attendance 
was not what it should have been. It can not be that the phy- 
sicians of this state care so little about the success of our state 
organization. If the recently elected officers do not succeed in 
getting out a better delegation next year, we hope they will be 
reprimanded and turned out of office. But the men who came 
were earnest workers. The proceedings will s^iow a large 
amount of hard and valuable work done. 

We regret to say that we are unable to obtain a full report 
of the proceedings. Relying as heretofore upon the generosity 
of the convention, and the energy of its officers, we naturally 
expected to be put in early possession of the minutes so that 
we might give our readers the gist of the papers presented, and 
the material facts of the discussions. 



126 CincinncUi Medical Advance* 

But the sad disoovery has been made that oar medical jour- 
nals are the sworn enemy of the society. Certain gentlemen 
were, therefore, moved to oppose the granting of any privi- 
leges to us. We were not allowed to publish any papers, and 
we are not furnished with a copy of the discussions. In con- 
nection with the publisher of the Reporter^ we offered to pub- 
lish the proceedings at a large reduction of the usual cost and 
this was denied us. 

We may possibly make a better fight for our rights another 
year, if, as is doubtful, the occasion may require. On Tuesday 
evening. Dr. F. L. Flowers, of New Lexington, delivered an 
able, popular address in the Opera House. On Wednesday 
evening. Dr. and Mrs. S. £. Adams very generously entertained 
the members at their Electropathic Institute, which beautifnl 
resort has just been opened for the summer season. 

Dr. C. 0. Oimstead, of Cleveland, made a short and success- 
f ul term as president pro tem,y after which Dr. J. D. Buck pre- 
sided with his usual dignity. Dr. H. H. Baxter, the Secretary, 
aided by a stenographer, gathered up all the good things said 
and done, and they will appear in due time in the official re* 
ports. 

Dr. J. R. Flowers, of Columbus, was made president for the 
following year; Dr. C. C. White, of Columbus, vice-president, 
and Dr. W. A. Phillips, of Cleveland, secretary. The next 
meeting will be held in Columbus, and we hope it will be at- 
tended as it should be by every physician in the state. 



Physiology, 127 



flpialagg. 



Tho Blood. *By O. S. Runnels, M. D.. Indianapolis, Indiana. 

This factor of the animal organism has been the subject of 
much writing and extended investigation. 

Physiologists in every age, from the time of mystic dark- 
ness, in which the profession of medicine originated, to the 
present time, have devoted their best energies to its study and 
elucidation; and although in their conclusions the greatest di* 
versity is manifest as a reference to the chronicles will attest, 
yet a gradual approximatiop to the truth is apparent in the 
record of each succeeding observer. 

But sixty or a hundred centuries in science do not prove 
exhaustive; and to-day we are but on the threshold of the 
higher understanding of this direct source of our physical 
life— an understanding which will develop as the years of the 
ages roll on and which will have its culmination in that ideal 
age in the future, when medical sectarianism shall cease to 
exist, and truth without the habiliment of falsehood shall re- 
ceive universal acknowledgement. The effort of every dis- 
ciple of nature's truth should be to hasten the advent of this 
triumphal day, and it will be by close study, a keen observa- 
tion and a clear and. fearless record that the end will be at- 
tained. 

Every living thing owes its existence to the circulation of a 
nutritive liquid through all its parts, this liquid is peculiar in 
its properties to the thing nourished; and hence of multitudi- 
nous variety. In plants and trees it is the sap; in the animal 
kingdom it is the blood. Its office in vegetable life is forma- 
tive only; in animal, it has to do with the decay as well as the 

*Bead before the Homoeopathic Medical Society of Indiana. 



1 28 CincinruUi Medical Advance, 

growth. To provide materials for the regeneration of every 
part of the body, to receive the products both of its selection 
and waste and convey them to the proper organs for appro- 
priation or removal, these are the duties of the blood in the 
animal economy. 

The blood is now known to be the most abundant and 
highly organized of the animal fluids, and is recognized by all 
observers as being the grand agent of nutrition; nourishing 
the system, sustaining respiration, and proving itself to be, n 
fine, the very life of the body. 

"Considered \u relation to nutrition," says Draper, **the 
blood presents many interesting aspects. Each of the thous- 
and variously constituted parts of the body is withdrawing 
the supplies it needs, the muscular, the nervous, the cartil- 
aginous, the bony; and hence there arises a general balance in 
the system, each part making its demand at a certain rate 
and each observing a complementary action to all the rest. 
Many of these phenomena which, in the infancy of physiology, 
were regarded as instances of sympathy between different 
parts are clearly dependent on these conditions; for the de- 
velopment of one part by abstracting special material from 
the circulating liquid permits co-ordinate development of 
another or perhaps puts a stop to it. The minutest portion 
of the mechanism is thus indissolubly connected with all the 
rest through the medium of the blood. 

The blood is formed chiefly from the chyle and is the source 
of all the secretions. It is white in the mollusca and inferior 
animals, and red in the mammalia, birds, reptiles and fishes. 
This difference gives rise to the terms "white" and "red 
blooded" as applied to these classes. 

The general physical characteristics bf the blood are so well 
known that we need not here enter a minute description of it. 
It is enough to say that it is of a dark red or purple color in 
the veins and of a bright red or scarlet color in the arteries; 
that it is viscid, drying rapidly, salt to the taste, alkaline reac- 
tion, and has a faint sickish odor similar in each case to the 
odor of the individual perspiration. Its specific gravity has a 
physiological range from 1,045 '^ '»^75» with an average at 



Physiology. 129 

1,055, ^^ variations in density being due largely to the varia- 
tions in the quantity of the cells. The capacity of blood for 
heat is in direct proportion to* its density; 98^** Fahr. is how- 
ever the normal temperature. Before considering its func- 
tions farther it will be not only appropriate but desirable to 
examine afresh its constituent elements. 

A large number of analyses of most reqent date yielded the 
following ingredients in their stated proportion as the ave- 
rage composition per 1,000. 

Water 781.6; Solid Residium 218.4, which is composed of 

Fibrin 2.5 

Corpuscles (hsematine, globuline, cell membrane) 135. 

Albumen 70. 

Seroline (?) .025 

Cholestrine .125 

Oleate, Margarate, Stearate of Soda - - - 1.4 

Chlorides of Sodium and Potassium ... 3.5 

The Salts:— 

Carbonate, Sulphate and Phos. of Soda, together ^ 

with free Soda, (Carb. of Soda most abundant) I 

Carbonate, Sulphate, Phosphate of Potassa j ^'5 

Sulphate ot Magnesia J 
Phosphate of Lime ) 

Phosphate of Magnesia J . *'^5 

Iron .55 

Undetermined Extractive Matters - - . 2.45 

But this is not the ultimatum; and he who is favored with 
existence in the twentieth centur}' will doubtless witness 
much change in this analysis. No two chemists in separate 
laboratories have ever yet given us analyses exactly aHke as 
to ingredient and proportion, but all have found a mass of 
"undetermined extractive matter" which they have failed to 
resolve, and have also united in recognizing "the salts," which 
term has vaguely represented what to a very considerable ex- 
tent each individual crucible has evolved. Regarding the 
principal ingredients, however, there is only a difference as to 
proportion, and this we shall see is not the fault of chemistry 
but legitimate and unavoidable. When we remember that 
the blood is the vehicle which carries all the supplies of the 
body to their numerous destinations and at the same time the 
debris, the wastes, the dead and poisonous matter to its point 



130 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

of ejection, that the amount of this burden varies with the 
amount and kind of material consumed, the quietude or in- 
tense activity of the body, involving great wear and tear; and 
the condition whether of health or disease of all the organs 
of both secretion and excretion, is it any wonder, that two 
specimens of blood can not be found to be alike? 

For instance: Take one man of thirty in the full tide of 
vigorous health, always a good appetite, regularly supplied 
with most nutritious food and wholesome drink and all the 
habits of the body correct and temperate, and another of the 
same years and health basis but who has not partaken of food 
or drink for several days and an analyses of the two bloods 
would manifest marked difference both as to quality and 
quantity. Or if the same man were to assume the two con- 
ditions in consecutive time and properly, the same result in 
more marked contrast would appear. The embryo and 
pregnant state, childhood, early manhood, and declining life 
in old age, together with the nature and amount of the food 
ingested, the liquid imbibed, the sex, region of body from 
which specimens are obtained and many other items, these are 
conditions which contribute so largely to this state of confu- 
sion and disagreement among observers. 

But returning to our analysis let us take a hasty review of 
our constituents, their properties and uses. Water is the 
largest factor, maintaining as you perceive in the blood as in 
the system generally its eighty per cent or four fifths of the 
entire composition. It is the greatest known solvent and of 
inestimable value as a controller of combustion, tliese are 
doubtless its prime uses in the body. Its proportion in the 
blood varies reciprocally with that of the solid constituents and 
is especially augmented when there is a marked diminution 
of the red-corpuscles. Where it is in diminished amount as 
dfter an excessive drain by accidental loss or by the ravages 
of disease, the craving demand of thirst labors for the supply 
of the deficiency. In cholera, however, the case is different, 
for no matter what amount of liquid is ingested the copious 
discharges notably lessen its proportion. 



Physiology. 181 

Fibrin is not so unimportant an ingredient as its propor- 
tion 2.5 parts per 1,000, would seem to indicate. It may fall 
as low as i or rise as high as 7.5 parts per 1,000. It originates 
in the action of oxygen upon albumen and is the legitimate 
food of the muscular fibre, which makes a constant and very 
extensive demand for it in its nutrition. One of our latest 
and best physiologists estimates that 7^ pounds are thus used 
in the system every day. 

Another very important office of fibrin is to give coagula- 
bility to the blood. This will be taken up more fully hereafter. 
At present we need only say that by virtue of this property 
spontaneous arrest of haemorrhage after division or rupture of 
small vessels is efiected. It is a remarkable and * wholly un- 
accounted for fact that the blood of the hepatic and renal 
veins contains no fibrin, the liver and kidneys seeming to 
have the power to destroy this principled 

Blood, lymph, chyle, intermuscular fluid, secretions from 
serous membranes, and milk, limitedly, are found to contain 
albumen; but the blood contains it in the most abundant mea- 
sure. Its quantity varies considerably within the limits of 
health but as a rule is in inverse ratio to the quantity of fi- 
brin. There is little difference in chemical composition from 
fibrin. The relation of albumen to the body is most import- 
ant and fundamental in character. It is the original pabulum 
at the expense of which all the solid tissues are generated; it 
affords material also for the production of the' globulin and 
haematin together with the fibrin ot the blood. In itself it 
is entirely destitute of a formative capacity, its great function 
being to furnish material for the various transformations in 
histogenesis. Every care is taken to economize it in the sys- 
tem and it is never excreted except in disease. The corpus- 
cles are the most interesting ingredients of the fluid. There 
are in man two varieties, the red, which are by far the more 
abundant constituting about one half of the entire mass of 
the circulating blood, and the white, which are found in the 
proportion only of one to several hundred of the red. The 
red corpuscles give the blood its color and opacity. They are 
true organized structures; have a flattened, biconcave, circu< 



1 32 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

lar form with a thickness of from one-fourth to one-third 
their diameter which, diameter, is 1-3500 of an inch. Their 
consistence is not much greater than that of the plasma in 
which they float. They are very elastic and if deformed by 
pressure immediately resume their original shape when the 
pressure is removed. 

As the cells are examined under the microscope by trans- 
mitted light they are quite transparent and of a pale amber 
color. It is only when they are collected in masses that they 
present the red tint characteristic of the blood as it appears 
to the naked eye; thus leading to the fact that the cells, per^e, 
are not red; but depend on the laws of refraction for the gen- 
eral optical effect produced. The variation in color between 
arterial and venous blood is due to the presence in the ve- 
nous of carbonic acid. The red corpuscles, or cells are in 
their use respiratory organs. They take up the greater part 
of the oxygen absorbed by the blood in its passage through 
the lungs, convey it to the tissues and there exchange it for a 
supply of carbonie acid. Their genesis, growth and decay 
are processes of immense interest to the observer and lie at 
the very foundation of existence. Their myriad number in 
the organism can onl}' be guessed at after it is known 
that twenty millions die with each beat of the pulse. 

The white or colorless corpuscles have been more appro- 
priately called by Robin, "leucocytes," inasmuch as they are 
not peculiar to'^the blood, but are found in the lymph, chyle, 
pus and various other fluids in which, formerly, they were 
known by different names. All microscopists familiar with 
these fluids must have noticed the great similarity existing 
between their corpuscular elements. The improved micro- 
copes and, the consequently, more exact investigations of 
our time have narrowed their varieties down. It is now 
pretty generally conceded that the mucus and pus corpuscle 
are identical and that there is no difference between the 
white corpuscles found in lymph, chyle and bk>od. In fact 
the recent in-\Kestigations of Robin, shaw most conclusively 
that the corpuscles contained in each of these media, blood, 
lymph, chyle, serum, colostrum, vitreous humor, nuicus and 



Phy$iology, 133 

pus, are not essentially different but belonging to the same 
class owe their slight differences to their situations. Tlie 
leucocytes have nothing in common with the red corpuscles, 
either as to form, color, mode of motion or function. Indeed 
what their use is, is to this day an enigma. The supposition 
that they break down and become nuclei for the development 
of red cells which at one time obtained is purely hypothetical 
and without a foun/dation fact 

A substance was discovered in the blood and described by 
Bonder in 1833. ^^ existence, however, in the blood is at 
least only problematic. 

Cholestrine if found in considerable quantity, seems to be 
influenced in its production by the nervous centers and is di- 
minished in the passage of the blood through the liver. 

The oleate, margarate and stearate of soda are found in 
small quantities, and serve to hold iu solution the small quan- 
tity of fats and fatty acids found in the blood. They serve, 
so far as we know, only as saponifiers, or soap makers. 

Chloride of sodium, or salt is never wanting in the blood. 
It exists in all the fluids and gives to some of them, as the 
tears and perspiration, a distinctly saline taste. It is the, at 
present, only known factor of the blood that has no relative 
variation in quantity. If an excess is introduced as food, it is 
immediately excreted by the kidneys. Its function is not 
fully understood, but it regulates absorption and maintains 
and controls the fluidity and consistency of the albumen. 

Chloride of potassium, though not as important a principle 
as that immediately preceding, nor so generally distributed 
in the economy, seems to have an analogous function. 

The remaining elements are found in small proportion and 
find a use in maintaining the fluidity of the fibrin sand albu- 
men; in forming and preserving the consistence of the corpus- 
cles; in contributing the peculiar elements of bone-growth to 
tissues and in holding carbonic acid in solution for conveyance 

to the lungs. 

Let us now consider some of the manifestations of these el- 
ements as they are combined in the blood. You are familiar 
with the changes recurring in the circulation, the arterial both 



134 Cincinnati Mediccd Advartce. 

pulmonary- and systematic, the veins, the portal, and all the 
ends thereby subserved. It is to the blood at rest that I wish 
in passing to direct a thought. Very soon after the blood has 
been drawn it undergoes a spontaneous division into a con- 
densed and liquid portion, the serum and the clot, as every 
child has noticed. 

The reason of this coagulation has been from the first and 
still is a vexed question, though to some extent determined. 
The clot is composed of the corpuscles and fibrin; while the 
serum contains all the other constituent elements. 

The loss of temperature; the influence of the air; the loss 
of carbonic acid and the absence of motion were each in their 
time, for a long time considered the prime cause of coagula- 
tion. John Hunter advances the impressive theory: that the 
coagulation depended on some impression made on the vital 
forces before death; and in proof that those killed by light- 
ning or animals which had been hard run or run to death or 
when death had been occasioned by a hard blow on the stom- 
ach no coagulation of the blood occurred. 

The German chemist, Zimmerman, believed it depended on 
a putrefying influence made manifest in the blood soon after 
leaving the living tissues; and this, on the ground, that blood 
kept by certain salts or other substances coagulated as soon as 
a little putrefying matter was introduced. Dr. Richardson's 
Astley-Cooper prize essay, 1856, on "Coagulation" had for its 
leading idea carbonate of ammonia; that the substance existed 
in circulating blood and was always emitted by it in a state 
of rest, and that the coagulation depended on this emission. 

But while these theories have a grain of truth, the probable 
cause and the only one having, at present, no facts against it 
is the fibrin cause. 

It is evident that this principle is largely the responsible 
agent in the process. In fact, whatever coagulates spontan- 
eously is called fibrin; and whatever requires some agent to 
produce this change is called by another name. Since the 
better understanding of the properties of fibrin, physiologists 
pretty much agree as to its uses in this respct; for blood rid- 
ded of fibrin never coagulates and whatever impresses this 



MisceUaneaui. 135 

agent produces the result. Threads kept in the current, in- 
jections of cerebral matter, pus, mercury and iodine, together 
with the galvanic battery have produced it; and for this rea- 
son are employed for the cure of aneurism. Coagulation may 
be retarded or entirely prevented by neutral salts, as well as 
by many medicines and poisons, such as opium, belladonna, 
aconite, hyosciamus, digitalis and by strong infusions of tea 
and coffee. 



'SSihttllmtmi. 



The Brain Power of ICan. By Dr. Brown-Sequard. 

Have we two brains? and, if so, why not educate both? 
The views of science upon this subject were different from his 
The left side of the body was the side affording volition to 
the brain, and, vice verm, the right side of the brain afforded 
volition to the body. Eminent authorities had declared that 
either side of the brain was competent for this purpose. 

But we use only one side, and, therefore, leave oat of ac- 
count one half of brain matter. We owe due education to 
both sided of the brain, or, rather, to the two brains. 

As to intelligence, the eminent authorities he had cited es- 
tablished the fact that either side of the brain was competent 
for full development of the faculties. There were many per- 
sons of two minds, because they were never able to make up 
their minds. Some men claim to be rational while they are 
insane. There were many cases that show clearly that there 
were two brains He had known a boy in London that mani- 
festly had two brains, whose peculiarities he described. He 



186 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

would fall into a comatose state, and suddenly open his eyes 
brightly, inquiring of his mother why he was not introduced 
to the gentleman who was present while he was al^leep. Again, 
the lecturer saw him when the boy recognized him. He had 
two mental lives. He knew nothing of what occurred in his 
sleeping condition, when fully awake ; and when in the latter 
condition he knew what had occurred when in the former. 
The lecturer had seen three cases of this kind. 

As regards faculty of speech, the fact that we had two 
brains was not so easily proved. The loss of the faculty of 
expression depends upon disease of the left side of the brain ; 
and this proves that the right side is distinct. 

As regards sight, a theory has been put forth by a cele-. 
brated physician of London that the right side of the base of 
the brain is the centre of sight. The inner half of the right 
eye and the outer half of the left eye have the base of the 
brain as the center. A disease in the lefl side of the brain, 
where the optic nerve touches, would therefore aifect only 
one-half of the brain. Kotable cases were given in which 
parties had seen but one-half of certain objects that they gazed 
upon. If the disease exists only in the left side of the base 
of the brain, only one-half of the eye will be affected. So 
there are many cases that go to sustain the philosophers. 
But we do not accept conclusions unless theory is thorough- 
ly supported. 

There were three series of facts, but one would be enough, 
to show that the theory should be rejected. Disease of the 
brain, where the optic nerve touches, would not be sufficient 
to cause loss of sight. One side of the brain would be suffi- 
cient to sustain sight. An alteration in any portion of the 
nervous system, acting upon other parts, can produce disease 
in that part. Injury to the spinal cord would produce loss 
of sight on either side. There was nothing more common 
than the loss of sight temporarily in children who suffered 
from worms in the stomach. Any injury in one-half of the 
brain can exist without producing loss of sight. Either half 
of the brain may, therefore, serve to sustain sight. 



Miscellaneous. 137 

Ab to the voluntary movements, these depended upon the 
action of the body. Yet there were many small muscles 
which were not affected in cases of paralysis. There were 
cases on record in which it was shown that the lower lobe of 
the brain could be destroyed without affecting these volun- 
tary movements. There were several such cases. We must, 
therefore, look on one-half of the brain as being sufficient to 
sustain voluntary movements on both sides of the body. An 
irritation in any part of the brain may affect any part of Jbhe 
body, and an irritation in any part of the body can produce 
paralysis in another part. The irritation could also act upon 
remote parts. This shows that the power of will does not 
control the entire actions of the body. When paralysis occurs 
it depends upon irritation. 

The same reasoning applies to sensation. There were 
thousands of cases affecting the brain that did not affect the 
feeling. Passing these facts in review we find vast differ- 
ences owing to the fact that one-half of the brain was de- 
veloped for certain things and the other half for other things. 
To the left side of the brain belonged the faculty of expressing 
ourselves by speech. Articulation depended in great meas- 
ure upon the left side of the brain. Difficulties in the me- 
chanical point of speech were more frequently found when 
the left side of the brain was diseased. It was the mental 
part that|wa8 lost, and not the mere mechanical action. The 
left side of the brain was also the motive power of gesture. 
When the left side was diseased patients lost the power of ges- 
ticulation 

As regards writing, it was lost more frequently in diseases 
of the left side of the brain. The right arm was paralyzed 
by diseases of this side. Many thus diseased could not write 
from memory, although they could use their fingers and copy. 
In those cases it sometimes occurs that persons could not 
write at all. 

Intelligence depends more upon the healthfulness of the 
left side than of the right side of the brain. The right side 
of the brain in some cases has the power of the left, if prop- 
erly developed. This serves to hysterical developments and 



138 CincinncUi Medical Advance. 

to nutrition of the body. One, the lefl, applies to mental; the 
other, to the natural life. 

The right side of the brain operates upon the limbs in 
cases of paralysis and other diseases; also upon disturbances 
in the lungs, liver and other parts. Hysterical and emo- 
tional symptoms are more common in cases of disease of the 
right side of the brain: out of 120 cases of paralysis that came 
under the lecturer's observation there were 96 caused by dis- 
ease of the right side. An alteration of the retina of the 
eye will come more frequently from diseases of this side of 
the brain. Out of 69 cases of convulsions of the eyes 47 were 
due to disease of the right side. Death occurs much more 
frequently by diseases of the right side of the brain, and in 
cases where patients do not die it will produce more extensive 
and enduring paralysis. 

All this, shows not that the two sides of the brain differed 
originally, but that there were different developments of each. 
The left side of the brain was much larger than the right side« 
If a person went frequently to the same hatter, he would find* 
that his hat had from time to time to be enlarged. There 
was no question that the brain grew. By studying a partic- 
ular subject the person became more proficient, and the brain 
was more fully developed. 

There was no doubt that the left side of the brain predomi- 
nated in our system. Our being right-handed showed it. 
There was no population in the world that was not right- 
handed. The right hand of the body was mostly used. 
Left-handed individuals used the right side of the brain^ 
showing the connection between these thjngs. 

There was primitively a difference between the two brains. 
In children convulsion were sooner developed in the left than 
in the right side of the brain. This was attributable to ex- 
cess of blood in the left side. Parrots roosted on the right 
legs, and their talking power came from the left side of the 
head. 

There were four vital points to be considered. The first 
was that asphyxia was connected with the left side of the 
brain in persons that were right-handed, and with the right 



Miscellaneofis. 139 

side in those that were left-handed. The second point was 
that children who were first learning to talk, if disease came 
in the left side of the brain, learned to talk just as well with 
the right side of the brain. Though losing half of the brain 
they got along just as well. 

This proved that the right side could be educated, with the 
left hand for execution. The third point was, that four out 
of every hundred left-handed persons learned to ynrite with 
the left hand; therefore the left side of brain, even with persons 
left-handed, could be educated better than the right side. The 
fourth point was that the leg was rarely ever so much affect- 
ed by paralysis as the arm. He however would pass over 
this argument, as it could only be understood by medical 
men. 

If the lecturer had established that we had two brains then 
they should be developed. If we could develop the legs and 
arms of both sides we could develop both sides of the brain. 
If we gave as much attention to the left side of the body as 
we do to the right side we would fully develop our two brains. 
The important point, therefore, would be to make children 
use both sides of the body — alternately using the right 
and left arm and the right and left leg equally. There would 
be no difficulty in thus training children to full development. 

Even adults who had lost speech by disease of the left side 
of the brain could regain the power by cultivating the right 
side. In gesture, persons who had lost the right arm could 
be trained' to use the left. If children were thus trained, we 
would have a sturdier and healthier race, both mentally and 
physically. 



Tridiixia in the West 

At a meeting of the St. Louis Board of Health, a few weeks 
ago, the city chemist reported that he had made microscopic 
examination of pork from one thousand hogs, retailed at 



140 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

butchers* stalls in the city, for the purpose of ascertaining 
what per cent, of the pork was afflicted with trichina. The 
flesh from thirteen of the hogs, or one and three-tenths per 
cent, was found to be infected The result when the exper- 
iment was made with separate hundreds was about the same. 
The doctors said the butchers reported that they had sold 
but little pork during the last few months, and more care than 
usual had probably been exercised in cooking it. The par- 
asite, when in a hog, was found in all parts; which must be 
very cheerful reading to those who are wont to regale them- 
selves upon the savory sausage or the nourishing bacon. 

While Prof Watson has been fooling away fifteen years 
of his life in the study of astronomy; a very clever fellow in 
Delaware has discovered that a turnip tied to a string and 
hung to a hook will prevent rheumatism from entering the 
house. 



^m\ MMt$%* 



Cllnieal Uses of Electricity. By J. Russell Reynolds, 
M. D.; Second Edition: Lindsay and Blakiston, Philadelphia. 
This little work of ii8 pages is the most thoroughly prac- 
tical book of the kind we have yet seen, giving all theories a 
wide berth it gets at once at the kernel of the subject. In the 
plainest, briefest manner it presents the uses of electricity so 
that a child may clearly understand the conditions and mode 
of a2:)plication. The writer first treats of the limits and value 
of electricity in diagnosis, then of the various forms of elec- 
tricity in use. These are followed by the diagnostic and ther- 
apeutical application of this agent. In this way, stripped of 
its burdensome technicalities, the matter is made interesting 
and valuable to every practitioner in want of information on 
this subject. For sale by Robert Clarke & Co. Price $1.25. 



Book Notices. 141 

On the UniTersallty of the HomcBopathic Law of Cnre. 

By Charles Nkidhard, M. D. 

This address, first delivered in 1851, was re-delivered in 1872, 
and is given to the public as an exposition not likely to be 
endorsed by even the greater part of the homoeopathic school. 
The limitations of our law of cure as understood by many do 
not allow of such wholesale applications. When the animal 
functions, the appetites and passions, law, philosophy, relig- 
ion, agriculture, education, history, chemistry, poetry, etc., 
are forced into subordination to this law the thing is run into 
the ground. The author proves too much for the good of his 
argument. Still the lecture is interesting and will well repay 
reading. 

Received— Fifteenth Annual Announcement Hahnemann 
Medical College and Hospital, Chicago. Boston University 
Year Book, Volume I. Syphilitic Membranoid Occlusion of 
the Rima Glottides, By Louis Elsberg, M. D. On the Regu- 
lar and Systematic Respiration of Pure Air as a preventive of 
Consumption, By J. C. Burgher, M. D. Nineteenth Annual 
Report of the Bond Street Dispensary, Otto Fullgraff, M. D., 
Founder and Manager, New York. Special Report of a 
Plan for the more thorough and proper proving of Remedies 
and Notation of Symptoms, By J. P. Dake, M. D. Relations 
of Colorado to Pulmunary Consumption, By Thos. E. Massey, 
A. M., M. D. 



€iilau'$ %M%. 



Dr. G. T. Parkkr changes his location from Newcastle to 
Cleveland. 

Dr. Aaron Baldwin has located in Washington, D. C, 
corner nth and M sts., N. W. 



142 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



.; 



Dr. Geo. Mendenh all, a distinguished Allopathic phy- 
sician, of Cincinnati, recentl}' died. 

Dr. C. H. Evans, of this city, rejoiceth exceedingly over 
his first born one of the coming women. 

The death of Dr. W. M. Williamson, of Philadelphia, 
will be sad news to many of our readers. 

The advertisement of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital College, may be found in the present number. 

**Get the Best," that is, get Websters Unabridged Dictionary 
and be forever happy. See the advertisement. 

The "fever of love" is said to be best cured by the chill of 
wedlock. This is not homoeopathic and we reject the propo- 
sition. 

A Western Journal wishing to do the handsome thing 
by a local doctor, recently announced: "Dr. Crawford was 
called in and under his prompt and skillful treatment, the 
young man died." If that editor gets sick he better not call on 
Crawford. 

The Cincinnati Homoeopathic Medical Society recently 
elected new officers — -T. P. Wilson, President; C. H. Evans, 
Secretary — and will hold a session every two weeks. If all 
the doctors in the city would join, it would add much to the 
success of the Society. 

A NEW medical journal is about starting, to be called **The 
Night Bell." If its object is to foster that detestable article, 
we hope it will not succeed, but if it labors to abolish that an- 
cient and intolerable nuisance — intolerable to all save young 
doctors in want of patients — then we wish it all possible suc- 
cess. 

Dr. HoLCOMBE, in the United States M, and 8. Journal^ 
gives some excellent advice to the doctors. We know a good 
many who might be greatly benefited by acting on the sug- 
gestions made. Only on one point can we differ from him. 
He says: **No man needs the strengthening influence of rec- 
reation and amusement more than the doctor. He works 
best and lasts longest who makes frequent breaks in the 
heavy strain of professional toil, and yet a great deal depends, in 



Editor's Table. 143 

the public estimation, on the kind of amusement he takes. It 
should always be of the intellectual type. Avoid the billiard 
room, the bowling alley, the gambling saloon, the race track, 
the political caucus and the public ball. * Seek occasional re- 
laxation and rest in the social circle, the lecture room, the 
concert hall, the theater, the opera.*' It may be ''public esti- 
mation" sets the line just at the. point indicated by the doctor, 
but we fear his personal prejudices have slightly colored the 
question. We have seen billiard rooms, bowling alleys and 
race tracks that were vastly less immoral than some first 
class theaters and some fashionable social circles. With good 
company and innocent recreation the doctor, and any body 
else for that matter, might take such enjoyment as they liked 
without a classified index to go by. 

AtTiflrfftfl.ti InstittLte of HomOMpatliy. Niagara Falls, June 1 2, '74. 

Editor Medical Advance: — 

Tour ''all aboard for Niagara" settled the perplexing question 
whether to go or stay. The yearly meeting of the Institute 
is one of the ''terrible temptations" that beset a tired doctor 
in want of rest, judiciously mixed with fun and information. 
The even balance that holds the motives that make us stick to 
business or break away is thus easily made to dip to a conclu- 
sion by the short sharp words that come snapping from your 
editoriar pen. 

For Cincinnati our delegation here is a good one. Seven of 
our doctors — ^but alas not our seven wives; only four — are 
booked here for the present session. 

The route by which we came is incomparably superior to all 
others. Leaving Cincinnati by the Atlantic and Great Western 
Railroad, broad guage, Pullman Palace Cars, and all modem 
improvements we came to Jamestown at the foot of Chataqua 
Lake early in the afternoon. Then by steamer we had a grand 
ride of two hours and a half, touching at various points along 
the lake. Nothing we are quite sure can excel this lake region 
with its many beautiful watering places as a resort for our 
ummer goers. Fishing and frolicing abound. On board 



1 44 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

the cars again at Maysville we intercepted Fittsbnrg, Titusville 
and Corry doctors all bound for the Falls. Passing Dunkirk 
and Buffalo we arrived here near midnight and awoke the 
next morning to find the hotel crowded with delegates from 
all parts of the country. 

A forenoon of opening business in which little was done 
save to ^et a good start. Then all the afternoon was given 
to enable us to pay our worship to the mighty Niagara and 
its wondrous surroundings* In the evening the business of 
of the Institute was resumed and the adopted programme ful- 
ly carried out. And so without tedious detail day after day 
passed with a morning and evening session and a good half 
day for sight seeing. 

Sancho Panza blessed the man who invented sleep and we 
can but bless the man who discovered Niagara Falls and then 
sent the Institute there. And we will thrice bless the man or 
men who sent us to Fut-in-Bay for our next meeting. But 
this is in anticipation. 

The report of bureaus was never so full. After making a 
general report in convention, several of the bureaus adjourned 
to meet in section, and the published proceedings will show 
how greatly this has increased both the quantity and value of 
the discussions. Hereafter, this will, we hope, be the rule 
followed by all the bureaus. 

The presiding oiBcei,. Dr. Youlin, merits great praise for the 
excellent manner in which he presided. The proprietSrs of the 
International spared no pains to make their guests comfortable 
and happy. The social features* of the meeting, while greatly 
enhanced, did not trench upon tbe business. The banquet and 
hop were all that could be desired. At the conclusion of the 
Institute, we had -he pleasure of enjioying the hospitality of 
Dr. and Mrs. Cook, of Buffalo. Their beautiful home was 
bountifully adorned with rare flowers in honor of the recent 
marriage of one of their lovely daughters. 

We have only to regret that in the adoption of the new con- 
stitution the generosity of the members had not led them* to 
advance the yearly dues to the respectable sum of ten dollars, 
and to make a wise provision for the remuneration ol' the hard 
worked officers of the Institute. X. 



€ittcitut!ili MthkAl MUut. 



VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.— AUGUST, 1874. 



l^rSubKTlptioiii to 
Diawer iiSf, Clndnnul, Ohio. Ij.os 1 jSM, iw advahci. 

All biuineu caniiniuiinUons, relating Lo [he pablimtioa Dr to tdTorUilng, ihould be 
Kddteued lo Dm. T. P. WilIom, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Hound SU.,CindnuU, Ohio. 




E. Steiger, of New York, is our agent. 

The June No. of the N. E. Medical Gazette shows a fear- 
ful internal derangement. What's the matter Brother 
Nichols ? 

Mr. James Vick, of Rochester, sends us a "picter" for 
our first page. He has a genius forbeautiful things. Send 
for his catalogue. 

Hahnemann Hospital, of Chicago, is to have a "grand 
Charity Fair" next November. All those who intend to 
whistle at this fiiir may thi» early "prepare to pucker." 
Aug- 1 136 



146 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

The Exposition for 1874 will be the chief attraction of 
our city the coming months. Why couldn't the doctors 
have a hand in and let their pills compete fior size or qual- 
ity or precision ? 

Dr. O. P. Baer sends us a lecture delivered in Richmond, 
and devoted to the demolition of Darwinism. If no more 
is heard of the subject, w^ will conclude the good doctor 
did the deed. 

It is very clever in Mr. Barnum to send us so many no- 
tices of his Hippodrome. The "circus ring'' is one of the 
modern sciences we haven't investigated to any great ex- 
tent, but if it can aid medicine much, we shall incorporate 
into our repertorial list. 

After mature deliberation we have concluded to pronounce 
publicly in favor of cremation. We are sorry to see the U, 
S. Medical and Surgical Journal and the Inve&tigatorj both 
of Chicago, do not espouse this suddenly popular plan 
However, as they have once been cremated ante mortem it 
is too much, perhaps, to expect them to long for the fiery 
ordeal post mortem. 

Eow to Start a Medical Jonrnal. 

If you know of some royal road to success in getting a 
medical Journal on its feet, please write us by return mail. 
Wouldn't it be a good plan to wait until fifteen hundred 
subscribers sent us their names and money and, with tears, 
begged us to start a publication of some sort ? That would 
show there was "a demand for another journal." And that 
is what grieves some cautious souls we know, that we should 
do such a thing, except as a public necessity. 

Wouldn't it be a good plan to get out a pretty large edi- 
tion every month and then wait until some one sends us 
word they want a copy ? One might reasonably expect a 
couple thousand such applications to come in by most any 



Editorial, 147 

mall. There would be five hundred applicants unsupplied. 
Let them patronize some other journal. Its very annoying 
to have notices sent you that some body is about to publish 
a magazine and would like to have you subscribe. And it 
is downright insulting to have a specimen number sent you 
with the request that you read it. It would make you 
laugh to see the letters we have on file from parties who 
take it in high dudgeon that we would presume to send 
them a specimen number without solicitation. 

Wouldn't it be a good plan to print every month as 
many copies, say as we feel able to pay for out of our own 
limited income, and send them out broadcast to the pro- 
fession ? We know several hundred persons who are de- 
lighted to read what we write and would be glad to get an 
installment of our "idees" every month. With nothing to pay 
on the part of the reader, we could get up a big circulation. 
Just for the fun of the thing, we could distribute the journal 
to one or two thousand readers, and if any of them happen- 
ed to think it worth while to make us a small donation — a 
matter of three dollars or less — we could invest it, at once, 
in more journals to give away. Would it be a good plan 
also to start a journal suited to everybody's peculiar no- 
tions? What's the use of reading a publication that has 
ideas of its own, and doesn't agree with yours ? You might 
read it perhaps, but you wouldn't think of paying for it. 
It is our fortune to lose the chance of getting a large num- 
ber of subscribers because they don't agree with our views. 
It's too bad. But the remedy on that point isn't clear to 
our minds. Perhaps, we might wait until everybody thought 
just like everybody else, only the need of journals would 
then be passed. 

Now the plan we have adopted is a very simple one. We 
have assumed the need of just such a journal as this, and, 
without waiting to be asked, we have published it and sent 
it to responsible parties, soliciting their subscription. A 



148 Cincinnati Medical A dvance. 

thousand copies have been distributed monthly^ and all we 
need just now is for a few parties, who have taken and read 
our journal to send us in their substantial recognition of 
the value of our work. For a better plan than this we will 
give a year's subscription to the Advance. 



m » 




U'^tm. 



What We Bat* By Gehard Saal, M. D. 

Hardly escaped from his mother's womb the child seeks the 
breast for its nourishment. Hunger and thirst are two most 
powerful motives. Food satisfies the first and drink the latter. 
Schiller says: 

. "Hunger and love bind together the world/' 

Man is omniverous in as far as he eats nearly everything 
particularly if necessity compels him; only the hog surpasses 
him in that capacity. As difierent the zones and countries 
so manifold is the food and drink. 

The most important of the former is unquestionably the 
bread. "Give us this day our daily bread," we say, and not 
our daily meat. Next to bread, the meat, mostly beef, and 
these two we find the constant companion of man in his cul* 
tare, civilization. Indispensable as drink, are water and milk. 
The higher, however, the culture of a people the greater the 
variety of food it consumes. As man instinctively seeks for 
something more than he absolutely needs, he wants variety 
of enjoyment, and so in the progress of time we find the most 
varied food and the most different drinks. 

*Continued from Jmly Number. 



Hygiene, 149 

The saying of Hippocrates, that "only what tastes good 
serves as food'' has a deep significance, in as far as the indi- 
vidual taste requires a difference iu the preparation of food, 
not only for the single individual but for a nation. 

What difference in the preparation the cooking of one hun- 
dred years ago and now. One pot over the chimney fire 
as we find it yet in the Southern States, and our cooking 
stoves or ranges. 

See how under the guidance of the natural sciences, prin- 
cipally chemistry, man prepares now food for the millions with 
the aid of steam, not only for immediate use but also for future 
consumption. We have our fresh peas, cauli-flowers, and 
iasparagus not only in every season but in every climate. 

In all the processes of the preparation of our food either for 
immediate or future consumption there takes place a chemi- 
cal process always induced by heat, in virtue of which process 
they become not only more digestible and consequentaly more 
nourishing, but also less dangerous, namely, by destroying and 
killing animals, with their eggs and offspring, inhabiting cer- 
tain kinds of meat which, when, introduced into the human 
body raw, endanger health and, in many instances, life itself 
So we have in the raw beef the eggs of the most dangerous 
species .of tape worm and in the pork the trichina. 

The discovery of the trichina; which, undoubtedly, have 
been the cause of thousands of diseases which were formerly 
diagnosed as gout, rheumatism and typhoid fever, and conse- 
quently produced death in all these cases more or less fre- 
quently. 

I say the discovery of. this microscopic animal, its origin^ 
growth and development, as shown by the microscope, makes 
one of the brightest pages in the history of the natural sciences • 

Dr. Jehr, in Wurtemberg, as early as 1675, describes a num- 
ber of ca^es, the symptoms of which correspond exactly 
with trichinosis, the cause of which he ascribed to diseased 
meat and insisted at that time on the appointment of meat 
inspectors. 

As early as 1832, Hilton, prosector at the Guy Hospital, in 
London, found on the cadaver of a patient who had cancer 



150 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

of the breast the animals in the pectoral muscles; not as liv- 
ing animals, however, but petrified, or, more properly, cal- 
cined. In 1835, 0^c<i ^sp on a cadaver found those calcined 
granules but through the application of acetic acid the animal 
became visible as a filiform spiral worm to which he applied 
the name of trichina spiralis. 

In fact, not only the capsules of these animals but also the 
animal itself, was found in a great many post mortem exam- 
inations, but as the persons generally died with the symptom 
of typhoid fever, very little importance was ascribed to them. 

In i860. Prof. Luckart had one and a half pounds of muscle 
from a man who had died in the hospital, at Halle, containing 
trichinae, he fed with it three dogs and two hogs. Elach ani- 
mal received 220 to 230 grains of the meat or about 500,000 
trichns in each. Already on the fourth day, there were found 
in the intestine thousands of free trichinae, with well develop- 
ed sexual organs, and others filled with eggs and young ones. 

By means of these and other experiments of Luckart, it was 
settled, 

1. That the trichinae are a separated sex, and that the tri- 
china found in the muscle already possessed sexual organs, 
although yet somewhat undeveloped. 

2. That the immigration of large numbers into the muscles 
of these youug born in the intestine is attended with signifi- 
cant symptoms of disease, and may even cause death, for all 
animals experimented upon had shown symptoms of intestinal 
alTections, fever and painfulness of limbs, indeed, of nine rab- 
bits that were not killed, seven died. 

Accidentally, just at this time, when Luckart was making 
these interesting and weighty experiments on feeding the first 
case of trichinosis resulting in death happened in Dresden. 

On the I2th of January, i860, a girl from the village of 
Plauen, who had previously enjoyed perfect healthy was 
brought to the Dresden hospital suffering since the Christmas 
holidays with lassitude, sleeplessness, want of appetite, con- 
stipation, thirst and heat and treated then as a typhoid patient. 
To the former mentioned grievances an extraordinary pain- 
fulness 1n the limbs accompanied with a spasmodic flexion of 



Hygiene. 151 

the knees and elbows, and an utter impossibility of relaxing 
the contracted members. At the same time the face and lower 
part of the thigh began to swell, and the patient moaned night 
and day. At last, typhoid affection of the lungs set in and 
death of the girl followed January 27th. 

Having the attention arous^ by the epistolary communi- 
cation on the part of Luckart, Zenker ordered a microscopic 
examination of the flesh and was not a little astonished when 
he found millions of living, partly not yet and partly already 
capsulated trichinae. There were also found in the intestinal 
canal mature trichinae worms of one and a half millim. and fe- 
males four millim. in length, turgid with embryonic life. 

It was ascertained by the immediately appointed investiga- 
tion that the girl's master had shortly before Christmas killed 
a hog and the g^rl, the butcher and several members of the 
family bad partaken of the raw meat during the process of 
sausage making, in consequence of which all became more or 
less sick, especially the butcher, who was laid up for a longer 
time, he was said to be suffering from gout, and this was ac- 
companied with a strange rigidity aud painfulness in the 
limbs and muscles of the neck, and that the one remaining 
ham was teeming with trichinae. 

This case excited an immense sensation, first of all in the 
scientific world. It opened, at last, the eyes of the physicians 
and naturalists in relation to the significance of that micros- 
copic worm. 

Toward the close of the same year, two cases apparently 
of trichina disease occurred in the Leipzig hospital which, 
however, did not end in death, and already at this time Prof. 
Wunderlich recommended the consideration of trichina in 
difficult cases similar to typhoid or acute rheumatism. Since 
that time, cases of trichinae disease have increased, indeed, 
taking the form of epidemics. 

Note. — We are informed that hams sent from this city to 
Germany are there duly and individually inspected, and if 
found free from these parasites, are branded "Trichina frei," 
and so are eaten without fear. Why shouldn't our govern- 
ment have the same care and protect its citizens as well? £d. 



152 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance. 



^\pi^lH^* 



The Blood. *By O. S. Runnels, M. D., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Coagulation is nature's own provision for self-preservation ; 
it constitutes one of the leading features of her native surgical 
ability; and ante-dates all human endeavor in this regard.- Its 
mechanical property causes effective arrest of hsemorrhage 
from accidental or other causes in the smaller vessels. With 
the lower animals and those creatures that have not the 
means of artificially arresting hemorrhage this property is 
more markedly manifest and safety is thus doubly assured. 

A phenomenon of coagulation to which great importance, 
was attached by the profession in the near past is the buffy 
coat. It is owing to the fact that the red corpuscles have a 
density greater than the liquor sanguinis. When blood is at 
rest they naturally sink till some obstacle prevents their so 
doing, as long as coagulation does not occur, they continue to 
move toward the bottom of the vessel till the fibrine solidifies 
when the upper layer of the coagulum no longer contains 
red corpuscles and is therefore colorless. In inflammation 
the density of the corpuscles increases and the colorless or 
buffyt.coat is consequently thicker. This is sometimes a good 
indication of the existence and even of the degree of inflam- 
mation, but there are many other circumstances besides in- 
flammation and without it which lead to this same formation 
of the bufTy coat. This latter fact carried consternation and 
confusion to the men of the lancet for upon the never varying 
significance (?) of the buffy coat did thin sanguinary measures 
depend. 

SimUia Similibtts Curantur never conferred a greater boon 

on bleeding humanity than when she gave aconitum napel- 

lus as a substitute for venesection in inflammation. Untold 

*Bead before the Homoeopathic Medical Society of Indiana, See July No. 



Physiology. 153 

millions have bled through syncope to death who, with this 
"bane of the wolf would have passed their allotted time, the 
full measure of their years in vigorous health. 

Having thus reviewed the elements of the blood in normal 
composition, it will be interesting and instructive to glance at 
a few of the deviations from this standard. We have shown 
that yariations in the proportion of the elements do exist and 
within certain limitations are both legitimate and necessary to 
preserve the equilibrium of the organism through all the 
phases of change it is called to pass. 

But while we have this normal variation we are subject to 
derangements or excessive variations which are liable to oc- 
cur at any time and which may prove inimical to the contin- 
uity and life of the organism. 

These departures from the health standard may consist in 
an abnormal increase or decrease of the constituents of the 
blood thereby vitiating the quality; or in an increase or de- 
crease of the whole mass of the blood causing an abnormal 
increase in quantity; or in the introduction of obnoxious sub- 
stances, such as sugar, uric acid, oxalic acid, ammonia, sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, urates, gall and pus; which becoming 
mixed with the blood, impregnate it, thereby causing a 
poisoned state of the whole fluid. 

The fact as to these varying conditions in the constitution 
of the blood, both regarding the changes in the quality of the 
individual elements with the quality of blood resulting and 
the addition of the extraneous matters above mentioned, is so 
generally accepted and so readily demonstrable by any intel- 
ligent observer, that we need not here dwell upon it. 

It is to the fact of the variability in the quantitt/ of the blood, 
in general, that I wish to claim your further attention, and 
the more so, as there seems to be a degree of surprise mani- 
fested that a member of this Institute, in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, should maintain such a position. Hermitage in this age 
of the world being a little unpopular permit us to call in a few 
of the leading minds of our time for the sake of companion- 
ship. The unanimity of the "old schooF' on this point is 
marked, Austin Flint, Jr., our most recent physiologist and of 



154 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

no mean extraction professionally, says: "The quantity of the 
blood undoubtedly varies in the same individual in different 
conditions of the system; and these variations are fully as im- 
portant, in a physiological point of view,as the entire quantity. 
Prolonged abstinence has a notable effect in diminishing the 
mass of blood, as indicated by the small quantity which can 
be removed from the body under these circumstances, with 
impunity. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the 
entire quantity of the blood is considerably increased during 
digestion." 

Dr. Tanner, of the Royal College of Physicians and Surge- 
ons, in the recent edition of his "Practice" defines hyperaemia 
or plethora as "fulness of blood" or "blood in excess," consist- 
ing of an increase in the whole mass of the blood, to an ex- 
tent very variable in different cases." "The existence of gen- 
eral hyperaemia is marked by symptoms which can not be 
overlooked." 

"The blood though present in excess, may yet be healthy 
and will possibly be distributed equally to every part of the 
body. The chief fear is, that owing to the distension of the 
vessels the walls of one or more of them will give way, a re- 
sult of little moment if the blood escapes out of the body, 
though of vital consequence if it flow into the delicate struc- 
tures of the brain from ruptured capillaries." 

Chambers' Encyclopedia, the most careful digest and accu- 
rate compendium, in our language says: Plethora "may arise 
either from too much blood being made, or from too little 
being expended! The persons who became plethoric are 
usually those in thorough health, who eat heartily and digest 
readily, but who do not take sufficient bodily exercise and do 
not duly attend to the action of the excreting organs. With 
them the process of blood making is always on the increase 
and the vessels become more and more filled as is seen in the 
red face, distended veins and full pulse." "The state of ple- 
thora thus gradually induced may be extreme without any 
functions materially failing, and yet the subject is on the verge 
of some dangerous malady, such as apoplexy or structural dis- 
ease of the heart or great vessels, or of the lungs, kidney or 



Physiology, 155 

liver." These extracts are from our most recent allopathic 
sources. What now do we hear in our oicn family, the fra- 
ternitas similia. 

"The whole mass of the blood may be increased or de- 
creased causing an abnormal quantity Raue (p. 530.) Dr. H. 
N. Gurnsey, of Philadelphia, says: (p. 411, new edition, 
Obstetries,) in speaking of puerperal convulsions. "The 
most prominent of the physical intra-cranial causes consist in 
that derangement of the sanguinous system incidental to 
many cases of pregnancy, and known by the old term of 
plethora. Pregnancy is usually and very justly considered a 
state of plethora, and it may be readily presumed that the bal- 
ance of such plethora may determine toward the head, 
inasmuch as the great vessels of the abdomen must be sup- 
posed, during the latter weeks of gestation to be liable to 
much impediment to their action from the pressure of the 
gravid uterus." And again; "The intra-vertebral causes" 
. . . . "have reference either to the quantity or the quality 
of the ];)lood. Too large a quantity relatively, exerting an un- 
due pressure upon the spinal cord — either directly, or by 
means of serous effusion — may give rise to puerperal convul- 
sions, and a similar result, as already stated, will follow the 
opposite or anaemic condition." Kafka, whose name comes 
to us from across the sea, who has done much for the up- 
building of HomcBopathy in the Fatherland and whom we all 
delight to honor, devotes in his second volume, several pages 
to the consideration of the disease and treatment of constitu- 
tional plethora." He says: "Daily experience teaches us that 
a constitutional hypersemia does occur, although not very 
frequently, and that it represents a derangement which occa- 
sions morbid symptoms. The volume of the blood is increased, 
this increase of the volume of the blood involves a propor- 
tionate increase of the number of blood corpuscles and of the 
albumen. It most frequently occurs in the case of young per- 
sons who having a good and active digestion consume a 
quantity of meat and other protein material without taking 
much exercise. It is likewise observed in the case of older 
persons who, while appropriating a large supply of food. 



156 CincinncUi Medical Advance, 

lead a sedentary or indolent mode of life." So much for 
modern physiology on the subject of plethora. It would be 
interesting to consider the relation and action of the various 
malariae, miasmae and viruses in the blood, but our space for* 
bids and we leave it for subsequent consideration. 



i^]|(0t!^ ntA §ut%iu. 



Questions about Homosopatliy. 

The» MediocU Review^ of Indianapolis, very generously comes 
to the defence of Homoeopathy. 

A writer in the Eclectic Medical Journal says of Homoeo- 
pathy: ''If its scope is unlimited as it is claimed then with ful- 
lest propriety can we say that to cure a burn it is necessary to 
bnrn again or to heal a wound it must be cut afresh." The 
editor of the Review replies: "The true little Latin phrase 
which expresses the homoeopath's fundamental law of cure 
gives no warrant to Dr. Hunk's conclusion. No intelligent 
Homoeopath claims or ever did claim that t?ie same cures the 
samCy though they will admit twenty times a second if you 
wish that like cures /lAre." 

And then he goes on to say by way of explanation: "We 
make this little explanation with a view of giving the devil his 
due, knowing well that Homoeopathy in common with all 
other sects has sins enongh of its own without being charged 
with such as it is innocent of." This is in charming contrast 
with the spirit manifested by some writers who attempt to 
criticise us. Some of them are both ignorant and malicious 



Theory and JPractice. 157 

and they never fail to shaw both qualities when they discuss 
Homoeopathy. 

It is worth something to find an honest enquirer and as the 
editor of the Beview follows up his timely defence with a mild 
attack of interrogatories we are bound to give him a hearing. 
And this is the way he puts it: 

••There are a few questions connected with Homoeopathy^ 
which to our untaught soul, have become standing conundrums. 
Infinitesimalism is based upon the idea that disease quickens 
the susceptibility of the affected part. Now is this an assump- 
tion or is it an axiom, and if not an axiom is it not a little 
cheeky to base a law upon it? How many hundreds of instan- 
ces have we known and heard of in which the sick have taken 
without noticeable effect a quantity of medicine which in health 
would have nearly or quite killed them. It is claimed by Ho* 
moeopathists that in most of these cases you are practicing 
chemistry, not medicine — that whisky for mstance, in snake- 
bite is merely an antidote, not a curative agent. But if it is 
not demonstrable in every case where greater quantities of 
medicine are borne in sickness than could be in health that you 
are practicing chemistry the law is not worthy of respect. It 
is doubtless true that in a large class of diseases the susceptibil- 
ity to drug impresssion is exalted but may there not be some 
in which, from paralytic and other influences, this suscepti- 
bility is obtunded? 

In constipation — which is a disease — are the organs at fault 
more impressible by the indicated remedy than in health! Ac- 
cording to Homoeopathy they are, but according to the rest of 
the medical world they are not. If we find a patient whose 
bowels have not acted for three or four weeks, and there is im- 
mediate danger of perforation or other dangerous complication, 
the whole world, including Homoeopaths, must admit that the 
medicine which will soonest induce an alvine evacuation, is the 
remedy indicated. A Homoeopath might in this case, resort to 
enemas, but this would only confirm the universal judgment, 
even if the injection did not fail. We'want to move the patients 
bowels immediately. Will infinitesimal medicine do it? We 
know it will not. But if the bowels are more impressible now 
by the indicated remedy than in health, why will not the de- 
, cillionth of a grain of podophylin do? We are the last to de- 
fend promiscuous catharticing, knowing well that in correcting 
the constipated habit we need no cathartics, nor even aperi- 
ents as for that matter. But we may find patients in critical 
conditions from retained foeces as well as from retained urine 



158 Cincinnati Medicai Advance. 

a,nd if we cannot give them mechanical or surgical relief, wc 
must give them medicinal relief. 

Again, according to Homoeopathy quinine is indicated in in- 
termittents, but do they give the 200th attenuation for the 
disease? They give it in small doses it may be, but often 
enough to make up for the smalluess of the dose. They see to 
it, generally, that the patient gets ten or fifteen grains between 
chills, but then they have a way of reconciling this with the 
doctrine of intinitesimalism. 

Another question connected with Homoeopathy has puzzled 
us. We know that sacch. lac. is not wholy inert, though its 
medicinal properties are not marked. We have a physician 
here who gives the two hundredth dilution of sugar of milk in 
certain diseases and with astounding effect! We do not know 
how he dilutes it but he has told us that he gives it in highly 
attenuated forms. But we know without even this proof, that 
it is not absolutely inert. The Homoeo2)ath gives the same 
number of globules or the same quantity of powder where ad- 
ministering a higher, as when exhibiting the lower potencies. 
What we want to know is this; what assurance have we that in 
giving the very high attenuations, the medicinal quantity of 
the sacch. lac. will not neutralize or preponderate over that of 
the contained drug; unless the sugar is absolutely inert, it 
would per necessity overshadow the included drug principle, 
especially if this drug happened to be charcoal or chalk. We 
are acquainted with a Homoeopath here who claims to have 
cured several old cases of dysmcnorrhoea with the 65,000th of 
Pulsatilla! Can any sane man believe that the nothing of Pul- 
satilla contained in this lofty potency would not be swallowed 
up in the sacch lac and alcohol used as menstrua? 

A word more as to increased susceptibility in disease and as 
to dose. We know and most Homoeopaths will admit, that 
one drop of belladonna (mother tincture) will generally cure a 
congestive head ache. J3ut if the true does is to be found up 
among the decillionths, why will a drop of the crude cure? 
Why does it not kill instantly? Three-fourths of all the doctors 
in the world would pronounce one drop of belladonna a small 
dose, for it has been authorized in ten drop doses. Small as 
the dose is we dare not give fifty times the amount, and the 
same is true of all our remedies. This is not the case with the 
high dillutionist. He may and often does give a few hundred- 
millions more or less without any appreciable effects, good or 
bad. But science in medicine, as in anything else, depends 
upon definiteness, and Homoeopathy c\B\m8 to he par excel/ence 
scientific. Is there any definiteness in the latitude com pre- 



Theory and Practice, 159 

bended between a billion and decillion? We would be glad to 
publish some clear but brief exposition of fundamental high 
dilutionism.'' 

Having a reason for the faith that is in us, we venture to an- 
swer a few of the points raised by the writer. He says: *'In- 
finitcsimalism is based upon the idea that disease quickens the 
susceptibility of the affected part." This is a mistake. That, 
so called, infinitesimals cure, is a fact by itself. That disease 
increases the susceptibility of the part affected is another fact, 
and stands by itself. Either may stand while the other falls, 
or the latter, if true, may explain the former, or, not being 
true, the former may be without explanation. If either is 
true, it is because observation — that is experience, has proven 
it true. They do not need to be either axioms or assump- 
tions. 

We do not know what "law" cheek has based upon the fact 
of increased susceptibility, certainly not the law of Simila. 
This law, like all laws of nature, is derived from observation. 
We know it exists just as we know that gravitation and mag- 
netism exist. Howsoever you explain it, is another question. 

Now the writer may have wholly demolished this suscepti- 
bility theory in his argument. And the result may be to 
weaken our ability to explain the law and its operations, but 
it does not affect the law itself. 

It seems an idle task to repeat, that, upon the question of 
infinitesimals, the doctors of our school are divided; upon the 
theory of increased susceptibility, we presume they generally 
hold an aflirmative position, but there is nothing essential in it. 
If you prove it false, you do not overthrow our system. 

Therefore the writer's argument and illustration, while they 
amuse us by their inaptness, do not demand an answer. 

To his second question, as to quinine in intermittents. Do 
they use the 200th attenuation for the disease? We answer 
they certainly do. And do they cure with such doses? They 
certainly do. If an Homoeopathic doctor gives ten or fifteen 
grains between the chill, and pretends that is infinitesimalism, 
according to the general acceptance of the term, he simply 
lies about it. But intermittents are constantly being cured by 



1 60 Cincinnati Malical Advance, 

higb attenaatioQS not of quinine alone, but of a multitude of 
other drugs. 

The writer's last question beats us. He seems to concede 
that sacch lac, has medicinal properties. He is simply puzzled 
to know how the doctor dilutes and attenuates it. Why with 
water and alcohol of course. If sacch lac in an attenuated 
form has medicinal power, while in the crude form it is inert, 
what is there strange about that? Do not calcarea carb., sile- 
cia, sepia and many other drugs show the same peculiarity? 
No body claims to s^et in any form, absolute purity of the 
drug. The question^is have we the drug? and have we the 
alleged attenuation? If so we give it with confidence and suc- 
cess. 

If the 65,000th of pulsatilla can be prepared, it can be given; 
and each can judge for himself as to the result. 

The writer then drifts into high dilutions and propounds 

several important conundrums. He. seems to think we have 

ready made answers to all sorts of questions; that as a school 

we are, or ought to be, able to answer clearly all questions 
asked. Why bless you, many of these things puzzle us as they 

do you. • We haven't solved them yet and may be never will. 
We claim to be jE>ar esccc^fence scientific in the selection of 
our appropriate remedy. Other questions as to size and fre- 
quency of dose we have under judgement yet. If any one can 
give us a satisfactory exposition of high dilutionism or low di- 
lutionism or crudeism we will be delighted to publish it. 

W. 



■♦♦■ 



Post Partum Httaorrhagei By O. B. Moss, M. D., Zanesville. 

In the Medical Investigator Vol. xi. page 278, is reported a 
"case of Uterine Haemorrhage" that I think should have crit* 
ical notice. 



Theory and Practice. 161 

This article was read before the Illinois Valley Horn. Med- 
ical Society, February 13th, 1874; and whether it elicited de- 
bate by medical gentlemen present^ or not I am not,infomed; 
at least, I have not observed anything of the kind. 

The doctor says: **The lady being attended to without mov- 
ing her, or the least disturbance, and the baby being dressed 
and put into the mother^s arms, she lay down to rest feeling as 
comfortable as could possibly be expected. 

Shortly afler, hearing her mutter something in a low indis- 
tinct voice, I immediately went in to see her. She had then 
just strength enough left to say that she was Hooding, and then 
^he dropped away as in the arms of death.'^ 

In any labor so rapid as this — in which the second stage is 
completed in two hours — atony of the uterus, in some degree, 
may be apprehended, and^the hasmorrhage consequent upon 
this condition should be, as far as possible, guarded against. 
A rapid pulse may be regarded as an ominous symptom, and 
whenever it exists, even if not over one hundred per minute, 
the physician should not leave his patient unless, after thor- 
ough investigation it becomes evident that its rapidity. is clear- 
ly traceable to some other cause than impending haemorrhage. 

If from rapid labor, the haemorrhagic diathesis of the pa- 
tient, or the condition of the uterus after the delivery of the 
placenta, we have cause to anticipate the occurrence of haem- 
orrhage, I believe it should be imperative that the physician 
should not leave his patient till after the child has nursed, for 
it is well known to every accoucheur of experience that the 
irritation of the breasts produced by the early efforts of the 
child at nursing, nearly always induces slight and often pro- 
fuse haemorrhage; and indeed I do not hesitate to express the 
conviction that if the child had nursed without the superven- 
tion of haemorrhage, and the pulse still remains normal, the 
physician may leave his patient with no danger of being 
soon summoned to her side to guard her life against its occur- 
rence, unless it shall have been induced by some unusual cause 
contingent upon her surroundings such as violent mental emo- 
tion or a like circumstance. 

Aug-2 ' 



162 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

Whether the pulse was normal, or whether the child had 
nursed before the doctor left the bedside of his patient, we 
are not informed, but are rather left to infer that the flooding 
began when the child was put to the breast. However, 
whether my suspicion be correct or not is of no special con- 
sequence, since it is not so much the exact condition under 
which haemorrhage occurred in this specific case that I would 
call attention to, as its general management. 

Believing the homcBopath can not well discard high poten- 
cies in general practice, I would not raise the question of their 
efficacy in cases of post partum hemorrhage; but whatever 
' medicinal agents are employed to save life, let it never be for- 
gotten that ^i^ doctor is supposed to be a phyHcian^ and in 
possession of other resources than would be indicated in his 
sitting like an automaton, giving the water in which five or- 
thodox pellets have been religiously dissolved, to a patient that 
has fainted from loss of blood* 

And yet the doctor aseure* us "the only other thing I did 
was to lay my hand on the abdominal region of the uterus 
with a gentle pressure. All this seemed for a time to have 
no efTect. She grew paler aind paler, until the last trace of 
blood disappeared from her cheeks," etc. 

This is only what might have been expected under such 
circumstances, nature, however, wa« prompt in doing what 
she could through syncope, diminishing the force of the cir- 
culation and thus arresting the haemorrhage and saving the 
patient's life. 

Now, thfi fact is, something else shoidd have been done. The 
application of eoJd water to the abdomen; friction over the 
region of the uterus ;./fr?n pressure over the superior pubic re- 
gion, grasping the body in a manner to- bring the vaginal 
walls together and dose the mouth of the uterus; removal of 
the clots from the vagina and uterus, and by the presence of 
the hand against the internal wall of the latter, excite con- 
tractions — these are among the nveaiis that all may use, and, 
whenever life is threatened, the physician^s duty regarding 
them is imperative^ and can not be evaded without great risk 
to the patient and doctor's reputation. 



Theory and Practice. 163 

Si ill, the case to which I have referred was reported as a 
remarkable illustration of what five pellets each, of china and 
secale, thirtieth, in separate glasses half full of water, did for 
a case of post partum haemorrhage that came so near ending 
disastrously', in which it was exultantly claimed that nothing 
else was done except to make gentle pressure over the abdom- 
inal region of the uterus. 

That a patient having such treatment, did narrowly escape 
with lifey does not establish its safety or efficiency in other 
cases of the kind; and it should ever be borne in mind that 
the grand object to be attained in reporting cases in practice, 
for publication in our Jour<ials, is, that they may serve as 
guides to the student and young practitioner, and practical 
suggestions for all, and failing in this, they fail to be of any 
practical utility to the profession. 



•♦ ♦ 



Mk Slot for Infants. 

Dr. L. Hubbard writes: 

'^I was glad to see attention called to milk as a curative agent 
in dysentery. Some years ago I was attending a very severe 
case of dysentery. When nearly all hopes of recovery were 
gone, my patient asked if he*might have milk as almost every 
thing else taken into the stomach was thrown up. I told him, 
him, yes, if he would take it direct from the cow. A cow was 
ordered to be brought up and tied to the fence, there kept. 
A wine glass of milk, fresh from the cow, was given every 30 
minutes. We were all astonished to see the stomach quick- 
ened immediately; the severe pain, which preceded and follow- 
ed his discharges was soon relFevcd and my patient soon 
recovered with success. My experience has always been more 
successful with milk warm from the cow than when the nurse 
has attempted to warm cold milk. So when I order warm 
milk I have the cow brought to the door or barn and milk it 



1 64 Cincinnati MediccU Advance. 

as I order it used. I usually add a little salt to the milk. If 
milk agrees with the patient I allow him a word in how much 
he takes and how often, always dictated by its effect 



Sttiigitty^ 



Lwpu of the Nose aad Cheek. By Wm. Ovens, M. D. 

■ 

Mrs. E.y — aged 42, light complexion, poorly nonrished, the 
mother of six children, the last, five years old. Had indica* 
tions of constitutional disease; has always enjoyed usual good 
health, though never very strong. On the 16th day of Octo- 
ber, called upon me for an opinion in reference to a tumor on 
the left side of her nose and extending on to her cheek. It 
itched a great deal, would scab over and then break out again 
every two or three weeks. It was slightly elevated, about one 
inch long and half an inch wide. When the scab came off the 
edges were irregular as if gnawed or eaten off by some animal. 
There was but little pain at any time. There was also a 
smaller tumor apparently of the same character upon the end 
of the nose. Her diet seemed to affect it, but was not affected 
by changes of weather; the tendency seemed to be toward de- 
■truction of the parts. 

Vienna paste was applied freely all over the surface of the 
large one, and in six days we had a smooth, clean ulcer, in five 
weeks it healed up and we had a smooth, good, healthy cica- 
trix. 

The smaller tumor was treated in a similar manner and with 
like results. No medicine was used and until the present time 
now six months no indication of a return of disease* 



Sktrgery. 165 



Treatment of Bannla. 



Dr. Betz recommends that a hairseton be passed into the tu- 
mor in the mouth and be brought out on the neck. Wash out 
the mouth frequently with water. The Dr. succeeded in cur- 
ing a number of cases in this manner after a continued course 
of treatment from six months to one year. 



■♦-»- 



Treatment of ntuisy by ParaoentedflThorads. By Wm. Owens, 

M.D. 

Since it has been discovered that paracentesis thoracis has 
and can be performed on the human subject with impunity in 
oases of effusion into the cavity of the pleura, it has also been 
discovered that there has been increased mortality from disease 
of that tissue. This brings Dr. Lause, of Lyons, to the rescue, 
who claims that it is unjust to ascribe this mortality to the 
employment of thoracentesis. He says that these cases sim- 
ply require more special attention and greater care than has 
been paid to the disease of late. There can be no doubt that 
the operation timely performed will, in some cases, save the pa- 
tient from sudden death, though the relief may not be perma- 
nent: and may be justifiable under the following circumstan- 
ceSy when careful hom<Bopathic medication fails as sometimes it 
may, to give relief and especially when not administered until 
effusion becomes manifest 

Thoracentesis then may be performed wh^n there is danger 
of asphyxia from abundant effusion, bronchial complications or 
pulmonary oedema, whether the accumulatiom be serum or pus, 
if of recent formation. This disease is very common among 
young children, but it will be rarely necessary to perform the 
operation upon them, for the effusion is usually rapidly absorbed, 
I have never found it necessary to resort to it in adults, though 



1 66 Cincinnati Medieai Advance. 

I have witnessed the operation on two occasions. I can not 

recommend it over other means which I will suggest Wrap 

the chest in raw cotton completely enveloping the side affected. 

If the attack is recent, give aconite, 2d decimal, 80 drops, in half 

, a glass of water, six hours, a dose every half hour; then bryo- 

nia, the same potency and dose, every two hours, and if a free 

perspiration has not by this time become established continue 
the aconite in alternation with the bryonia every hour. If seen 

at a later stage, aconite may not be demanded; then sulphur, 
phosphorus, or if much muscular soreness, rhus. If effusion 
has become established sulphur and bryonia are a main reliance 
and in a large majority of cases will be all that is required. 
The accute stage of this disease should be treated in every re- 
spect as a rheumatism, in relation to which the raw cotton wrap- 
ping is of the utmost importance. 



^mtuHnp ol ^uidin. 



British Homoeopathic Congress. 

The proceedings of Congress were opened by an Address 
from the President on "The Influence of Homoeopathy on 
General Medicine since the death of Hahnemann." 

Dr. Dyce Brown reada paper on "The action of Nitric Acid 
in certain forms of Cough." 

Dr. Hughes, after expressing his sense of the value of Dr. 
Dyce Brown's paper as a real contribution to therapeutical 
knowledge made some remarks upon the pathogenesis of nitric 
acid as presented in Hahnemann's Chronic J)iseases. It con- 
sisted of 1424 symptoms. Of these 118 were supplied by Hah 



Proceedings of Societies, 167 

nemann's only fellow-provers two, in number ; 29 were taken 
from authors; and 13 or so were credited to Stapf and others. 
The remaining 1264 were from Hahnemann|him8elf; andfrom, 
their number, and from what we knew of his practice at the 
time, we might be sure that the great majority of them were 
observed upon patients who were taking the medicine for the 
cure of their disorders. Again we knew that at this period 
Hahnemann advocated the proving, as well as the adminis- 
tration, of all medicines in globules saturated with the 30th 
dilution. This dilution, in the case of nitric acid, was pre- 
pared by mixing the acid with water for the 1st attenuation, 
with dilute spirit for the 2d, and with pure spirit for the 3d 
and higher. If his (Dr. Hughes') chemistry did not err, 
this process converted nitric acid into nitric fiBther. He 
therefore thought, that symptoms occurring in sick persons 
who were takijig such a medicine were more probably mani- 
iestations of their disease than effects of the drug; and that, 
at the best, effects of the 30th dilution of nitric aether were 
no sure indications for the use of the first decimal dilution 
of nitric acid. He thought the drug needed reproving ;' and 
that, in the meantime, it should be used as clinical experi- 
ence directed. 

Dr. Moore (Liverpool) would like to ask Dr. Brown whether 
he had noticed the uvula in the case he had referred to. 
Many of the symptoms described were similar to those pro- 
duced by elongated uvula. He had been rather struck with 
the absence of any notice of this. 

Dr. Edward Blake had been struck with precisely the same 
thing that Dr. Moore had noticed. He thought the cough 
described as occurring on lying down was uvular in its ori- 
gin. There was often in hepatic derangement a relaxed con- 
dition of the pharynx and soft palate present. Might not 
the acid act by virtue of its affinity for the liver? The bene- 
fit derived from the use of nitric acid in cases of constipa- 
tion was, he thought, due to its action on the liver; and that 
the form of constipation indicating nitric acid was that aris- 
ing from portal congestion. "Cough on lying down'* he had 
hitherto treated with nux vomica; he would now certainly 



168 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

give nitric acid a trial in such cases. He thought the analo^ 
gies of nitric acid to hjdrastis were very marked. 

Dr. Hayward thought that Dr. Dyee Brown had' giren 
them rather a clinical reason for using nitric acid than* one 
of a pathogenetic character; — ^this appeared to him to be a 
mistake. He agreed with Dr. Moore, that a very clear ex- 
planation of the benefit resulting from the use of nitric acid 
in cases of constipation might be found when its action on 
the liver was considered. 

Dr. Sharp, had one request to make of him, vis., that he 
would be good enough to prove the first decimal in healthy 
with the same dose he had been giving in disease, in order 
that they might learn what effect the medicine would have 
under those circumstances. 

Mr. Clifton said it would be better if half a doaen gentle^ 
men would join Dr. Dyce Brown in proving the medicine. 

Dr. Pearce was glad that the question of proving had been 
mooted. As an old homoeopath he had not failed to notice 
the difference in provings made from high dilutions, and 
those from the crude doses. He thought it of the utmost im- 
portance to the profession, and especially to new comers, 
that these two kinds of provings should be distinguished, and 
especially after a drug had been put through a process which 
might have converted it into something else. It was very 
unsatisfactory to an inquirer into Homoeopathy to find, that 
after studying over a thousand symptoms set down to nitric 
acid, he had been devoting his attention to nitric sether. Ho 
thought the question of re-proving all their remedies — all 
those at least hitherto imperfectly known — was one of the 
utmost importance. He hoped that the reading of* Dr. 
Brown's paper would lead to a re-investigation of the prop- 
erties of medicine by actual provings — not in one dilution 
only, but beginning with the crude drugs, and taking suc- 
cessive dilutions afterwards. He trusted that before the 
Congress separated some volunteers, — and he would be 
happy to join them, — would undertake to prove nitric acid, 
and that they would go through that medicine within the 
next year and then give the result of their investigations. 



Proceedings of 8ooietie$. 169 

He thought such a course would do more good than all the 
clinical experience they could collects 

Dr. Wolston, said that Dr. Brown had touched upon the 
subject of constipation; he thought he might be able to af- 
ford a little help to those who had a difficulty in treating 
that troublesome ailment. He was indebted to a patient of 
his for a very simple suggestion, which had led him to a very 
great auxiliary in the treatment of constipation; — viz., the 
use of a little linseed. A teaspoonful of ordinary linseed, 
with a little boiling water cast upon it, and allowed to stand 
for twelve hourc^, and taken after a meal. This he had found 
in some of the most obstinate cases of constipation, of the 
utmost value. In some cases it failed ; but he threw it out as 
a little help in very many instances. 

Mr. J. H. Smfth said that he had found nitric acid of use 
in certain forms of urinary disease. 

Dt: Reed had no difficulty in testifying to the value of 
nitric acid in some forms of cough, and also in constipation; 
in cases of broken constitution he had found nitric acid a 
most valuable remedy. 

The President said that Dr. Dyce Brown had mentioned 
among other things for which he had tried nitric acid, whoop- 
ing cough, and he mentioned also the want of success that 
had attended his practice as regards this disease, and the 
large doses necessary to be given in order to accomplish any- 
thing in whooping cough. It was rather curious that thp 
attention of the profession was called some time ago to the 
action of nitric acid in whooping cough by Dr. Bolle, of Aix 
La Chapelle, who in investigating the pathology of whoop- 
ing cough found in most of his cases a very small sub-lingual 
ulcer, this led him to the use of nitric acid in small doses ; and 
he reported that he was very successful with it in those cases. 
He did not know that an epidemic occurring without this 
sub-lingual ulcer would indicate nitric acid. He had seen 
nitric acid successfully used in certain cases of constipation, 
and had himself prjsscribed it; but not in cases similar to 
those mentioned by Dr. Brown. 



170 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Dr. Dyce Brown, in reply, said that Dr. Moore and Dr. 
Blake had asked as to4;he state of the uvula in the cases oi 
cough he had described. He had examined the state of the 
uvpla in all of them, and found nothing in its condition to 
account for the symptomd. In the other case mentioned, the 
state of the expectoration, and the whole condition of the pa- 
tient showed the seat of the disease to be the chest. As to 
Dr. Blake's question respecting the action on the liver, ho 
did not think in the cases he had alluded to there was any 
disorder of the liver. Dr. Dudgeon had spoken of cases of 
liver disease and constipation as having been improved by 
niti*ic acid, — he (Dr. Brown) had seen the same thing; but 
the cases referred to in the paper which he had read were 
simply cases of constipation, where he could find nothing in 
the stat« of the liver to account for it; an^i there was no 
proof that the benefit derived from the nitric acid was due 
to its effect on the liver. With reference to the cases of 
whooping cough, he had only given two or three cases, and 
in those he had not looked for the sub-lingual ulcer at that 
time. As to proving the medicine, he would be most happy 
to do anything in that way. Dr. Pearce had kindly offered 
to assist him in the matter, and perhaps other gentlemen 
might be willing to join them. He begged to thank the 
meeting for the attention they had paid to his paper, and for 
the kind manner in which it had been received. 

The members then adjourned for luncheon, which was 
provided in the dining room of the Officers of the Hospital. 

On re-assembling, the President called upon Dr. Hayward 
to read the Report of the Hahnemann Publishing Society. 

Dr. Hayward having read the Report, and given full de- 
tails of the work and present position of the Society. 

The President said the Report was very satisfactory, and 
that the Society was now, for the first time, in a flourishing 
condition. He hoped that with the continuation of Dr. Hay- 
ward in the Secretaryship its prosperity would continue to 
increase. 

As to place and time for the next Congress, it was 



Proceedings of Societies. Ill 

unanimously resolved that Manchester should be the place? 
the date fixed, Thursday, the 23d of September, 1875. 

Dr. Bayes was elected President, aud Mr. Cox, of Manches- 
ter, Vice-President. Dr. Gibbs Blake was re-elected G-eneral 
Secretary, and Dr. Moir, of Manchester, appointed Local 
Secretary. Mr. Fraser was re-elected Treasurer. Dr. Hay- 
ward and Mr. Blakeley were requested to act as Auditors. 
The Executive Committee consists of the President, Vice- 
President, Past President, Auditors, Treasurer and Secreta- 
ries. 

The President next proposed a vote of thanks to the Board 
of Management of the Hospital, for their courtesy in giving 
the Congress the use of the rooms its members had occupied 
during the day. This resolution was carried by acclamation. 

Dr. Drury then proposed the following resolution: — 

*'That the Secretary be requested to write to the Home 
Secretary, requesting that a Homoeopathic Medical Man 
might be appointed a member of the Medical Council on the 
first vacancy; and that a copy of the President's address 
should be forwarded with the letter." 

Dr. Holland seconded the resolution. He thought it only 
right that homoeopathic practitioners should have a voice in 
the Medical Council. 

The proposition was opposed in speeches by Mr. Pope, 
Dr. Sharp, Dr. Metcalf, Dr. Moore, (Liverpool,) Dr. Brown, 
Dr. Yeldham and Dr. Gibbs Blake, and supported by Dr. 
Hay ward and Dr. Pybum. 

The Preddent, in concluding the discussion, said that the 
proposition was one open to a good deal of criticism, and ho 
was doubtful of its propriety. The Medical Council had 
nothing whatever to do with therapeutics, and had not inter- 
fered with that department of medicine in any way. He did 
not think that any blame was to be attached to the Medical 
Council so far as they had gone. Had anything been done 
to interfere with the Homoeopathic Therapeutic School, ho 
thought it would have been right to have sought for a repre- 
sentative of the principles of homoeopathy in the Council. But 
it appeared to him that the raison d'etre for a member of the 



1 12 CineinnaH Medical Advance. 

Council being a homoeopath did not exist. 

Dr. Drury said he was not prepared for the feeling of op- 
position with which his motion had been received. There 
was no position which he abominated more than sectarianism ; 
but they had no opportunity of protesting against the posi* 
tion into which they had been thrust. Statements were 
made, with reference to homoeopaths, by members of the all- 
opathic body, and they had very little opportunity of protest- 
ing in public, and it was of little use to protest among them- 
selves. If a gentleman of their own body were on the Council, 
and any statement were made which h6 knew to be &lse, he 
could at all events contradict it ; and he would be there to 
look after the interests of the body with which he was more 
especially connected, if anything was brought forward inju- 
rious to those interests. He was also of opinion that, if a 
suitable man were chosen, a great many of those differences 
which now unhappily existed would soon be removed. From 
these and other considerations he was not prepared to with- 
draw his motion. 

The resolution was then put to the meeting and negatived. 

The President next called on Mr. Pope to make a state- 
ment regarding the Convention of Homosopathic Practition- 
ers appointed to be held in Philadelphia in 1876. 

Mr. Pope said that in anticipation of this meeting, he had 
written some five or six weeks previously to the gentleman 
who was advertised as the Secretary of the Committee ap- 
pointed to make arrangements for the proposed Convention, 
asking for information regarding it, with the view of placing 
it before the members of the Congress. Up to that time he 
had received no reply to his letter. This, however, was of 
less importance than it might have been, as they were favored 
with the presence of Dr. N. Schneider, of Cleveland, who 
would, doubtless be able to tell something regarding the meet- 
ing it was intended should be held' in Philadelphia in 1876. 

The President having requested Dr. Schneider to address 
the meeting, he said he was present at the last meeting of the 
American Institute which was held in Cleveland, Ohio, and 
was, in fact, a member of the committee on the International 



Proceedingi qf Sooietiei. 173 

Convention, as it was termed, to be held at Philadelphia in 
July, 1876. Certain steps were taken at that meeting, and the 
members were doing all they could to bring about the Con- 
vention. As a member of that committee, he would like to 
press on those present the advantages which would result 
from the intermingling of thought on the part of the two great 
bodies — the Congress of Great Britain and the American In- 
stitute of Homoeopathy. He thought this interchange of 
thought would be of great advantage in the advancement of 
homceopathy, and he trusted that all who could do so would 
endeavor to be present at Philadelphia on that occasion. 

THE ACTION, SBLBCTION AND ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS. 

A paper was then read by Dr. Hale, on *The Action, Se- 
lection and Administration of Drugs." This we hope to 
publish in our August number; meanwhile, we present the 
following abstract of it 

Dr. Hale, after some introductory remarks on the advanta« 
ges of theoretical investigations, urged the necessity for rais- 
ing the formula similia similibus curarUur from an empirical 
basis to the higher standard of a scientific principle. He sug- 
gested that drugs acted dynamically in some cases, reversing 
in others, energising abnormal vibrations. To secure a per- 
fect specific effect, it was necessary that the closest relation in 
kind should subsist between the drug-remedy and the disease, 
and that the dose given should have the closest return poten- 
tially to the normal rate of vibration which disease has per- 
verted and disturbed. Remarking that energised by forces 
emanating from the ganglia of the sympathetic and cerebro- 
spinal systems, the work and function of each organ was per- 
formed by cell growth and ihetamorphosis, resulting from vi- 
brations of the ultimate molecules of which each cell com- 
posed, we argued that it was into these hidden recesses that 
our curative agencies must reach. The withdrawal of electro- 
motor energy he regarded as the first link in the chain of 
causes leading to a departure from health; according to the 
extent of this withdrawal temporary arrest of function, 
organic change or death resulted. The action of belladonna 



1 74 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

and nicotine was adduced in illustration. The membrane ot 
the structure invaded in disease/ Dr. Hale argued, indicated 
that the doses used should be in relatively minute proportions. 
In remarking on the dose, after acknowledging the difficul- 
ties which surrounded its selection, Dr. Hale suggested that 
it should be regulated by the nature of the tissue, by the ra- 
pidity or slowness of metamorphosis, and especially by the 
greater or lesser excitability of the tissue in relation to electro- 
motor force. Dr. Hale concluded by some observations on 
dynamization, which he thought was capable of proof by 
well-known physical facts. He argued that during the pro- 
cess of attenuation the forces which before were potentially 
latent, became dynamically energetic, because of the molecu- 
lar changes that occur whilst it is going on. He concluded 
by suggesting that different potencies of medicines are more 
curative than others, in proportion as their rates of vibration 
«re in harmony with the rates of vibration in the diseased 
organ. 

In the discussion which followed, 

Dr. Drysdale said that he was glad that such an interesting 
though intricate subject had been brought forward, and had 
been so ably treated by its author. No doubt molecular 
movements took place in living bodies, as in all other bodies 
in nature; but he did not agree with the author, that vibratory 
movements took place in any living action, or could be the 
basis of explanation of the specific differences among drugs 
or of their therapeutic actions. For that we must still go 
back to their operation as stimuli, which was something quite 
eui generis corresponding to the nature of vital actions them- 
selves, which were utterly sui generis^ and not paralleled by 
any chemical or physical actions. The proof of this lay in 
the fact that in all vibratory movements the molecule, at the 
end of each excursion, returned exactly to the same place as 
at starting; and also its chemical constitution was unchanged. 
Whereas, in all vital action no doubt there was movement of 
the atoms and molecules, but, invariably they did not return 
to the same place, and there was change of composition. In 
no vital action did the material particles remain in the same 



Proceedings of Societies, 1 75 

state of composition at the end as in the beginning. So all 
vibratory actions are merely physical forces, and as. such, 
dead; and all they could do in a living organism was to act as 
stimuli. For example, when the fibres of Corti respond to 
the vibration of similar vibrations in the air, or the rods and 
cones of the retina answer to those of li^t, the action is purelv 
physical, although it took place by harmony between the pe- 
riods of vibration. But, as far as that went, there was still 
no sensation of sound or light till the fibres acted on the living 
matter connected with them, and produced a vital change, 
which was apprehended in a vital manner by the sensorium. 
As to dynamization, he was satisfied that the whole physical 
eflTect of trituration and solution was merely that of reducing 
the mass to a state of finer division. And with respect to the 
apparently different, and at times apparently greater, eflect 
of small doses than single large doses, bethought the explana- 
tion of Fletcher was still the best, viz., that all positive agents 
are stimuli to an increased actk)n, primarily, which was fol- 
lowed sooner or later by a corresponding exhaustion of the 
specific effect. In this we have a natural explanation of the 
apparently opposite action of small and large doses. And 
when this is taken in connection with the fact that the sus- 
ceptibility to the action at all of many stimuli may be exhaust- 
ed, often quickly, we see the reason why repeated small doses 
may produce much more grave effects than one large dose 
given at once. The latter soom exhausts the susceptibility, 
and no scope or time is given for the more profound altera- 
tion of the protoplasm in which palpable disease consists. 

Dr. Sharp was sorry to say he had heard Dr. Hale only 
imperfectly, and was scarcely prepared to discuss the subject 
at present. What he had heard was well worth thinking 
about. 

Dr. Hay ward, after thanking Dr. Hale for his very interest- 
ing and instructive paper, said he regretted that Dr. Sharp 
had not addressed them at greater length. He had hoped to 
hear some practical observations from him, especially as his 
(Dr. Sharp's) ideas on the subject were known to be peculiar. 
He had pleasure in agreeing with Dr. Drysdale in his remarks 



1 76 ClncinncUi Medical Advance. 

on the effects of large and small doses, and also on the subject 
of vibration. He thought it a very attractive idea, and one 
they were apt to be led away with. He agreed with Dn 
Drysdale that it was a vital action, and not a vibratory action, 
they must look for in the result of their treatment. 

Dr. Pearce agreed with Dr. Sharp that this was a very wide 
question, and one it was utterly impossible adequately to dis- 
cuss in a meeting such as that. It was a subject not yet set* 
tied, and, in fact, one on which many men were very much 
unsettled. As a student of the action of doses for more than 
a quarter of a century, he thought they should always dis- 
tinguish between the chemical and dynamic actions of medi- 
cines. It appeared to him that every medicinal substance 
was endowed with two distinct forces; one, belonging to the 
grosser or material form, which might be called chemical or 
mechanical, and the other, which partook more of the trans- 
cendental or electrical character. This might be seen in an 
experiment with a grain of zinc and a grain of copper, which, 
when their chemical action was developed by juxtaposition 
would throw out a gigantic force previously pent up, and only 
liberated by their electrical relationship. In the same way he 
thought subdivision of a medicine set free a force — he would 
not call it a spiritual force — which, acting upon the vital or- 
gans, produced changes which were indicated by either det- 
riment to the health or improvement in the condition of the 
patient. He had made many experiments in that direction, 
and was fully convinced that in very many diseases the higher 
potencies do produce changes much more quickly than those 
which are lower, though no doubt in other diseases this was 
not so. He trusted that the discussion would lead to further 
inquiry on the subject. 

Dr. Hughes, with all deference to Dr. Drysdale, was unable 
to acquiesce in his sweeping exclusion of molecules and vi- 
brations from living substance. If the composition of dead 
matter were molecular, and its forces vibratory, why should 
we suppose that such molecules ceased to exist, and such vi- 
brations to go on, because the matter had assumed that *'me- 
tabolic^ state of combination in which, and not in any added 



Proctedinffs i^ Societies.' 177 

entity^ Dr. Drysdale himself had taught us that life consists? 
For himself he agreed with Dr. Hale in looking to these two 
great hypotheses of science as the preparation for the re- 
ception of homoeopathic doctrine. If force be conceived as 
undulatory, it was easy to recognise that two similar undula- 
tions might neutralise one another^ and to the conception of 
matter aa molecular, the infinitesimal dose fits itself in evident 
harmony. 

Dr. Sharp said he had been alluded to as contending that 
small doses act in a contrary direction to large doses; this they 
certainly did in health. It had been said, **No, they act in the 
same direction." He wished to say that these differences 
arose from a difficulty as to words. When he said small do- 
ses act in a contrary direction to targe doses, he meant simply 
as regards their results^ If he rubbed two drops of belladonna 
on his temple, the pupil would be dilated; that was a fact in 
one direction. If he rubbed ajt/thpartof a drop on his tem- 
ple, the pupil would be eontranted; that was a fact in the op- 
posite direction. He knew nothing of the manner in which 
this took place; none of them did; and it was waste of time 
to talk about what they did not and could not understand. 
Let them be content with results, and study those results, 
-which might be turned every day to good account at the bed- 
side of the sick« In his opinion they would never know the 
modes of action* 

Dr. Hale in reply said, he thought that the latest physiologi- 
cal discoveries showed that nothing whatever took place, 
either in the human body or any other body, where any phe- 
nomena can be observed, whether light or heat, or electricity, 
-where "motion" does not occur. In fact, what we call life is 
motion. He believed if he were to attempt to prove that there 
-was any entity acting apart from matter. Dr. Drysdale would 
be the first to argue against isuch a view. He had preferred 
the word "vibration" to that of motion, merely because it gave 
a more distinct idea to his own mind. With regard to chem- 
ical action, he believed that in some cases cures were effected 
by some chemical effect of medicine, but that, in the main, the 
Aug-3 



178 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

majority of effects were produced by its dynamic action. He 
did not mean to convey the idea that the quality of the drug 
was changed by vibration, nor that its special qualities under- 
went any change; it was simply a matter of dynamic action, 
in relation to degree and force. Medicine had a quality 
which never departed from it, but its dynamic action was al- 
ways exther plus or minus. He thought the experiments sub- 
mitted by Dr. Sharp to demonstrate a principle, required to 
be largely extended before they could be accepted. He was 
of opinion that in carrying on experiments on a healthy body, 
the person so experimented on should be in complete igno- 
rance of the medicine undergoing proof, and that his mind 
should be free from all influences likely in any way to inter- 
fere with the action of the medicine. He was satisfied that 
this discussion would bear fruit, and would lead to more in- 
quiry into the subject He maintained that in physical sci- 
ence nothing could be called ^'unknowable;" the unknown of 
to-day was the well-known of to-morrow. Therefore he 
hoped that, with all the difHculties which surrounded the sub 
ject, still it was not an unknowable one. He concluded by 
thanking the meeting for the attention which had been be- 
stowed upon his paper. 

Dr. E. Blake then read a paper on ^^Malignant Chawths.*^ 
Dr. Blake commenced his paper by some observations on 
the nomenclature of cancer, classified "all cases as scirrhus, 
encephaloma, and canceroid, including in the last epithelioma 
lupus, and similar growths. Cancer, Dr. Blake regarded as 
being primarily in many instances a perfectly local disease, 
while in others, possessing the constitutional taint of cancer 
it was constitutional. In illustrating this part of the subject, 
he compared cancer with tubercle and the strumous diathesis. 
In passing on to the treatment of cancer Dr. Blake expressed 
a strong opinion that cancer was curable. The medicines at 
present found most useful were, he thought, oonticm, hydrattiSj 
and galium; several cases illustrating the conditions in which 
each was most advantageously emplo5Ked were read. In op- 
erating. Dr. Blake preferred the actions o£ caustic and the wire 



Proceedings qf Societies, 179 

ecraseur to the knife, against the use of which he protested 
He concluded by referring to the circumstances necessary to 
be kept in view in selecting cases for operation. 

In discussion, 

Dr. Wolston said that, however well suited Dr. Blake's 
treatment might be in certain cases of cancer, there were oth- 
ers in which he thought it would not answer; he alluded to 
cases in which the axillary glands were affected and enlarged. 
In such cases there was great hope of recovery from remov- 
ing the breasts entirely, and the affected glands with them. 
He had been assured by the most eminent surgeons that this 
could be done with great facility and security, however large 
the cancer; and that by so thorongh an extirpation of the dis- 
eased tissues, health might be spared for many years. In 
one case of cancer he had found the administration of hj/dras- 
tiSy and also of coccultiSy of great service; both were given in 
high dilutions. His patient came to him about seven years 
ago with tumors in both breasts, each larger than a hen*s 
egg^ and af^er the use of the remedies he had mentioned, she 
was relieved of pain, the tumors became smaller, and she 
was now alive and in very fair health. In another, where the 
breast had been affected by cancer, the knife was used, and 
the tumor returned after a time. A second operation re- 
moved it, about five years ago, and the patient was now in 
good health. He thought Dr. Blake's sweeping exclusion of 
the knife ought to be received with exceptions. 

Dr. Sharp stated that some years ago Sir James Paget made 
a collection of all the cases occurring in a large hospital prac- 
tice, and as far as possible went into the details of each, as to 
the number of months each lived after the operation, and 
compared these with an equal number of cases as similar as 
possible, which had not been operated upon. The conclusion 
he arrived at was, that supposing two persons having cancer 
of the same kind, and in the same stage, the one who was not 
operated on would live longer than the one who was. 

Mr. Pope said that a very interesting paper had been read 
at the British Homoeopathic Society by Dr. Craig, of Scar- 
borough, during the last session, in which he referred to the 



1 80 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

influence of medicinal measures in prolonging life after an op- 
eration, and the observations made by Dr. Craig seemed to 
tend to prove the fact that a person who was a favorable 
subject for the removal of a cancerous tumor, if placed upon 
a proper course of treatment after the operation, had a much 
more favorable chance of recovery than one where all op- 
erative measures were omitted, or one where an operation 
having been performed had not been treated specifically af- 
terwards. 

Dr. Craig (Scarborough) said that he had found it a good 
plan to remove the whole breast, following the operation up 
by the most carefully selected homoeopathic remedy. He had 
been comparatively successful, and had certainly eight or nine 
cases living who had been operated upon above ten years, 
and a great many more on whom he had operated within that 
time. He thought that by removing the whole breast they 
had a much better chance of controlling the disease by their 
remedies alone. 

Dr. Cooper felt certain that the time was coming when 
they would have a cure for a great number of forms of can- 
cer. He thought the first thing to be done in order to find 
out a remedy was, to work out the etiology and pathology of 
cancer. It had been remarked that there was a close con- 
nection between common warts and cancerous growths, the 
one often being associated with the other. This was espe- 
cially the case with sweeps. It would be found that sweeps 
who were subject to cancerous growths were not subject to 
warts, and those subject to warts were not subject to cancer- 
ous growths; the point was, that soot apparently produced 
both cancerous growths and warts. Now one of the most 
reliable cases of cure of cancer by remedies was that of Mar- 
shal Radetzky, and the chief remedies administered were 
thujay which we find disperses ordinary warts like magic, and 
carbo animalis, the latter of which, he need not say, was a 
substance closely allied to soot. 

Dr. Dunn was, after some experience, disposed with Dr. 
Craig, to take a more favorable view of operations with the 
knife. It should be borne in mind that when ladies consulted 



Proceedings of Soaieti^, 181 

them with reference to cancer, it was generally in a very late 
stage. He certainly thought that in cases where the cancer 
was well defined, its removal by the knife tended to prolong 
life. He thought in all cases patients lived longer after hav- 
ing had the operation performed than without. It should 
also be remembered that, when left alone, the tumor degen- 
erated, and became a running sore, and the sufferings of a 
patient then are certainly much greater than would be caused 
by any removal witn the knife. He would be glad indeed to 
have any better method of cure, but certainly would not give 
up the knife in cases where it seemed admissible. 

Dr. Hayward advised the use of the knife in suitable cases. 
The presence of the tumor was an aggravator of the patient's 
condition, and its removal was a removal of the cause of ag- 
gravation, though not of the cause of the generation of the 
disease. He related the case of a lady patient, who came to 
him with a tumor in the breast, which he removed by the 
knife. Within three months it returned, and was again re- 
moved. It again returned, when under the advice of Dr. 
Drysdale, he gave up all idea of again resorting to the knife. 
It then occurred to him that the tumor was the result of a 
certain condition of the body, and he' administered the ap- 
propriate remedies. The patient improved wonderfully in 
health, the disease entirely disappeared, and the lady is to this 
day in good health. This cure he attributed entirely to an 
examination into the etiology of the disease. — ffom. Beview. 



1 82 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 



M^iutlUtitt^m. 



More of the Sow Among the '^Begolars." 

Our readers will recall the statement made under this head 
in a former number of the Advance. Since then, matters 
have culminated in the report of a special committee who 
were appointed to enquire into the grounds of Dr. Reamy's 
declaration that ^'regular" physicians of this city, otherwise in 
good standing, were guilty of producing abortions. At a 
meeting of the Academy of Medicine, the committee reported 
the following testimony taken: 

"Dr. Thornton had come to knowledge of two abortions. 

In one case the woman had performed it upon herself, un* 
der instructions of her family physician; the other came to 
his knowledge from a nurse, cognizant of the facts. Names 
of physicians were given him, and both were regular, in oth- 
erwise good standing. 

Dr. Hadlock said a woman had confessed to him that for 
$75 a physician had instructed her how to perform an abortion 
on herself. Name of physician given and was a regular. 

Dr. James had discovered a case of abortion by a regular 
physician upon a young woman to save her from exposure. 

Dr. Warren Woodward had found out three cases of abor- 
tion, performed under instructions, from the confession of the 
women, two of whom he was called attend, and fearing dan- 
ger told him the facts and gave him the names of the physi- 
cians. They were regulars. The third was a confession of a 
woman living in a suburban village, who said she had per- 
formed abortion on herself seventeen times. 

Dr. C. S. Muscroft had come to a knowledge of two cases 
performed under instructions of regular physicians, performed 



Miscellaneous, 183 

by the women themselves. One of these cases was in order 
to save character. He learned his cases by confession of the 
women. Lieamed the names of the physicians and he believed 
the women. 

Dr. George B. Orr came to the knowledge of one case of 
abortion by the confession of the woman done to save char- 
acter. 

Dr. M. R Wright knew of several cases, all by the infor- 
mation of women except by one, and name of physicians not 
divulged. 

Dr. Samuel Nickels had heard of one case produced by 
women themselves under instructions of a regular physician. 

Dr. Palmer had known of no abortions referable to the 
regular profession. 

Dr. Walker knew of no instances of abortion. Would regard 
Reamy's remark slanderous and premeditated if name and 
proof not given. 

Dr. J. C. McKenzie had not discovered any abortion refer- 
able to the regular profession. Did not believe Reamy*s 
words inspired by malice. 

Dr. A. C. Kemper had not heard of any abortions by the 
regular profession. Regarded Reamy's words slanderous. 
Would not believe statements of women against abortionists 
unless well corroborated. 

Dr. N. P. Dandridge had known no abortions; regarded 
words of Dr. Reamy slanderous, unless the charge were spe- 
cific and supported by the evidence of truthful women. 

Dr. T. H. Kearney regarded Dr. Reamy's language unwar- 
ranted; would expect proof in general as well as in specific 
charges; would believe a woman's dying confession. 

Dr. William Carson knew of no abortions by the regular 
profession. Regarded Reamy's language slanderous in its 
effect Would not accept the testimony of an aborted woman 
without confirmation. 

Dr. S. A. Murphy knew of no abortions by regulars. 
Thought Dr. Reamy meditated no injury or malice. Would 
take dying testimony of woman as to personal abortion if well 
corroborated." 



184 Cincinn€Ui MedicaJt Advance. 

In view of this evidence, the committee believed he bad 
brought proof sustaining him in his remarks, to which excep- 
tion had been taken. Proof of malice had not been forthcom^- 
in^ and no case was made. 

In conclusion, the committee deprecated the prevalence of 
abortion; said ^*Dr. Reamy^s language was injudicious and 
should not have been used, and concluded by stating that the 
profession was not tabe held responsible for the acts of un- 
scrupulous men who became members of it." 

A long discussion followed which was chiefly an effort to 
avoid the crushing force of the testimony. 

Dr. Kemper put the whole thing in a nut shell. "He depre- 
cated the eflect directly upon the profession by the acceptance 
of such testimony, and reflexively upon society. It would be 
exceedingly demoralizing to society to come to believe that 
physicians high in the profession would perform abortion.'' 

In other words, its all true, but it shouldn't be mentioned. 

Finally, the previous question was ordered and the report 
of the committee adopted — Yeas 34, nays 23* 



» ♦ 



Heroic Treatment By F. B. Sherbourne, M. D. 

Miss Jennie S., aet 32; native of Ohio. While quite young» 
her father and mother being in poor health, and she of an 
ambitious temperament, took the burden of work of a large 
family upon herself. At the age of sixteen a load of hay came 
for her father. There was no one to put it in the mow, so 
Jennie took it upon herself to do the work, but before the 
hay was all in, her back gave out, so it was with great difli- 
culty that she got to the house. The pain, though very 
severe, soon subsided. She then commenced a large wash- 
ing, but before it was finished her back failed her again. 



The next day she was taken down with typhoid fever, from 
which she did not recover for six months. The spinal disease 
continued unabated. Three weeks after getting up from the 
above fever, she was attacked with biHous fever, which was 
very severe. During her treatment she was badly salivated 
(from which she still suffers). She did not recover for sev- 
eral months. In the fall of 1859, she had so regained her 
health as to able to once more attend school. About the first 
of January, from overwork and close application to her stud- 
ies, she fainted while reciting a lesson, and was taken home 
complaining of severe pain in the back of the head and spine. 
This continued, for eight months, very intense. Treatment: 
Besides the continued use of internal treatment, a part of 
which was five successive salivations, external counter- irrita- 
tion in all its forms, cupping, blistering, tartarizing; the red 
hot iron was used along the spine; the back of her head 
shaved; a seton put in between her shoulders, and a fiy blister 
covering the whole length of spine from the head down, ex- 
cept where the seton was. After dressing the blister once, 
a "Poor Man's Plaster" spread with tartar was applied, left 
on over night, and then pulled off by force, tearing off skin 
and surface fiesh. The seton cord which was a skein of floss, 
with knots tied in it, was drAwn through the sore every day. 
The blistering, sticking on, and pulling off of the "Poor Man's 
Plaster," the moving of the seton cord, etc. was continued for 
three months; then tartarizing, scarifying, 'cupping, irritating 
with croton oil, vinegar, pepper, ammonia, etc. on the raw 
surface were used for two months. Then burning both sides 
of the spine with red hot iron was used every other day for 
three weeks; scarifying on the raw surface; burning with 
caustic until the back was in holes like a honey comb, large 
enough to receive the end of the finger. From all this tor- 
ture and suffering no benefit was derived. 

In the fall of i860, she was taken to Columbus and put un- 
der charge of a clairvoyant-botanic physician; in a few months 
she had so far recovered that she could walk with crutches. 
Improvement gradually went on until she was able to return 
to school. In 1861, hard study brought back her old trouble. 



1 86 Cincinnati MediccU Advance, 

from which she had not entirely recovered, and in February, 
1862, she was again taken down with increased aggravation 
of the cerebrb spinal affection, accompanied with high fever, 
mental aberration, etc. In about six weeks she began to im- 
prove and would gain a little for two or three weeks and then 
relapse for the same length of time, and so on for more than 
six years. 

From the commencement of the attack of 1862 to the pres- 
ent time, 1874, she has never been able to stand or even sit 
up, and to all appearance never will. During the second 
year of this series^of aggravations, she became speechless and 
remained so for six months. At an other time she lost her 
eye sight for two months; and the whole of the left side be- 
came paralyzed for a time. In 1865, her right leg took a 
spasmodic twitching when straightened or lowered. This 
trouble increased until, at times, it would take from one .to 
four men to keep the leg down, and her on her couch. These 
severe paroxysms would last from three to twenty-four hours. 
She would be very much prostrated for several days. It re- 
quired a block of marble of fifty pound weight upon the 
leg all the time to keep it in position, there would be a slight 
twitching of the leg continually. These paroxysms were 
from one to six months apart. The tendency of the knee was 
to draw up and to the right of the chest. These severe at- 
tacks have not troubled her during the past eighteen months. 
She remains upon her wagon lounge both night and day; and, 
at present, appears to be slowly improving. 



^ • m 



The Child-Life of Woman. 

With these facts before U8, is it not legitimate to assume 
that the puberic period in woman's life has been over-estimated 
in its direct influence upon her health at that and subsequent 



Miscellaneous. 187 

periods? Instead of cuirtailing her opportunities for work and 
study, by throwing around her retraints, and, as it were, creat- 
ing a disability out of a natural function, transfer the attention 
and anxiety now lavished upon her, to a period when all that 
makes woman in the best and noblest sense is in a process of 
elaboration; for it is during this time of rapid structural change 
that the future good or bad health of the woman is determined. 
Let healthy ovulation be the natural outcome of a healthy child- 
hood, and the function will obey its law of periodicity year by 
year, and all this time the young woman is as able to sustain 
uninterrupted physical and intellectual work as the young man. 
I do not wish to be understood as saying that at puberty, or 
at any other period of woman^s life, the laws of health may 
be violated with impunity, but that a law of health is no more 
binding upon the young woman than upon the young man; 
that really there is no such thing as one law for women, and 
another for men. But the law of the woman is not the law of 
the child. The woman must follow those laws of health which 
will keep her healthy; the child must be trained to obey those 
which insure health in the woman If I am right in tracing ovar- 
ian functional derangement mainly to the structural crisis, it is 
evident that the child must be an object of careful attention. 
It is not my purpose to mention the causes which will vitiate 
the development of the child. I desire to direct attention to this 
period as one full of danfi;er to the future woman. Lest I be 
accused of ascribing too many of the disasters to which the 
functional health of women is liable to the period of childhood, 
I will say that women, and all the functions peculiar to their 
sex, are liable to the accidents of disease at any time; but if we 
accept the evidence of the intelligent people who have the op' 
portunity of observing large numbers of young women in schools 
and colleges, the early period of sexual function is not so liable 
1;o disease as when women are called upon to perform some of 
the higher duties of their being later in life. Neither is it my 
object to prejudice in any way the discussion of the co-educa- 
tion of the sexes. I think society is not prepared to discuss 
that question now. It is being worked out in the best possible 
manner, that of actual experiment. But, my aim has been to 



1 &8 Cincinnati Mediedl Advance. 

fix if possible, the actual value of the puberic ago. of womao as 
a crisis, so that there may be no fictitious bar to her progiess 
to either a higher education, or to he? training for any kiad of 
the skilled labors suited to her strength. — Popular Sciemce 
Monthly, 



• • 



A Strong Indictment. 

Mr. A. C. Pope at the late m;eeting of the British Congress 
in response to a toast, kid the following charges against the 
Allopathic school. He said: 

"It has given me, I can assure you, ver}' great pleasure in- 
deed to have contributed in any measure, however, small, to 
the success of our meeting here to-day. I am quite sure that 
after such a gathering as we have witnessed here — after such 
an address as we heard this morning, we shall return each to 
our several spheres with our faith strengthened in those prin- 
ciples of therapeutics which distinguish us from the great 
majority of our medical brethren. And we shall also have 
the assurance strengthened and confirmed that in time to com e 
the great principle which we recognize as of such vast im- 
portance will receive universal recognition. I think that such 
meetings as we have had to-day also tend greatly to assist us 
in passing through that weary time of opposition which it is 
our lot to endure. It is an opposition of no insignificant or- 
der, for it is one characterized by the utmost unfairness, by the 
most abject cowardice, and by the most unblushing plagiarism. 
It is an unfairness which is marked distinctly when we see 
such journals as the I^actitioner and the Lancet^ ready and 
willing, at all times and under all circumstances, to publish 
any statememt however erroneous, however false, regarding 
Homoeopathy or homospathic practitioners, and at the same 



Miscellaneous. 189 

time unreservedly refusing to admit any reply to such state- 
ments. We see this cowardice marked by a journal occupy- 
ing the position of the Medical Times and Gazette, not daring 
to insert an advertisement of a book brought out by a firm 
known to publish the works of homoeopathic practitioners 
whether its subject be one connected with Homoepathy or not. 
And as to the plagiarism, what shall I say for it? Every 
week that brings out the journals gives us evidence of it, and 
it would not greatly surprise me to find that in time to come 
that large newspaper proprietary, known as the Briti3h Med- 
ical Association, should announce as the subject for its Hast- 
ings medal, an essay upon the Actions and Uses ofBelledonna 
and that the successful essayist should quietly appropriate the 
whole of the work which had been done by our friend and 
colleague, Dr. Hughes, the publication of which has been re- 
fused an announcement in the Medical Times and Gazette, 'I 
think then, sir, that such meetings as we have had to-day, and 
such an address as you favored us with this morning will 
tend greatly to enable us to endure opposition of this kind 
with lighter hearts and more equable tempers." 

We beg to assure Mr. Pope that such things are not pecu- 
liar to British soil. The attitude of old school medicine toward 
Homoepathy in this country, though materially modified, is yet 
too frequently marked by just such features as has been stated 
above. 



A Cataract Operation Sttinningly Described* 

Up West they do wonderful things and tell of them in a 
way to astonish the multitude. 

A Chicago surgeon boasts of having restored tlie sight of 
a man 8i years of age. After administering chloroform, the 



1 90 CincinncUi Medical Advance. 

doctor divided the exterior membrane of the eye-ball by pass- 
ing a thin knife into it; cut through it into the secret cham- 
bers of the globe took out the little opaque lens, that ought 
to have been transparent, and then closed up the incision and 
put a tight bandage round his head. In a few days the band- 
age was removed and the patient found that he could see as 
well as ever. 



^00| ^Ofil!|$, 



Diseases of the Ear. By D. B. St. John Roosa, M. A., 

M. D.; Wm. Wood and Co., New York. 

We have here the most complete treatise that has ever been 
written upon this subject. And this is high praise when we 
consider the valuable literature that we possess devoted to 
the science of otology. Both the author and publisher have, 
happily, conspired to give us an excellent text book. It is 
fortunately not so elaborate and expensive but what every 
physician can afford to possess it, and it would seem to be in- 
dispensable to all who attempt to treat diseases of the ear. 

We would like to suggest to a few of our medical friends 
who hold in no very high esteem the labors of specialists that 
they put in a few half hours perusing the pages of this work 
in order that they may better appreciate the value of the spe- 
cial knowledge^ peculiar to this and kindred departments. 
We might point out other similar works, but this will do to 
begin with. 



Editor's Table. 191 



Wyfhe's Pocket Dose Book* Lindsay & Blakiston, Phila. 

This is the eleventh edition of this standard little work. 
As a vade mecum for an old school practitioner it is of great 
value and is not without interest to the medical student or 
Homoeopathic practitioner, Price $1.25. For sale by Robert 
Clarke & Co. 



■♦-•- 



%hi%^i% <®aH(. 



Dr. J. H. Chatten has removed to Leesburg, O. 

Dr. John A. Hubingkr, of Wyoming, O , was married 
June 7th, to Miss Mary E. Fryburger, of Goshen, O. 

Mr. A. C. Pope, of Lees, places us under obligations for 
advance sheets of the proceedings of the British Homoeopathic 
Congress. The proceedings will bear perusal. 

Dr. B. L. Cleveland has returned from Europe and en- 
tered into partnership with Dr. A. Farnesworth, of East Sag- 
inaw, Mich. 

Dr. C. W. Hamisfar writes us: "Your baby is over a year 
old and I have not until now done anything for its support. 
I knew, however, its life was in the hands of able nurses and 
doctors. They have done well by the infant so far. I send 
a matter of six dollars for its further maintenance, not wish- 
ing to be selfish, and always willing to contribute my mite. 
May it grow to a vigorous manhood and be of great use to 
the world." 

Dr. H. F. BiGGAR, of Cleveland, lately had the misfortune 
to have a patient die in the operating chair while taking 
chlorofonn. The seriousness of the occasion was all spoiled 



192 Cincinnati Mediccd Advance. 

by one of the friends of the deceased attempting to thrash one 
of the surgeons who assisted, supposing him to be Prof. Big*- 
gar. He found, however, that he had Tagen the wrong man. 

The Cincinnati Homceopathic Medical Society. — 
Meetings are held every two weeks at the college building. 
Essays have been read by Dr. Wilson on the relations o£the 
Medical Profession: first, to the County Coroner; second, to 
the Press; and by Dr. Walton on Electro-therapeutics The 
essays and discussions will soon appear in the pages of our 
journal. 

Hardly had our first form gone to press when the news 
came that Chicago was once more wrapped in fiames. They 
have an infatuation in that city about cremation. We are 
sorry to see that Drs. R. Ludlam, C. N. Dorion and, possibly, 
others of the profession have gone down before the fire. 
They have our heartfelt sympathy. But we know their pluck 
and trust they will be again at the front. 

An anxious doctor writes us: 

*'If you have any *dead shot' for cephaklgia in maiden la- 
dies well advanced in years, with irritable uterus and ovaries 
— ^such cases as have stood fire from the entire faculty of the 
city and still survive to try the new doctor, in the name of the 
immortal Hahnemann, the author of the sirnUia similihus cu» 
rantuVy and in the name of the mighty eagle, himself who flaps 
his broad wings over this universal Yankee nation, send it 
along ter wonst, for I want it." Will some one lend a hand 
and help the young man? 

An Allopathic journal in this city is facetious* It says, 
"nearly, if not quite, all the advance made in the science of 
medicine has been accomplished by members of the regular 
school." And this is said in the month of July in order to 
keep cool. If the statement were only new and original, it 
would make the whole neighborhood frosty. But, on the 
other hand, if lies burn like fire, the statement ought to have 
made a spontaneous combustion in the establishment. How- 
ever, if the writer is whistling the keep his courage up we 
can't object. 



THE 



€ittrittttafi Mtiittil B^iHut. 






VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.— SEPTEMBER, 1874. [NO. 5. 



'Subscriptions to the Advance should be sent to Dr. T. C. Bradford, P. O 
Drawer 1384, Cincinnati, Ohio. 4z-oo a year, in advancr. 

All business communications, relating to the publication or to advertising', should be 
addressed to Dr. T. P. Wilson, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Mound SU., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

PuLTE Medical College will begin its third session 
September 23d. Students should be on hand promptly. 
Prof. M. H. Slosson will deliver the introductory address. 

A PhiUipAc worth reading is the honest indignation 
uttered by the Beporter, against the narrow policy pursued 
by the State Society toward our journals. 

The editorial rooms of one of our contemporaries is just 
over a gas office. A late issue rouses the suspicion that a 
meter should be set somewhere, or the gas company will 
suffer serious loss. 

Thb Journal of Psychological Medicine^ whose demise a 
year or more ago we were pained to announce, makes its 
appearance once more. Under the title of the Psychological 
Sept-1 l^:i 



1 94 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

and MedicO'Legal Journal, it will be published^ Monthly, 
by F. W. Christern, 77 University Place, New York. Drs. 
Hammond and Cross editors. Terms, $5.00 a year. 

A BOOBY by the name of "Temperance'' is bewailing in 
the Investigator, the fact that the next meeting of the In- 
stitute is to be at Put-in-Bay. He has already horrible 
visions of sea sickness, and he fancies every body drunk 
on that occasion from the use of wine. We beg to assure 
him that his weak stomach and brain are no criteria for 
the balance of the members. He had better stay at home 
and pray "Lead us not into Temptation.'' 

A MAN who professes to be a spientist would hardly use 
such language as this toward any part of creation : 

"If this globe is infested with tijgers and rattle snakes and 
[other] multitudinous evil creations which are antagonistic to 
good and the high destinjr which man has to accomplish upon 
his planet, it is because those forms of evil are inherent in 
the planet and its surrounding atmospheres as molecular 
constituents out of which the living Esse fashions the con- 
crete forms of evil which it is man's high mission and pre- 
rogative to subdue and finally to exterminate." 

And yet this is the language of Dr. Hempel in his expo- 
sition of the "Science of Homoeopathy.'- 

How a man's "destiny" can be different from his '^mission" 
we don't clearly see. Allowing them to be the same we are 
puzzled to know how tigers, rattle snakes, etc. are antagonistic 
to "man's destiny" while at the same time his *^high mission" 
is to destroy and finally exterminate them. Good logic would 
lead us to argue that these "evil creations" ! ! were in harmony 
with the design of man's creation and without them he would 
have some other or no mission at ^11. A thousand fold bctc- 
ter than this is the philosophy of "my uncle Toby" who, on 
catching a fly, hobbled to the window, and opening it let the 
little prisoner free, saying "Go poor devil the world is wide 
enough for thee and me." 



Editorial 196 



Eempel's Exposition of Hoxnoeopatliy. 

Dr. Charles Julius Hempel is now sixty-three years old. 
It is our opinion that he has labored more years and done 
more effective work for the homceopathic school than any oth- 
er man living. It is not likely he will soon have a competitor 
or successor to dispute with him for this high honor. This 
book just from the press is doubtless his last work. He 
has directly or indirectly created a large number of vol- 
umes which. now constitute a valuable part of the literature 
of our school. His whole life and being have been given 
to the promulgation of Homoeopathy. 

It must be evident^ therefore, that no small amount of 
interest should attach to this last of a long series of works 
especially so since it is in every sense a summa summarium 
of all he has ever written or thought upon the subject. He 
rightly says, in his introduction, '*although the number of 
publications which have been already issued on the subject 
of Homoeopathy with a view of defining and popularizing 
the fundamental tenets of this science is already quite con- 
siderable, yet I have no apology to offer for adding the 
present volume to their list. Having devoted the best part 
of my life to the study and practice of Homoeopathy, I 
have deemed it my right, as well as my duty, to promul- 
gate my own conception of this medical doctrine, such as 
years of observation and reflection have developed to my 
own mind.^' 

It must be evident, also, that however the doctor might 
discuss the subject, under whatever phase of thought he 
might view it, represent as he might any one of the varied 
classes into which the homoeopathic school is divided, the 
book he produced, would have a value and interest pos- 
sessed by few works belonging exclusively to our school. 



1 96 Cincinnati MtdiccU Advance, 

The distinguished author did not honor us with a copy 
of his book for review, but having voluntarily possessed 
ourself of one we feel less restraint in undertaking its criti- 
cism. 

In common with our whole profession since the announce- 
ment was made of a forthcoming work by this author, we 
have waited almost impatiently for its appearance. And 
now we rise from its perusal both pleased and disappointed. 
Our disappointment, doubtless, originates from an unwar- 
ranted expectation; we have less than we looked for. It 
did seem to us that Dr. Hempel was the man to give us an 
exposition occupying the highest]|possible grounds. 

With Grauvogle's work before him how could he fail to 
see the most important vantage ground the doctrines of our 
school could be made to stand upon? Avoiding the pro- 
lixity, verbosity and obscurity of Grauvogle, and the inani- 
ties and imperfections of the numberless popular exposi- 
tions of Homoeopathy, that flood and confound one litera- 
ture the author could have placed his subject upon a broader 
and more catholic, though possibly not a more truthful or 
more enduring, base* 

"The science of Homoeopathy" critically and synthetically 
explained, would seem, at first sight, to be properly the 
work of a scientist. And this is precisely the sort of an 
exposition the present day demands. Twenty years ago 
the public mind was accustomed to discussions that were 
superficial, flowery and assumptive. Any theory or doc- 
trine could hold place if in its several parts it was self-con- 
sistent, though it went no farther. 

But to-day science lays her scrutinizing test upon all 
questions. And she demands always that every accepted 
truth shall stand in harmony with all other truths of what- 
ever sort or kind. All doctrines and theories must go into 
this crucible. 



Editorial. 197 

And they must stand or fall by her endorsement^ which, 
though it may not be the highest, is yet the highest known. 
All wise men concede that the doctrines of the various 
medical schools must come to this complexion at last. We 
do but repeat what we have before asserted, that Homoeop- 
athy must answer this test or go down. 

A scientist, therefore, who could put into one work the 
labor already done in detail by various men, who could 
show how fully our cherished doctrines were in accord with 
every known law of nature, every modern discovery, every 
substantial fact of modern science, such a man would give 
us a work en rapport with the times. 

But Dr. Hempel is not a scientist. He has distinguished 
himself within a comparatively recent period by opposing 
modern scientific views. Boda by his great age and his con- 
stitutional bias, he is a worshipper of the past. On almost 
every page of his excellent treatise he gives evidence that 
he is a raphsodist and a religious enthusiast. 

His opening sentence marks the spirit of the whole work. 
''Ever since a clear perception of the glorious truths of 
Homoeopathy took possession of my mind,'' etc., etc. This 
is not the language of science or philosophy or logic. It 
is the song of a lover to his mistress. His mind is possessed 
and, to his imagination, the plain truth becomes ''glorious.*' 
Why not "wonderful,'' "immutable," "grand," "incompre- 
hensible?" Does the truth need to be garnished in a scien- 
tific treatise ? 

On the next page, he exclaims, "If we pursue our studies 
in this spirit, Homoeopathy will unfold to our inner souls 
the glorious harmonies of the Divine Government, even 
amid the agonies of the sick chamber, and will dispose us 
to worship its behests in pleasure or pain as the Fiat of In- 
finite Love." 

This is very extravagant language to be used in a scien- 
tific discussion. Why does he say "inner soub " ? Have 



98 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

we outer souls also? Are the harmonies so "glorious" 
we need an inner and more refined soul to fully appreciate 
them? 

The sentence as a whole startles us. It exalts Homoeop- 
athy to the sphere of a religion. The Paddy's whisky 
was "mate and drink both." And the man whose medical 
doctrines could do so much for him in unfolding "the Di- 
vine Government" and so dispose him "to worship the Fiat 
of Infinite Love" would not be sadly in want of any other 
creed. 

Among other things which surprise us is the unsystematic 
order of his discussion. At the very outset, in his Intro- 
duction, he enters upon the fruitful topic of high and low 
dilutions. Like a skilled lion tamed, he proposes to lash 
into subjection all the snarling animals in his cage whose 
interruptions might otherwise mar the show. Why he should 
invite, so needlessly, a war in his own camp just as he is 
about to sally out and surprise the enemy we do not under- 
stand. His discussion and illustrations of this much mooted 
question have their place, but standing as they do at the 
very door by which we enter, they present an ugly bone of 
contention. The arrangement is not politic. 

After all of Dr. Hempel's varied and extensive acquaint- 
ance with Homoeopathy he does not seem to grasp the sub- 
ject in its widest relations. The ground, he scientifically 
stands upon, is very narrow and all else is swallowed up in 
the mysteries of his religious faith. There is a wide range 
of topics, all fundamental to his subject, all preliminary to a 
clear understanding of his discussion, and all capable of 
scientific investigation which he utterly ignores at the out- 
set and only casually refers to in the course of his writings. 

Not to detail these topics, there is the question. What is 
Disease? That should be clearly settled long before we 
enter upon the discussion of drug action. We do not now 
observe anything indicating Dr. Hempel's view upon this 



JBditortal 199 

question until we get to the forty-seventh page. He says 
there: '^When a man is sick it is the cosmic life-force, 
which developed the drug out of its germ, that develops 
the corresponding morbid properties of the tissues into an 
actual disease. Hence diseases may be defined as morbid 
properties developed into pathological activities by the life 
force of the Cosmos." 

On page 116, he expands the idea somewhat, he says: "It 
is undoubtedly the same life-force which I have so often 
alluded to as the cosmic force or the Living Sphere which, 
proceeding out of the eternal fountain-head of Life or the 
Esse of the Father fills all space in unmeasurable succes- 
sions of degree of intensity and power, even to the ultimate 
boundaries of material nature; sustaining and perpetuating 
ftU created individualities; 'each in accordance with its inhe- 
rent laws of order and functional destiny; I repeat, it is the 
same life-force or life-essence that regulates and preserves 
the harmonic movements of the organism its true physio- 
logical life, and which, on the other hand, develops latent 
morbid properties into active conditions, or pathological 
states known and described as diseases.'^ 

A metaphysician or a writer of systematic divinity might 
indulge in such an abstruse definition, but a scientist would 
seemingly have escaped the limitations of his subject when 
he launches into such a broad sea. Before we could inculcate 
such teachings into our medical colleges, our students would 
need to first spend some time in a school of theology where 
certain peculiar views are taught. Such definitions and much 
of the same import to be found throughout this work are ut- 
terly inconsistent to one not versed in the religious doctrines 
of Dr. Hempel. 

As we read the pages of this work we can not help admir- 
ing the overflowing religious enthusiasm of the writer. In- 
deed, at times, his attainments as a scientist are wholly 
obscured by the fervor of his abounding piety. And no 



200 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

wonder for he declares ''Homoeopathy is a theosophic reve- 
lation ; it is a philosophic system, not fenced in by the limits 
of a human brain, but which is co-eternal and co-infinite with 
the love and wisdom of the Divine Creator. Homoeopathy 
opens up new avenues of thought concerning the government 
of Divine Providence, concerning Nature and Man and con- 
CBmlng the relations of all things to the fountain-head of Life 
from which both Man and nature derive their power to exist 
and to perpetuate themselves in accordance with definite and 
unchangeable laws/' 

Now granting all this to be true, would it not be a good 
thing to take up one subject at a time^? Say let us discuss 
Homoeopathy as a Medical System in a treatise by itself, and 
then have another treatise on Homoeopathy as a System of 
Theology. It only tends to confusion when you mix these 
topics, especially so, as many persons have religious notions 
of their own which may diflTer from the writer of such a work* 

As a school. Homoeopathy has already upon it the taint 
of theological dogmas. By many, we are all supposed to 
have espoused the religious doctrines held by Dr. HempeU 
And now if this work goes forth without protest and is re- 
ceived as an endorsed exposition of our doctrines, we may 
well rest under the indictment of being the propagators of a 
sj'stera of theology as well as of medicine. Put this book 
into the hands of a man unacquainted with both Homoeopa- 
thy and the doctrines of Emanuel Swedenborg and he would 
be unable to distinguish the medical from the theological. 

Our objection rests not upon the supposed falsity or truth- 
fulness of either, but upon the fact that they are so needlessly 
intermingled. A scientist has no right to obtrude upon his 
readers his religious doctrine. 

Every religious man holds to some scheme of Divine 
Providence, and he holds to it because he believes it to be in 
harmony with all other known truths. Each man, therefore^ 
writing upon medical science might choose to largely incor- 



Hygiene, 201 

porate his religious views into the discussion and this would 
only lead to endless diversity and contention. And, as in 
this case, our school would then have to carry unnecessary 
burdens, and we would find ourselves fighting a medico- 
religious war. 

But this is not alL We in this way are committed to ex- 
planations of facts, which explanations we do not believe in. 
The fiicts of Homoeopathy are scientific and should be ex- 
plained as such and not on the basis of any theological creed. 

But it should be remembered that Dr. Hempel, at the be- 
gining of his introduction, says that this is his ''own concep- 
tion of this medical doctrine." And, as such, we accept it 
thankfully. It challenges our admiration, even where we 
can not give it our assent. 

But it would be idle to assert that Dr. Hempel has written 
the work we have so long needed. Far be it from us to pour 
contempt or ridicule upon what he has done. We only de- 
sire to have the right estimate put upon it. The task yet 
remains to be performed of giving a scientific exposition of 
of Homoeopathy. 



lygUtti^ 



Alcohol not a Poison. By Gerhard Saal, M. D. 

On the 2oth of March, Dr. Gerhard Saal, the well-known 
chemist, delivered a lecture at Pike'i Opera Hall on the sub- 
ject of "What We Eat and Drink." As the portion of it per- 
taining to alcoholic drinks is of especial interest at this time, 
we make the following liberal extract: 



2M Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Aud now we come to such articles of sustenance as are wine, 
brandy and beer^ in all of which alchohol is the active princi- 
ple*^ in the last-named we find, besides, lupuline, the extract 
of hops; furthermore, tea, coffee, tobacco, opium and hashish^ 
Science, and particularly natural science, investigates the cas- 
ual connection of phenomena, regardless of the use of know- 
ledge thereby gained to mankind, not caring consequently 
whether the result of its investigation, as furnished by exper- 
iments and constant observation, will agree or conflict with 
opinions formed beforehand, or with dogmatic views and 
creeds, sacred to individual or natlotiSv Regardless of 8«p«r- 
stition and prejudice, sacred by a/nd through the lapse of cen- 
turies, astronomy ,. fiiom Galileo's lips, proclaims the fundamen- 
tal truth: the earth revolves round the sun, not the sun around 
the earth. The question to be discussed in regard to these 
articles (wine^ brandy, tea and coffee) is: Have they nutritive 
qualities? if not, are they injurious? or, to state it in other 
words, are they poisonous? And, finally, which is the cardinal 
point of the question? Are they necessary in the present 
condition of our organization, or may they be dispensed with? 
The question whether alcohol is a nutritive element or not 
has these fen years been examined ' into and discussed by 
physiologists more than any other biological question. In re- 
gard to the effects of alcohol, the most important point is un- 
doubtedly that of ascertainning whether alcohol, as the ad- 
vocates of its nutritive power maintain, undergoes complete 
combustion in the blood, or whether it is eliminated again 
from the blood unchanged. Nevertheless, so far no definite 
decision has been arrived at, in spite of Dio Lewis' apodeictic 
declaration, "Alcohol is poison." 

The French physicians, Lallemand, Perrin and Duroy laid 
down the following propositions: 

First, that alcohol enters the blood unchanged. 

Secondly, th?t having entered the blood, it is again sepa- 
rated from it through various agencies, but chiefly through 
the kidneys; and 

Thirdly, that alcohol in blood is oxidized into neither alde- 
hyde nor into acetic acid nor oxalic acid. 



Hygiene. 203 

In opposition to the views of French scientists we find the 
opinions of Thudichum, who looks upon alcohol as a nutritive 
substance, and seeks to prove that if it once has entered the 
system it is totally oxydized and consumed, excepting a few 
scarcely perceptible traces which are separated from the blood 
through the kidney^. 

Dr. V. Sabbotin lays down the following proposition, 
evolved after a series of most carefully prepared experiments: 

At the present stage of information with regard to the pro- 
cesses of sustenance of the higher orders of animals, we have 
so reason to think that alcohol is nutritious. 

Professor Carl Voit, in whose laboratory, and under whose 
directions these experiments in this field of research were 
made, says: 

*^I consider such substances as nutritious that will either 
deposit elements necessary to the composition of the body, 
or that will preserve to the body, these elements, as, in the 
first case, albumen (so far as can be deposited) or fat, water, 
or the ingredients of ashes; in the second, starch, since it 
prevents the consumption of the fat in the body." 

If we consider as nutritious substances that furnish a body 
with life power through decomposition, we find that this 
definition is not exhaustive, because neither water nor the 
ingredients of ashes could be considered nutritious. 

Alcohol must necessarily be considered nutritious, because 
it causes a less degree of decomposition. 

These are the opinions of Voit, who is considered by scien- 
tific men as authority in these matters. 

In a similar manner, a commission appointed by the Acad- 
emy of Sciences of France, consisting of Flourens, Pelouge, 
Payer and Claude Bernard, to examine into the investigations 
of Lallemand, Perrin and Duroy, expressed themselves. 

In this matter the opinions of Duchek correspond more 
to the facts, in that he claims that alcohol is not only oxidized 
in the blood, but in addition prevents the fats from oxidation, 
whereas thev would otherwise be consumed. 

On one point, however, all authorities agree, namely: We 
do not use alcohol because it is nutritious, for if taken in large 



204 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

quantities it causes derangement of the proceses going on in 
the bod^, but on account of its effects as a stimulant and as a 
means of enjoyment. 

From this stand-point let us consider the different modes 
of enjoyment and discuss them in order: 

They possess, like many other forms of religious worship, 
the power to satisfy the mind, to exalt imagination, and ren- 
der life more enjoyable, without however, improving it 

From this yearning after truth, with an inclination to self- 
deception, which is a part of human nature, has sprung the 
necessity in man of finding means to change his manner of 
thinking, to deaden to a degree his sensibilities. These 
means are now theine, caffeine, morphine, nicotine, strych- 
nine and alcohol. 

They permeate the blood and pass through the entire body, 
and then leave it without being decomposed (except alcohol) 
they do not therefore act in the capacity of nutritive substan- 
ces, and can act as life-giving stimulants only in small quan- 
tities; in large quantities they act as decomposers, like the 
different poisons. Wine is by religion and custom the honor- 
able representative of the means of enjoyment, just as bread 
is the holy symbol of nutrition. 

Wine contains, besides alcohol, certain volatile oils, which 
give it its peculiar aroma and furthermore various salts, es- 
pecially potash, which rapidly become part of the blood, 
facilitating the taking up of oxygen and the throwing ofT 
of carbonic acid, exciting the heart to contractile power 
and favoring the entire processes of bodily reorganization, just 
as meat extracts act, and thus creating bodily and mental 
comfort. 

As a banisher of care and a strengthener of the heart it was 
from time immemorial the subject of song by the most gifted 
poets: The ^^ecce bibtndiirn" of Horace, as also his ^^aqua 
puotaterribuSy^ will last long. 

Again and again are we compelled to exert muscular force, 
when it is already almost exhausted; the brain must frequently 
be stimulated to action when rest would perhaps, be more 
desirable. The uncultivated man may indulge himself, but 



Hygiene, 206 

the cultivated man must be able to control himself at all times, 
in peace or war. Nothing is so efficient in bringing about, 
effecting this result, as alcohol; nothing so lasting in its effects; 
it is both nutritious, preservative and a poison ; it is a sine qua 
noHj daily to be used and on every occasion, in every clime 
and every occupation in life. 

With the soldier in the field, the canteen of coffee or whis- 
ky can under circumstances compensate for erbsenwnst and 
bean soup, especially after exhausting marches. Amongst all 
the modern beverages, beer is indisputably the most harm- 
less. Besides a small percentage of alcohol, it contains the hop 
bitter, which agreeably stimulates the digestion; furthermore 
it contains sugar and dextrin, both of which render the mix- 
ture in the stomach more nourishing. 

The cultural historical bearing of this beverage, which 
in all probibility will curtail the use of whisky, next to tobac- 
co the most injurious stimulant, is too obvious to be overlooked 
by Sociologists and Biologists. 

During a three years' sojourn at the cilnic in Munich, I had 
only once the opportunity of observing a case of delirium tre- 
mens. This case, as an exceptional phenomenon, made a great 
sensation, and all the students, even a great number of physi- 
cians came to observe it. It is not very easy to decide why 
so many cases of poisoning by alcohol occur here. Pos- 
sibly it is the climate, but rather the cause lies in the manifold 
adulterations, as they are practiced in this country. If the 
latter is the cause, then the Government should take care to 
prevent these adulterations, and the practitioners of them 
should be fined very severely. 



■♦-•- 



On the Use and Abuse of Alcohol 

Dr. W. A. Hammond recently delivered a very lengthy and 
interesting address before the Neurological Society, of New 
York, from which we make the following extract. It is ap- 



206 Cincinnati Mediccd Advance, 

propos to the subject of Prof. Saal's paper found on another 
page. But these views do not exhaust the question and we 
shall look out for conflicting testimony. Let us have the truth 
without passion or prejudice. Dr. Hammond's article may be 
found entire in the Psychological Journal: 

*'We are now prepared for the long list of diseases and disor- 
ders of the nervous system produced by the excessive use of 
alcohol. The catalogue is made up from my note-books, and 
is based on cases occurring in my private and hospital practice. 

Of the brain : Cerebral congestion ; Cerebral hasmorrhage, 
with its consequences, apoplexy and paralysis; Meningeal 
hemorrhage; Cerebral thrombosis; Softening of the brain; 
Aphasia; Acute cerebral meningitis; Chronic cerebral menin- 
gitis; Abscess of the brain; Multiple cerebral sclerosis, one of 
those diseases of which tremor is a characteristic symptom. 
Every variety of insanity, including general paralysis. 

Of the spinal cord: Spinal congestion; Antero-lateral spinal 
sclerosis; Posterior spinal sclerosis (locomotor ataxia.) 

Cerebral spinal diseases: Epilepsy; Chorea; Multiple cerebro- 
spinal sclerosis, another one of those affections characterized 
by tremor. 

Athetosis, a remarkable disease, which I was the first to de- 
scribe, and which is now well recognized both in this country 
and in Europe. The case on which my description was based 
was one in which the patient was in the habit of drinking sixty 
glasses of gin daily. 

Of the nerves: Anjesthesia; Paralysis agitans; Neuralgia, in 
all situations; Neuritis; Neuro-sclerosis. 

It will be noticed that sclerosis, or hardening, is a condition 
to which all parts of the nervous system are subject, and 
which alcohol probably often produces. It is, doubtless, the 
result of the direct action of alcohol on the nervous tissue. 

In addition to being the exciting cause of many diseases of 
the nervous system, alcohol probably predisposes to various 
others in which no direct relation can be traced; neither does 
its action stop here, for the descendants of persons addicted to 
the excessive use of alcohol are liable to various diseases of 
the nervous system, and there is some evidence to show that 



Hygiene, 207 

offspring generated daring a fit of intoxication of either parent 
are often bom idiotic. 

Doubtless yon have observed that my remarks relative to 
the evil consequences of alcoholic potations have been based 
upon the excessive use. It would be only fair for you to ask 
me. What constitutes excess? And if you did, I should an- 
swer that, in the abstract, I do not know any more than I know 
how much tea or coffee any one of you can drink with comfort 
or advantage; how many cigars yon can smoke without passing 
from good to bad effects; how much mustard on your beef 
agrees with you, or .how much disagrees; or how much butter 
you can eat on your buckwheat cakes. In fact, I do not know 
that you can use any of these things without injury^ For to 
some persons tea and coffee and tobaceo and mustard and but- 
ter are poisonous. Every person must, to a great extent, be * 
law unto himself in tlu) matter of his food; no one can a priori 
tell him what and how much are good for him. A single glas6 
of wine may be excess for some individuals, while to others it 
fills a role which nothing else can fill. That alcohol, even in 
large quantities, is beneficial to some person*, is a point in re- 
gard to whi^h I ha¥e no doubt; but these persons are not in a 
normal condition, and when they are restored to health their 
potations should cease. I have seen many a weak, hysterical 
woman drink a pint of whisky or brandy a day without expe- 
riencing the least intoxicating effect, or even feeling excited by 
it. The exhausted nerve^tissue has seemed to absorb it with 
an energy as though it were the one thing craved, and recovery 
has been rapid under its use when al] other means have failed. 
I have seen strong men struck down with pneumonia and fever, 
and apparently saved from the grave by brandy or other alco 
holic liquors. I have prevented epileptic seizures by its mod- 
erate use; neuralgic attacks are often cut short by it, and some- 
times entirely prevented. It has been efficacious in catalepsy 
and in tetanus; it is one of our best antidotes to the bites of 
poisonous serpants. As I have repeatedly witnessed, in the 
convulsions of children from teething and other sources of re- 
flex irritation it is invaluable; in the spinal irritation to which 
women, and especially American women, are so subject, noth- 



203 



Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



iiig takeB its place; and in certain forms of gastric dyspepsia ib .] 
must be given if we wisli to cure our paticDts. You know all ] 
thin as well as I do, and you know that I have Ly no nmana j 
mentioned all the diseases in whtcli, so far as our knowledge j 
goes, alcohol in some form or other is the sheet-anchor of our I 
hopes, I would not like to be cut off entirel)- from the use of ] 
alcoholic liquors in my practice, and yet I often try to do 
-without them, for I am fearful of exciting a thirst which will 
not stop at my bidding. Still, when they arc clearly indicated, 
I give them without a elf -rep roach, feeling that I have done my 
duty, and that I am no more responsible for the consequences 
of any after-abuse than I should be for the shipwreck of a cliild, i 
whom I had in good faith and with the object of contributing I 
to his welfare sent on a voyage to Europe. I would not send J 
my son to Europe to be educated, if I could, in all reapocta^ | 
educate him equally well in this country, neither would I pre- 1 
scribe alcoholic liquors if I could do without them. 

I know that I am digressing from my subject; but in view I 
of the great importance of the whole matter I aak your indiil> I 
gence for a littie further wandering. 

With reference to the moderate uae of alcoholic liquors, it I 
must be remembered that we are not living in a state of nature, l 
We are all more or less overworked; we all have anxieties and | 
Borrows and misfortunes, which gradually in some cases, sud- 
denly in others, wear away our minds and our bodies. We I 
have honors to achieve, learning to acquire, and, perhaps, ( 
wealth to obtain. Honors and learning and wealth are rarely j 
got honestly without hard work, and hard work exhausts all | 
the tissues of the body, especially that of the nervous system. 
Now when a man finds that the wear and tear of his mind and 
body ate lessened by a glass or two of wine at his dinner, why 
should he not take them? The answer may be, because he seta 
a bad example to his neighbor. But he does not. Ilia example 
is a good one, for he uses in moderation and dcconim one of 
those things which experience has taught him are beneficial to 
him. And why should ho shorten hia life for the purpose of 
affording an example to a man who probably would not heed 
it, and who, if he did, is of less value than himaelf to aociety? 



Hygiene. 209 

None of us defend dram-drinking. It is a vile, a pernicions 
practice; bat the instinct that drives men, and even women, to 
it is human, and we must take it as it exists, just ns we are 
obliged to recognize other natural instincts fully as vile and 
pernicious. The inborn craving for stimulants and sedatives 
is one which no liuman power cat! subdue. It is one which all 
civilized societies possess. Among the earliest acts of any 
people on emerging from savagism is the manufacturing of an 
intoxicating compound of some kind; and one of the first things 
a colony establishes is a grog-shop. It was, as Dr. Chambers 
remarks, *'an awful outburst of nature," when, out of 600,000 
men who took the pledge in the United States, 350,000, accord- 
ing to the "Band of Hope Review," *broke it. And he very 
pertinently asks, "Have the same proportion ever broken vows 
of chastity or any other solemn obligation?" 

But if we can not overcome the instinct by prohibitory laws, 
we can regulate it and keep its exercise within due bounds. 
My own opinion is, that the best way to do this is by discrimi- 
native legislation in favor of wines and malt beverages, and 
against spirituous liquors. I would make it difficult to get 
whisky. I would provide that what was sold should be puie, 
and at the same time I would make it easy to procure light 
wines and beer. And I would likewise offer every encourage- 
ment to the growth of the vine and the hop. Experience has 
shown that total prohibition, while failing to a great extent in 
practice, drives men and women to opium and Indian hemp 
substances still more destructive to mind and body than al- 
cohol. 

Another point seems to require notice. There is a condition 
— a form of insanity it may be — knowu as dipsomania, or, 
more properly, methomania. It is descrided as consisting in 
an irresistible impulse to indulge in alcoholic liquors. Doubt- 
less there are individuals, who, while recognizing the injury 
which excessive indulgence in alcohol inflicts upon them, are 
in a great measure powerless to control their morbid appetite. 
At one time they might easily have refrained, but frequent 
yielding, and perhaps also the direct action of alcohol upon 

•British and Foreign Medico-Cbirurgical Beview, Oct. 1S54, p. 412. 
Sept-2 



210 Cincinnati MediecU Advance. 

the brain, have so weakened their volitional power that re- 
straint is well-nigh impossible. Probably many who pass for 
ordinary drunkards are in reality methomaniacs. Indeed I 
suppose there ai*e very few of those who are habitually more 
or less intoxicated, who, in their more sober moments, will not 
lament their inability to abstain, and curse the feebleness of 
will and the strength of the appetite which keep them drunk- 
ards. For all such the lunatic asylum is the only proper place, 
so long as they commit no outrage on the persons or property 
of others. If they plunge into crime, punishment should fol- 
low with as much certainty as for sober criminals. As to con- 
fiding in the honor of such people, and allowing them to range 
at large while nominal residents of an inebriate asylum, I re- 
gard it as the supremest kind of folly. What would we think 
of the wisdom and prudence of a superintendent of a lunatic 
asylum who would trust to the honor of a patient who had pre- 
viously attempted suicide, and allow him to go at large on his 
pledge not to kill himself? And yet this is essentially the na- 
ture of the discipline at inebriate asylums. I have never seen 
a drunkard cured by this kind of restraint, and I have seen 
many who have told me how readily, while patients in such in- 
stitutions, they procured liquor enough to keep up the desire 
for more." 



-•-•- 



Sisin&ctani 

A very weak solution of permanganate of potash will destroy 
instantly any taint from diseased roots, imperfectly cleaned 
plates, and should always be used to rinse the spittoon in hot 
weather every time it is made use of. It is cheap, satisfactory, 
almost tasteless, not poisonous, and quite free from smell. It 
may be satisfactory to some to know that this will remove 
the taint of smoking from the breath, if used as a mouth- wash. 



Physiology, 211 



fiplalagy. 



The BUnd Leading the Blini By J. D. Buck, M. D. 

It has long been the habit of certain earnest physicians of 
the old school to prophesy concerning the future of the heal- 
ing art, and to look forward to the ^^good time coming," when 
remedies shall have been discovered for diseases like cancer 
«nd tubercle, now generally found incurable, and when some 
law of therapeutics- will be known. 

In a course of lectures recently delivered in this country by 
Brown-Sequard on the ^'Diagnosis and Treatment of Functional 
Nervous Affections^' this distinguished Professor thus dis- 
t^ourses; p. 64: 

**We, however, have now good reason to hope, that the time 
is not far distant when the ultimate mode of action of the most 
powerful remedies will be pretty well known. We shall then 
be enabled to employ them in those cases which can really be 
benefited by them, instead of ordering them blindly ^ as we now 
9o often have to dOj producing sometimes much more harm than 
good?^ 

In the first place, this distinguished professor reaches beyond 
the province of knowledge yet attained in any department of 
nature, although the problem with which he deals is the most 
complex known to man. Does he imagine that he can compre- 
hend the ultimate aiction of the most simple forces. Does he 
not know that the action of any force is apprehended only by 
its results, and that the relations under which such results re- 
€ur, is the limit of our knowledge concerning them. To com- 
prehend the ultimate nature of matter and the ultimate action 
of forces very few men now a days attempt, although we do 
occasionally find an enthusiast — and well directed enthusiasm 



2 12 Cincinnati MedieaH Advance. 

is certainly a gootl thing — looking for the square of the circle, 
or the means of perpetual motion. And so tired of the cease- 
less rounds of the professional tread-mill, and of ordering med- 
icines blindly which sometimes produce more harm than good, 
this gentleman imagines that 'Hhe time is not far dbtant'' 
when the professional cB*c)e will be sqoared. 

We shall see, however, that notwithstanding Dr. Sequard 
aims at impossibilities in one instance, he has taken a step in 
another direction likely to lead to practical results, and if 1m 
and his ilk progress with thefr present ratio in a century or 
two more they will have reached the landmarks firmly settled 
now nearly a century since, and which point in the direction 
in which the highest therapeutic art will one day be attained. 
Page 67, under the head of ^'Analogies and Differences of 
Remedies." We read, *'The more we progress in our knowl- 
edge of the mode of action of remedies, the more we find that 
a priori notions, grounded on the chemical properties of the 
substances which we try as remedies, are very rarely verified^*' 
and this he proceeds to illustrate by the different effects pix>- 
duced by salts of the same base or the same acids, etc., etc., 
and then concludes p. 69. "I have mentioned these facts to 
show, that we are to look to experiments on animals, and to 
careful trials, on man, to learn the physiological and therapeu- 
tical effects of remedies, and that chemical analogies can not 
lead to any conclusionis as regards the action of remedial sub- 
stances. 

Now this a step in the right direction, though certainly not 
a novel proposition. The proving of remedies, upoa the sick 
has confessedly availed little, as after thousands of years hardly 
two persons agree as to the best remedies in a given case, or 
are enabled to say whether they do moi-e good than harm, and 
suppose the action of every drug in the materia medica on ani- 
mals and man were known and recorded. Nay, even suppose 
their "w/^ma^e" action were known, how are they to be ap- 
pFied for the cure of disease? Why not take just one little 
step forward, and inquire what relation drug proving bears X^ 
therapeutics. 



Physiology, 213 

Hang all your ^^pathies*^ on a sour apple tree, and the world 
would no doubt be the wiser and the better for it, and then 
start even like men in pursuit of knowledge, of scientific 
knowledge. 

Knowing the relation which a drug bears to a healthy or- 
ganism, by certain morbid conditions which follow its use, what 
will be the effect of administering the drug when those same 
morbid conditions already exist from some other cause. Allow 
the question to be here first propounded, we will say we do not 
know, what then? guess at it! indulge in "a priori notions 
grounded on the chemical properties of the substances.** No! 
Try it! What else could a sensible man do if really in search 
of knowledge. To avoid all quarreling about dose, take in the 
first place in the trial on the healthy the smallest quantity 
which will produce the characttristie effects of the drug; those 
effects being already present from some other cause, take the 
same dose as before and ascertain whether the morbid condi- 
tion is increased or decreased, or whether it remains unchanged. 
The proposition is fair and square, and in keeping with the 
best known modes of investigation pursued in other depart- 
ments of science. 

Having taken the first step, viz: proving drugs on animals 
and men in health, it is difficult to see how one can avoid tak- 
ing the second. 

The proposition has been worked out carefully and repeat- 
edly by men like Pereira, and yet many who read it repeat to 
themselves or in lectures to the public twice one are three, or 
twice three are two, and then with such mathematics ramble 
off in search of ultimate truth, or endeavor to square the circle. 
The morbid conditions which a drug produces in the healthy 
are the same conditions which it will remove when already 
present from some other cause. Try it now, gentlemen, of the 
old school, or a century hence, as you please, whenever you do 
try it, or read your own records through the above proposition 
as a glass, you will be surprised that you had not made the 
discovery long before. 



214 Cincinnati Mediecil Advance^ 



/jwftl gft m Fillings ts. Edalth* By J. D. Buck^ M. D. 

It is well known that the base of the material used by most 
dentists under the name of amalgam is mercury. I beliere 
that most dentists make use of this compound under the itn- 
pression that it can in no way be injurious to the health. Not 
all, however, are satisfied of its harmless nature. Its use and 
effects have often been discussed in dental conventions, and 
cases have been brought forward when it was satisfactorily 
shown that injury had resulted from this cause, and some 
dentists have discarded amalgam entirely. 

Two cases have recently come under my observation which 
-I regard as due solely to local irritation and absorption of 
mercury from an amalgam filling. 

The first case presented all the characteristics of ptyalism^ 
abrasion of the mucous membrane, and the peculiar mercurial 
odor. 

On examination the filling seemed to be firm and the con- 
dition referred to disappeared very slowly without its re- 
moval. The dentist denying that it could possibly produce 
any disturbance and refusing to remove it. 

The second case is one of long-seated ulceration of the 
tongue for which I was recently consulted. 

At the base of the tongue on the left side appeared a deep 
cicatrix as though the tongue had been pierced through at 
that point, and on the elevated margins of this depression 
was the characteristic mercurial ulcer. The patient had been 
treated for nearly ten years for this troublesome ulcer, by phy- 
sicians of both schools. At times, it has nearly healed under 
the use of caustics, only to return in a few days as bad as 
before. 

Now during all this time there has existed exactly on a 
line with the ulcer a large molar tooth which, before the ulcer 
appeared, had been filled with amalgam; only a thin shell of 
the crown remaining. On the outer margin, the filling ap- 
pears bright and firm; but on its inner margin, appears a nar- 
row fissure between the filling and the tooth, both of which 



Physiology. 215 

are nearly black, and roughened. The patient informs me 
that no physician W'ho has attended him, has ever suspected 
the tooth as in any way related to the ulcer, although his wife 
has from the first insisted upon it as the cause of the mischief. 
I ordered the filling and, if need be, the tooth removed; with 
what result I can not say, but I am so confident that this is 
the "root of the matter" and so well convinced that amalgam 
should be used with great care, and only for temporary fill- 
ings, if at all; that I desire to call the attention of physicians 
to the subject If a tooth is worth filling at all, let it be done 
with pure gold, and thus avoid the effects clearly traceable to 
the baser metals which the dentist no more than the alchemist 
can transmute into gold. 



• ♦ 



Pqpolar Fhydology. 

One of the marked features of onr time is the effort every- 
where making to diffuse the best knowledge among all classes 
of people, and bring it to bear directly on the thought and life 
of the world. Esoteric works and words have disappeared. 
Every author aspires to universality. They write for all men 
to read. The whole world is none too large. If their infor- 
mation is of a kind that the majority of men can not appropri- 
ate or understand, it is not because they intend to restrict it to 
a special class, but because only a selcot class is prepared to 
appreciate and assimilate it by previous training. Whoever 
writes wants all men for readers. 

Philosophy now uses the vernacular. Theology has ceased 
to have a dialect of its own, and uses all the arts of rhetoric to 
make its subtleties and refinements intelligible to the secular 
mind. The classics have secured the best translators so that 



216 . CincinncUi Mtdietd Advance. 

the miracle of tongues is practically repeated, and we have 
Homer and Plato and Aristotle and Dante speaking to ns in 
the English of Bryant and Jowett, Grote and Longfellow. 
The sciences seem to ache in their technical and torturing ter- 
minology, and escape as fast as possible from imprisoning 
hedges of names that only specialists have the keys to un- 
lock into the unbounded freedom of popular speech, and the 
unrestricted circulation of general literature. Agassiz was 
less of a discoverer of new facts or laws than a popularizer of 
scientific information ; his contagious enthusiasm communicated 
itself to others, and the indifferent general public were warmed 
into a glow of interest by his stimulating statements and mag- 
netic personal devotion; he made himself intelligible even to 
children so they saw new beauty in a shell and a meaning in 
fishes' bones. Proctor and Tyndall and Huxley are not less 
faithful to their studies, careful in their investigations, and 
profound because they bring their bending sheaves of knowl- 
edge to the common threshing-floor. Darwin has put the re- 
sults of all his minute researches and subtle speculations into 
language so simple and with illustrations so familiar that it is 
not surprising the common people everywhere are familiar 
with his works, and laborers discuss his theories over their din- 
ners. Psychology, one of the most difficult of sciences to un- 
derstand, refuses to be secluded and become the exclusive 
property of a select class; in the treatises of Spencer and Bain 
and Maudsley it appeals to a democratic hearing, and throws 
open the doors of its most inteiior labyrinths to whoever wishes 
initiation into its mysteries. 

I SOMETIMES think that Death presiding at the great por- 
tal through wrhich dead nations have passed, is wearied at 
times at the monotony of admitting the common place crowds, 
whom ignorance and vice, ambition and baseness, silliness 
and sin so copiously deliver there — and himself delights to 
allure noble travelers to his dominions by holding out to them 
the high temptations of truth, or freedom, or art, or genius, 
or duty, or service; and thus he makes his kingdom richer 
as he makes us poorer here. 



Proceedings of Societies^ 217 



$ttamiing$ af ^hUU$$. 



Loraan County Homodopathic Medical Sodety. 

The fifth semi-annual meeting was held in the Mayor's of- 
fice, at Oberlin, on Thursday, June 11, 1874 

Dr. M. P. Hay ward, President; Dr. G. J. Jones, Secretary, 
pro tern. 

The members present were, Drs. Gushing and Park, of 
Elyria ; Hayward, of Oberlin ; Eust and Lane, of Wellington ; 
Starkey and Amdt, of Amherst; and Holcott and Jones, of 
Bawsonville. 

The following named physicians, not members of the asso- 
ciation, were also present : Drs. Samuel Ackerson and S. 
Eeamer, of Oberlin ; U. L. Higgins, of Elyria; and M. H. 
Mills, of Wakeman. 

On the recommendation of the censors, Dr. U. L. Higgins 
was elected a member of the society. 

Dr. Jones then read a paper entitled "Acute diseases of the 
•respiratory organs of children.*' After reading the paper, 
he requested each member to relate his experience in the 
treatment of whooping cough, and whether the disease could 
be modified or the attack abridged. 

Dr. Gushing used bell, and ipec. in many cases. 

Dr. Bust gave gelseminum in the first dilution every two 
or three hours, with the effect of modifying the cough very 
much, or even stopping it entirely, if given early, and in ^ 
cases which had continued longer the paroxysms were very 
much lighter and less frequent after taking gels, several 
days. 

Dr. Lane corroborated Dr. Bust^s statements, and added 
that in many cases occuring about Wellington, there was 
sensitiveness over the spinous processes of the vertebrce and 



218 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance, 

a very restless condition. He also stated that malarial fevers 
prevailed there in the summer and fall, and daring the pre- 
valence of such fevers, cases of whooping cough were very 
liable to bo affected by this malarious influence. 

In one very bad case where there was much prostration, 
and blueness of the skin, he gave ars. 30th, and puis. 30th, 
with benefit. 

Dr. Arndt used chelidonium more than any other remedy, 
and had been remarkably successful in arresting the disease, 
which she succeeded in doing in most cases. Contrary to 
Guernsey she thought chel. applicable in a dry as well in a 
loose cough. 3he had also used bell, muschus, and in one 
case where there was much dyspnoea mephitus putorious. 
She thought the disease curable. In many cases there oc- 
curred a relapse, but the application of the same remedy or 
remedies which controled it at first would again arrest the 
progress of the disease. 

Dr. Jones had used dros. 30th during the first stage when the 
cough was dry, especially if worse when the person first lies 
down, and again after midnight, and squills 30th, when the 
cough became loose, and if there was much watering of the 
eyes, with a discharge of thin mucus from the nose. If given 
during the first week dros. would in many cases arrest the 
course of the disease, but in such cases if the child took a 
cold during the next three or four weeks the cough would 
again assume the same paroxysmal character. He never 
used squills in whooping cough until the past spring. 

Dr. Starkey gave tar. emet. 30th, when there was much vom- 
iting of mucus after the paroxysm. In one case where there 
was a sensation of burning in the stomach, and constant 
sneezing, three doses of arsenicura 200th, performed a cure. 
Cham. 30th, cured a case in which there was great restlessness, 
and a desire to be carried around the room. 

Dr. Cushing asked the society what constituted lung fever. 
He claimed that nine-tenths of the cases of so-called lung fe- 
ver were bronchitis, pleurisy or something else besides pneu- 
monia; but as we were obliged to give every disease a name 
that all could understand, he had no objection to calling all 



Proceedings of Societies, 219 

these troubles lung fever, in faet, be tbougbt it decidedly 
proper. He never met with hepatization of tbe lungs in a 
ease younger than four years, and inquired if members had 
seen such cases often. 

I>r. Jones had treated but three childred during the past 
spring where there was any hepatization of the lungs. 

Pr. Lane thought that in all cases of pneumonia, there was 
more or less continued congestion. 

Dr. Gushing said that he examined the chest of every case 
of typhoid fever he treated by percussion daily, for fear that 
hepatization might come on so insidiously as not to be per- 
ceptible by other means. 

Pr. Hayward thought this unnecessary, as the general 
symptoms would lead one to detect such a sub-acute inflam- 
mation before hepatization took place. 

Dr. Wolcott spoke of a case of chronic ulceration of the 
stomach, treated by Dr. Jones and himself, in which there 
was found hepatization of the right lung after death, which 
had not been discovered by them previously, although they 
had treated her a long time. 

Dr. Lane inquired if the products of inflammation of the 
lungs, other than pus, could be removed without expectora- 
tion. All members agreed that in a great measure they 
might be. 

Dr. Arndt had noticed a tendency to hepatization of being 
hereditary in some families; and, also, related a case which 
was cured with phosphorus. 

Dr. Park reported in writing a case of hepatization of the 
left lung, in a girl six years of age, cured with Lycopodium- 

Dr. Wolcott thought lycop. acted best in troubles of the 
right lung. * 

Drs. Starkey and Hayward thought the left lung more 
easily affected by this remedy. 

Dr. Hayward spoke of the intemperance of parents as af- 
fecting children very seriously. 

Dr. Ackerson asked how this hereditary trouble might 
manifest itself, and whether the child of drinking parents 
might not have a desire for some other stimulant on account 



220 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

of this craving appetite which had heen transmitted, for in- 
stance, tobacco or opium. 

For consideration at the next meeting the President sug- 
gested the question "alcoholic stimulants, what benefit are 
they ?" and both he and Dr. Jones agreed to present papers 
on this subject. 

Dr. Gushing presented a report of the trial of G. C. XJnder- 
hill, of La Grange, in this county, for alleged mal-practice. 

Dr. XJ. proved that he was dismissed on his first visit, and 
was acquitted; although the plaintiff swore positively that 
the Doctor examined his case carefully, and prescribed three 
or four times. 

The proper use of ergot as a uterine stimulant was then 
discussed. 

Dr. Ackerson thought that unless the child was expelled 
soon after the administration of ergot, almost immediately, 
in very many cases, death would ensue. His preceptor used 
it largely and had many dead children. He thought the 
child died from the force of the unnatural contraction of the 
uterus. 

In one case of labor in which Dr. Starkey gave ergot in 
strong doses, the pains ceased entirely, and a repetition of 
the remedy would not arouse them. 

The use of ergot in labor was not common among members, 
but several among them, Drs. Hay ward and Gushing; used it 
in small doses to aid in the expulsion of the placenta, or 
after the placenta was expelled if there was a failure of the 
uterus to contract promptly. When should the placenta be 
removed ? was then asked. 

Dr. Gushing thought best not to make any effort to excite 
pains immediately after the birth of the child, but wait for 
several hours, not over twenty-four, and rarely over twelve, 
when some measures might be instituted for its removal. 

Dr. Jones would take some gentle means to get up a pain, 
and if there were no adhesions he succeeded in delivering it 
very soon, rarely waiting over an hour. 



Theory and Practice. 221 

Dr. Lane thought the woman had better rest for a short 
time before any attempt was made to deliver the placenta, 
unless it was already in the vagina. 

The use of obstetrical forceps was spoken of, 

Dr. Gushing,, in a practice of thirteen years, had used the 
forceps but once, and in that case he thought he would have 
got along without them, if he had n.ot been almost compelled 
to use them by the woman *s friends. 

Dr. Jones had used forceps twice in a practice of over nine 
years. 

One of these cases might have got along without them, but 
the other never would. 

Dr. Ackerson thought much suffering might be saved by 
the more frequent use ©f forceps by many physicians who 
ujOW rarely use them, although others use them too frequently. 

The Secretary was ordjered to send a synopsis of the pro- 
eeedings to three of the county papers, and a full report to 
the Cincinnati Medical Advance, and the Ohio Medical and 
Surgical Eeporter. 

The Society, at 5 P. M., adjourned to. meet at Elyria, on the 
second Thursday of October next. 

G. J. Jones,. Secretary, pro tern. 



%\tm% utiti ^mtiitu 



Notes. By E. W. Fish, M. D., Circleville, O. 

Soda-water an Antidote to Poison. — Since having the 
city and iournalistic connections, I have hardly turned up a 
reagent bottle*, andfy hence, have elaibor»ted no» matCTial for 



222 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

you. But a few unfriendly articles on the subject of summer 
drinks turned my attention to that subject, and having turned 
an Arctic faucet into a half dozen test tubes, give you the 
results. 

Almost every physician, who has recently dabbled in sum» 
mer drinks, has dilated on the poisonous nature of carbonic 
acid gas— that material and water constituting the only ingre- 
dients of soda-water as now made, save the syrups. This 
idea of the poisonous nature of carbonic acid is a mistake. 
It is not poisonous directly. It interrupts respiration when 
inhaled by excluding air, but its own presence is not poison- 
ous, for it is not absorbed. In the stomach, it is quite as 
harmless as common atmosphere) and is almost always pres- 
ent, naturally, in the alimentary canal. 

But the most interesting (at least, to us, for we had never 
heard the matter referred to) is the antidotal properties of 
this popular beverage. It is the best and most rapid antidote 
for the soluble salt poisons, as corrosive sublimate, acetate of 
lead, blue vitriol, etc. It produces an instantaneous and 
searching precipitate of the insoluble carbonate of those bases^ 
and these carbonates are comparatively harmless, not only 
because of their natural effects, but because abundant time is 
given for the removal of the precipitate on account of the 
insolubility. We particularly emphasize the word searching, 
for one glass of soda-water (far better without the syrups) 
will precipitate a very large amount of the poisonous solution 
and ransack every fold of the bowels, in a short time, in search 
for that which may have passed out of the stomach into the 
intestines. Thus the very strength and biting properties of 
the unsweetened drink make it the more available. 

In the winter time a carelessly prepared mixture of carbon^ 
ate of soda and Tartaric acid would furnish a similar antidote. 
We say carelessly because either ingredient in excess will 
hasten the passage through the bowels. If an ordinary Sied- 
litz powder be taken, it should be mixed in portions, as most 
of the carbonic acid escapes when the attempt is made to 
swallow the full amount before effervescence ceases. 



TTieory and Practice. 223 

Pills — Piles. — People up this way, where Homoeopathy 
has scarcely reached the surface of respectability, have the al- 
most universal habit of driving vast quantities of pills, and 
reaping a very healthy stock of piles. Asking a lady patient 
here, the condition of her bowels is a matter of form. In fact, 
the patient is quite surprised to think I should be so g^een — 
"of course theyV costive!" Well, piles, therefore, have been 
my pillar of support, and I want to tell you how 1 cure them. 
First, not being a fluent talker, I undertake to lecture the 
piliary patient upon the necessity for her undertaking actual 
labor for her own cure, and not expecting every thing from 
^medicine. And when her enthusiasm is fully up to the stand- 
ard for heroic effort, I view the aspect of the case and pre- 
scribe, first, pretty much as follows, regardless of special 
pathogenesis: 

I order her to get a male glass syringe, holding an ounce or 
two. Every morning to take one-fourth cup of sweet oil, 
one-fourth cup of water and one drop of sesculus hip. This 
she is to syringe into a frothy emulsion, and then pass into the 
rectum which is very easily and neatly done with a small syr- 
inge. She can probably carry this injection half a day, by 
which time it will have passed up twenty feet of intestine, 
perhaps, lubricating the flexure and its contents, and the pas- 
sage will be easy. If the passage of the oil and water occurs 
too soon to bring stercus with it, lessen the amount. If it has 
no effect, repeat. In the meanwhile, I give the remedy most 
indicated by the mouth. The best success has been with nux 
vomica. Hamamelis has been used. It arrests bleeding, but 
in my limited experience .has not cured the piles. I^his treat- 
ment may be Granny pathy, but it has cured my cases, and it 
had its origin in the necessity for something to relieve the 
bowels, without much exertion, under an absolute interdiction 
of pills, for three or four weeks while the remedies could have 
a chance. 

By the way, Friend W., the magic results of arsenicum in 
summer complaints here has won for me many good families. 
I used to know a homoeopathic doctor in Detroit who had an 
ornate bracket on his wall, and on the bracket a bottle, and 



224 Cincinnati Madical Advance. 

on the bottle these words, "Detw Medicines?^ I afterwards 
found the *'^Deu8^'* to mean arsenicum. 

Balsams. — Did you ever hear of a regular physician or a 
druggist putting up a cough mixture without making it into 
some kind of a slippery, soothing, mucilaginous, balsamic or 
oily emulsion? While the writer was a druggist such was the 
case. Curiosity has led us lately to ask several old school 
physicians, why? Patients have also been requested to ask 
why it was. In every instance, tlie ruply was of the san^e 
import: To soothe the irritated passages! What passages^ 
we never thought to ask. But what kind of cough must it 
be which can be soothed via the cesophagus and intestines? 
It is indeed one of the strongest evklences of the trifling na- 
ture of regfular therapeutics that it almost universally counte- 
nances this transposition in the gullet This habit will yoke 
well with the '^fermeatation of the blood'* theory of the action 
of the vacine virus. 



■♦ ♦■ 



C^htalmologJcaL By T. P. Wilson. 

Case I. Cataract with Glaucoma, 

Willie G., aet. 12, was seat to me July 28th, for examination, 
by one of the leading physicians of this state. The doctor 
pronounced the case cataract and thought I would operate 
and restore the vision^ Two years before he had run the 
broad blade of a jack knife into his rrgli* eye producing blind- 
ness, from which he n«ver recovered. No inflamation imme- 
diately ensued and m two weeks he went to school. But he 
was soon obliged to desist from studies as his well eye became 
weak and painful. Rest was followed by speedy recovery. 
About this time, the injured eye was struck by a hard body, 
but this produced only unimportant immediate results. Soon 
after, pain of a Ught character affected the injured eye and 



TTieory and Practice. 225 

some pain and considerable photophobia were in the left eye. 
It was thought an operation would give relief. 

It was found that the lens was opaque and lying in contact 
with the cornea. The iris was in its entire extent attached 
anteriorly to the posterior wall of the cornea. The ball was 
under a high degree of tension, and tender to the touch. 
The left eye was very sensitive to light, making opthalmo- 
scopic observations very limited. Vision so far a^ I could 
judge normal. 

The parents were almost incredulous when informed, first, 
that an operation for cataract would avail nothing. 

Secondly, that there was great danger that the left eye 
might go blind through sympathetic inflammation. 

And, thirdly, that it was highly probable the right eye 
would have to be extirpated. 

This was an unexpected phase of affairs, and not less surpris- 
ing to the doctor than to the friends. But this is no rare case 
and on this account I have narrated it. Ignorance of such 
plain pathological facts is sendingmultitudes yearly into hope- 
less blindness. That the profession is not well informed in 
such things is, perhaps, no crime; but they become criminal 
when they assume to treat such cases while they do not un- 
derstand them. 

A wiser course is that pursued by my friend the doctor, 
who sent his patient at once where he could be properly ex- 
amined and intelligently treated. I may add that the condi- 
tion of the injured eye showed it to be suflfering from glau- 
coma. 

Case II. Cataract with Irido- choroiditis, 

I was called, July 26th, to see Mrs. M., aet 60, in order to 
determine if her cataract could be relieved by an operation. 
The left eye had been blind some six or seven years, and her 
right eye was now failing in sight. 

Examination: Left eye ball slightly shrunken; anterior 

chamber lessened; iris immovable to light and changed in 

color; eye ball quite tender to touch; tension minus; lens 

distinctly opaque. Belladonna was applied to both eyes and 

Sept-3 



226 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

three hours after re-examined. Found left eye unaffected; 
pupil not dilated, and the retina not sensitive to light: there 
was total loss of vision. Right eye moderatelv dilated; lens 
undergoing degeneration throughout; ball tender dn pressure. 
I then learned that she had been suffering from progressive 
short sightedness for several years. 

It was clear that we had in this case cataract secondary to 
iridor choroiditis and that both the use of remedies and instru- 
mental interference would be unavailing. There was no 
prospect before our patient, then, but to pass the end of her 
weary life in darkness. It is the attempt to relieve such cases 
as this by hasty and ill-advised operators that discredit is too 
often thrown upon our art. Skill in the use of the knife 
would amount to nothing. We must have that knowledge 
that will enable us to select only such as can, under favorable 
circumstances give us the desired results. The right judg- 
ment comes from study and observation, and skill as an inborn 
virtue strenghtened by experience. 



Homoeopathio Free Dispensary.— Clinical Beports. By O. W. 

Lounsbury, M. D., Resident Physician. 

Case L Paraplegia cured by Cina, 

Mrs. W. brought her grandchild, a colored girl, to the 
Poli-Clinic in Dec, 1873, for medical treatment, for paralysis 
of the motor nerves of the lower extremities. The child was 
20 mds. old; had craving appetite, yet good digestion with 
regular and normal stools; slept well and aside from this sudden 
loss, for three weeks, of the use of her lower limbs and the 
unnatural hunger, there were no apparent symptoms of disease 

Thinking the paralysis might be reflex symptoms from 
intestinal irritation by worms. I prescribed cina, four peUets 
every three hours, which completely cured the patient within 
one week. No recurrence. 



l%eory and Practice. 227 

Case II. Contraction of the leg cured by Cina, 
Last winter, Mrs. — brought her child, 2 years old, to Dis- 
pensary with its left leg semi-Rexed, both upon itself and upon 
the abdomen. The child could not bring any part of the foot to 
the floor without bending the other knee. No other observable 
symptoms of disease. Having had such prompt results in 
Case I.^ I resolved to try the same treatment here, and upon 
the same theory. 

I therefore prescribed cina every three hours, and was grat- 
ified by a speedy cure after the second prescription of the 
remedy. 



♦ ♦ 



Hereditary Syphilis. 

Miss T., aet. 13 yrs, had been afflicted from infancy with 
a skin eruption, appearing upon the bend of the elbow, and 
spreading over a large portion of the arms and body. 

Thinking the case one of interest to medical students, I 
prevailed upon her to go before the class. 

Prof. S. R. Beckwith. holding clinic at this hour, carefully 
examined the patient and diagnosed the eruption '^syphilitic" 
and "inherited" by the patient. 

Sulphur 200th was prescribed once a week for two months 
after the second dose the eruption came out over her en- 
tire body, remained for ten or twelve days, and gradually 
passed away leaving at the end of ten weeks no trace of the 
disease. The treatment was concluded by a dose of sulphur 
55,000th. 

The Illustrated Annual of Phrenology and Physiognomy 
for 1874, contains eighty large octavo pages, with more than 
fifty engravings, representing heads, faces, mouths, noses, 
good and bad with "Signs of Character;" by S. R. Wells, 
Publisher, 389 Broadway, New York. 



Cincinnati Medical Advance, 




Sdence Qons to Seed. 

Aa a specimen of Allopatliio absurdity the following miglika 
veil he a ne plus ultra. An Apothecary sends to one of onr^ 
daily papers as the result of "earnest observation" an artiotAfl 

Pandemic OnsEnvATiONft. — The only rational and snrel^ 
efficacious pre8er\*ative for human beings in those acute " ' 
eases which must be reduced to a sick blood (as cholera i 
bus, pest, yellow fever) coosists of a mixtion of subetano< 
aftcrthe following prescription: 

&. Natri phenyllci, kali oxychlorici, kali hypennang 
partes aequates, sulfuris crudi partes decern. Misceantui 
actissime. Pulvis servelur lu vitro bene clauso. 

To be taken every morning a knife's point-full with a Uttli 
rum or a rack. 

The "exactisseme" is not so apparent in the "knife's point> 
full" and the "little rum or arack" is open to the same doubt ai 
to the quantity. But the writer goes on to xay. 

Every one who makes nse of this remedy during epidemic * 
diseases will certainly be exempted from them. 

To render this remedy accessible to every one without anr 
expense must be the task of governments, of medical and phi- 
lanthropic clubs. 

The reasons which induce the undersigned to ibe befon 
raaiutaincd assertion are briefly developed in his pamph' 
"Observations in judging contagious diseases" and we ^ 
give in the following lines the most important exception: 

a. The diseases before mentioned are principally oased on 
deficient supply of oxygen gas to the blood. 

b. Id case of illness the organism is highly supported in il 
resistAnce by an immediate and internal use of nitrons-oxidt 
gas (laughing gas) in its gaseous or absorbed condition. 

c. Only the prophylactic impregnation of the body wil 
antiseptic remedies and rich in oxygen gas preserves ftom cod- 
tagion and hinders thus the best from farther propagation. 

d. Till a complete and rationally executed canalisation of all 
places in which an abnndance of population is prevailing, the 
establishment of apparatuses, by which oxygen gas may hm 
produced, in the lodgings of the poor^ in the hospitals and pub- 
lic buildings, must be wished for. 



3 

mad 



TTieory and Practiee. 229 

e. Prizes must be set out by the government in order to find 
out the simplest aad cheapest methods of producing the ozy« 
gen gas. 

f. Self-production of saltpetre on the surface of the earth, 
in the lodgings, on the walls, viz: the conditions of it, must be 
removed and prevented. 

Munich, July, 1874. 

This whole thing is a sad mixture of fact and fancy. And 
yet it is a fair specimen of the doings of the Physiological 
School. That men of sense should be captivated by such non- 
sense is sadder still. His a, b, and c, are purely hypothetical 
statements. They are not proven and probably never will be. 
His d, e, and f, are not new ideas but worthy of consideration. 
But the assumption that crowns the whole, viz: that his pre- 
scription taken as he directs will introduce oxygen into the 
blood or will protect from disease is only a theory of his own 
bnun unsubstantial as air and showing the writer to have 
already absorbed too much oxygen gas. 



i*-*" 



HootrO-ThOTOponticS. Discussions of the Cincinnati HomcBo- 
pathic Medical Society. Reported by Dr. Chas. £. 
Fisher, Aug. 3d, 1874. 

Dr. Walton: I have recently witnessed very marked results 
in the cure of a fatty tumor, located in the mammary gland 
of a man from the use of the Faradic current The tumor 
formerly two knd a half inches in diameter, is being rapidly 
dispersed, although at the time electro-therapeutics were first 
applied, it pressented a hard and circumscribed appearance — 
think it arose from a sprain. 

Dr. Stuard: 1 have heard of tumors being removed or scat- 
tered by animal magnetism, and have known of warts being 
removed by this inRuence. Witness the cases of children 



230 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

who will rub a wart with old bacon rind, and the wart will 
disappear. Some older person has 'told them this would be 
the result, and the little folks have found it to be true. Prof. 
Gross, of Jeflerson Medical College, Phila., related to the class 
of which I was a member, a case wherein a tumor was re- 
moved by placing the hand of a corpse upon the growth. 
Will some member explain the modus operandi of these cases? 

Dr. Buck: There can be no explanation given, none as yet 
being known. 

Dr. Owens: I can readily understand how the reduction of 
the tumor is taking place. Arising from a sprain, eflusion 
took place and this is being absorbed. I do not think a gen- 
uine fatty tumor, nor a fibroid, will be affected by a Faradic 
current, while in both, especially the former, the Galvanic 
current produces very noticeable, and, sometimes, highly 
satisfactory results. I have very serious doubts of the eflicacy 
of either in ovarian tumors, as the tendency would be to pre- 
cipitate the albuminous matter. The fluid matter may disap- 
pear under the use of electric agents, but the solid matter will 
not be changed in the least. 

Dr. Buck: The points mentioned by Dr. Stuard are not to 
be passed by lightly. These cases are of every day occurrence 
and I have an illustration in my fittle son, who, till within a 
few days since, had a troublesome wart under his thumb nail. 
The servant girl told him to steal a potato, rub the wart with 
it and then throw it away, assuring him the wart would go 
away. The little fellow had faith in what she told him, fol- 
lowed her instructions and the wart disappeared. I am sorry 
I can not explain to the satisfaction of Dr. Stuard and myself 
how it is done, but I do know these cases very frequently 
occur. The galvanic current, I think, affects more particularly 
the nutritive processes, and that its beneficial effects arise from 
absorption of tissues, disintegrated by the use of a strong gal- 
vanic current. We all know that absorption takes place in 
cases of fatty degeneration of the uterus, and why may it not 
also result in other structure? 

Dr. Slosson: To obtain a perfect cure in these cases, it is 
necessary that the sac itself, as well as the fluid or solid con- 



JTieory and Practice. 231 

tents should be destroyed. I do not think electricity will do 
this, although it may destroy the germ, and in this way pre- 
vent a return of the tumor after absorption of the contents 
of the sac has once taken place. I can readily see how 
glandular tumors can be destroyed by the use of this agent, 
but I do not think the effects on fibroids witi be very mark- 
ed. I have in mind a case where carbolic acid was in- 
jected into the cavity of a tumor after the fluid contents had 
been drawn, and destruction of the sac was the result. The 
wound healed kindly, and the patient was pronounced cured, 
with no danger, I think, of a return of the growth. If electricity 
will answer the purpose and destroy the sac as completely as 
if done by the knife; then, truly, will it prove to be a remarkable 
and valuable remedial agent. Sdifimis will not be benefited at 
ail, I think, as the constitutional tendency to this disease cannot 
be overcome by mere local applications. We must use this 
powerful agent with care, that we do no harm, as we may 
sometimes get very bad results if used carelessly. My expe- 
rience with electricity is not very large, and my remarks con- 
cerning its use are merely hypothetical. There is no doubt, in 
my mind, however, but that its prominent sphere of action is 
upon nervous diseases, and that it is particularly useful in the 
classes of tumors spoken of, when they arise from nervous 
troubles. Let us know more concerning it 

Dr. Buck: The key-note to electro-therapeutics lies in the 
fact that the Faradic current is functional in its action and the 
Galvanic 8timulatiy&.rrhe latter may act as a cautery, and 
these cases of s</iimreTecorded have been treated with good 
results by the caustic action of the galvanic current. The strong 
galvanic current would stimulate absorption and a change in 
structure would be the result. By using the electric needles 
in the tumor, I do not think there can be any danger of ill . 
effects, and time and experience alone will teach us to dis- 
criminate between the currents and their use. 

Dr. Haynes: I was once^called to see a young lady, said to be 
in the last stages of consumption. She had been under the care 
of an excellent Eclectic physician for a long time, and he had 
finally pronounced the case a hopeless one. I found the pa- 



232 CineinncUi Medical Advance. 

tlent coughing a great deal, spitting large quantities of slime 
at times, blood occasionally intermermixed and regularly 
marked chills every other day, after which a severe feeling 
of oppression followed. Her menses had not appeared for 
four months and there existed a peculiar painful sensation in 
the region of the ovaries, always worse when the menses 
should have appeared. I use the eclectric current as a tonic 
sometimes and in this case applied the Galvano-Faradic cur- 
rent, the negative pole to the feet and the positive pole first 
to the spine and then to the ovarian region, five minutes at 
a time every third day for a week or more. The patient 
gained stength from the first application, the cough became 
less severe and finally ceased altogether. The second week 
I used the agent every other day with continued and niarked 
improvement, the menses appearing the third week, not as 
free at first as they should be, but all right in a few days, 
and for more than two years the patient has been perfectly 
well. I attribute her recovery to the timely use of the elec- 
tric agent 

The use of animal magnetism will alone sometimes pro- 
duce gratifying results at the bed side as the following case, 
one among a great many, will tend to prove. I was called 
to see a lad, sixteen years of age, lying very dangerously ill 
with typhoid fever. His friends and physician had given him 
up, and the patient lay perfectly indifferent as to his condition » 
and cared not how his illness resulted. I made up my 
mind that the boy should recover, and I directed my thoughts 
so strongly in this direction toward him, that after quite a 
continued effort, I got a response, although for sometime I 
was unable to aOTect liim at all. Finally, however, I aroused 
his will power, and awakened in him a desire to get well, and 
from that moment improvement commenced, slowly at first, 
but surely, and my patient recovered. 

My attention was first called to this method of effecting a 
cure by an aged physician, of Xenia, Ohio, who enjoyed re- 
markable health, the result of a "nightly review" of his phys- 
ical condition. Upon retiring for the night, he would apply 
his thoughts to himself and go from head to foot, and if he 



Theory and Pr€U3tice. 233 

found a weak spot, he would direct his will power to the part, 
overcoming any diseased action; curing by faith in one's self. 
The will power must be aroused,and renewed energy and vi- 
tality will be carried by the nerve current to the diseased part 
and recovery ensues. 



■♦ »■ 



Homodopathio Hedioal Society of CSndxmatL By C. H. Evans, 

M. D., Secretary. 

A regular meeting was held at the Pulte Medical College, 
July 6th, at the usual hour. 

After disposing of the order of business. Dr. T. P. Wilson, 
the essayist for the evening, presented a paper in which he 
reviewed several cases of unjust legal discrimination against 
members of the medical profession which had occurred re- 
cently in this city, and which, if permitted in the future, would 
prove a source of very serious injury to the profession. **Our 
coroner,'* he argues, "is a medical man, and, as such, his tempta- 
tionsare great to satisfy his hatred of members of other schools 
of his own school; especially so as he works under a law that 
holds him to no more strict line of action than governs a pro- 
vost marshal. A strumpet comes to him and gives without 
oath or witnesses information against a physician. Straight- 
way he has the doctor arrested and failing in corroborative 
evidence has finally to discharge him. But a society of doc- 
tors takes the matter up, as well they might, and expresses 
its resentment of such needless injury to one of their number. 

An ignorant colored girl makes a charge against another 
physician. Her statement m unsupported and the doctor, 
found guilty by a jury, is immolested because the proof is not 
forthcoming. But though the coroner were bound to injure 
him, he could hardly do more in any event. This time the 
officious officer did not meet with a rebuke, because the doc- 
tor who suffered, belonged to another school. 



284 Cincinaati Medical Advance. 

m 

To detail another case - would be to recite what must still 
be fresh in your memory. A charge of mal-practice is whis- 
pered around in the community, but not a person present on 
the occasion makes the charge. The worthy officer investi- 
gates, but he gets no explanation from either of the physi- 
cians present before he concludes upon an inquest. The 
formal complaint is made by a rival doctor. The post mortem 
is made by a physician of another school. The doctor sus- 
pected of mal- practice is not allowed to be present when the 
body is exhumed and examined. Eight days are consumed 
in the inquest largely made up of the testimony of experts 
who knew little of the case except from distorted statements. 

The coroner says he is bound under the law, to convict if 
he can; and to this end he draws in sick and pregnant women 
and reluctant doctors who could after all testify to nothing 
material. But medical men could be found who would de- 
base their honor so far as to give the most uncharitable opin- 
ions possible and prejudice the minds of the jury. 

If this be law and justice let us have no more of it. Let no 
coroner assail a man's practice on any but the strongest evi- 
dence, and then not until the physician concerned has at- 
tempted an explanation. Let no more clandestine post 
mortems be held where the evidence may involve the reputa- 
tion of a physician. Let it be done openly and with full 
notification allowing the physician concerned to nominate one 
of the examiners, the coroner the other and these two a third, 
and let the accused party be present with the others. 

This is simple justice, and we must obtain it. If the coro- 
ner is now legally bound to convict let us change his obliga- 
tions and make his court one of impartial inquiry to obtain 
the truth. In any other court a judge who would act toward 
the suspected as though he were guilty, who would influence 
the jury by such a prejudgment of the case while the testi- 
mony was being given — I say such a court would be eternally 
disgraced. 

The possible injustice that may bodily present itself under 
our present system has had illustrations altogether too marked 



TTieory and Practice, 235 

to be passed over in silence, and we who are so vitally inter- 
ested should loudly call for reform." 

The subject for discussion was now taken up viz: The 
relative value of the so-called new remedies. 

The President stated that as the Hahnemann College of 
Chicago, had appointed a professorship of new remedies, it 
might be well to inquire whether they were of so ipuch 
importance as to compare favorably with our old and tried 
drugs. 

I)r. Slosson remarked that he had not had an extended 
experience with them, but would offer some suggestions on 
baptisia and gelseminum. 

In the early stages of tj'phoid fever where there were 
chills, head-ache and pains down the back, he had found bap. 
curative. In cases occurring after the war, he had used it suc- 
cessfully. It was also valuable in bilious diarrhoea. He 
thought that gels, was a remedy that stood midway between 
aconite, bryonia and belladonna, and it was particularly of 
service in diseases dependant upon malaria. It also cut 
short the febrile stage of intermittent fever. 

Dr Owens stated that where there was a soreness of mus- 
cles on pressure, the soreness not being superficial, but deep 
seated and elicited on firm pressure; the muscles having a 
doughy feel, baptisia was strongly indicated and that at the 
same time there would ce a darkened tongue with brown 
and red edges and with raised papillae through the coating. 
This is similar to rhus, but there is the absence of the tired 
feeling which is found where rhus is indicated. Also there 
is a catarrhal inflammation of the intestinal canal. With re- 
gard to gels, he thought its use is in a typho-malarial type of 
disease. Another new remedy he has used with success in 
diseases of the urinary organs is chimaphila. 

Dr. Frain said he found gelseminum curative in cases of 
nervous debility, occurring more among women than men. 

In these cases, he found pain along the spine, and where 
uterine complaints co-existed. He related a case in which 
there was dark urine voided, together with above symptoms; 
gels, relieved promptly. He had also used hydrastis in throat 
affections, tonsilitis, etc. 



236 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

Dr. Owens remarked that there was no doubt but that bap. 
acted on the ganglionic centers. 

Dr. Haynes said that he had met with cases in which the 
patient had complained of a sensation as of a vacuum in the 
top of the head, which was cured by gels. Had used baptisia 
in typhoid fever where the characteristic tongue was present. 
Also in a soporous condition, where as, for instance, on re- 
questing the patient to put out his tongue, he opens the mouth 
and then seems to have forgotten all about it. Hydrastis has 
proved a valuable remedy in constipation, especially that in 
connection with intermittent fever. In chronic diarrhoea, 
where there were tar-like stools leptandria had cured. Aurm 
try .had served well in sore throat and where it was dry at 
night, each swallow being more difficult than the last as if the 
throat would close up. 

Dr. Slosson related a case of a man who had taken blue 
mass frequently, and who came to him complaining of drows* 
iness, diarrhcBa and constipation in alternation, no regular but 
capricious appetite, tongue sticky and nasty, leptandria cured 
the case in four days. He related another case of pulmonary 
haemorrhage of dark blood, where hamamelis was given with 
the most happy results. 

Dr. Frain corroborated this case by relating one in his own 
practice. 

Dr. Owens thought that leptandria acted upon the colon, 
and that the same could be said of podophyllum. It increases 
the secretion of mucus and excrementitious matter. 

Cimicifuga was announced as the subject for discussion at 
the next meeting, and Dr. Walton was appointed essayist. 

The Society thereupon adjourned for two weeks. 



-•-♦- 



Sympathetic Influences. 

Psychological diseases have always been more or less epi- 
demic, and, in a way, contagious. Carried by the subtile 
media, sympathy and imitation, the influence passes from 



ITieory and Practice. 287 

individnalB, affecting first those whose nervous excitability of 
temperament predisposes to the disorder, and then all who 
are in any way liable to its influence, until, sweeping over 
whole continents it sinks every vestige of humanity in its 
troubled waters* The instinct which prompts to imitation 
is seated in all minds, savage and civilized, ignorant and ed* 
ucated; but its most prominent parts are played in the lives 
of those whose intellects are undeveloped. A familiar exam- 
ple, and one with which you are all acquainted, is found in 
laughter, the contagious nature of which you can not have 
failed to notice. People convulsed with laughter are oflen 
unable to assign a reason for their mirth; they laugh because 
others laugh. Observe children playing in the streets; one 
will start and run, and all will follow; one shouts, all shout; 
one strikes a playmate, and a general flght ensues. They 
scarcely know why they run, or shout, or fight, but they run 
and shout, and fight all the same. Their movements seem 
to be volitional, but are merely reflex — ^they seem to be dic- 
tated by the cerebrum, but are really produced by the med- 
ulla oblongata. I have noticed from public platforms that 
when one person leaves the lecture room, like sheep, several 
follow; when one wearies of the discourse, he communicates 
his sense of uneasiness to others, who annoy the lecturer by 
their uneasiniss; he coughs or yawns, and at once all who 
come within the range of his influence follow his example. 
It is mostly from epidemic imitation that military retreats 
and religious revivals derive existence. 

"Crime," says Dr. Elam, "propagates itself by infection, like 
fever and small-pox, and at times it seems as if the infection 
came abroad into the atmosphere, and exacted its tributes 
from every class and every district in the country." The 
laws of moral infection and the propagation of moral disor- 
ders are among the most recondite and difficult subjects of 
contemplation. There is something fearful in the very 
thought that man may so abdicate his moral freedom as to 
bring his will and moral nature under the sway of laws as 
imperious and resistless as those which sustain and balance 
the orbits of the stars. But we can not be blind to the fact. 



288 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

There is a largo class of minds over which great crimes ex- 
ert a kind of fascination, and those who have never trained 
themselves to exercise the responsibilities of moral freedom 
are liable to become the victims of the strangest delusions, 
and catch readily at the moral infection ijrhich is always 
lurking, and sometimes raging, in the atmosphere of our 
world. Let a woman fling herself from the top of the Mon- 
ument, and the gallery has to be railed in like a wild beast's 
cage, lest the contagion spread, and the Monument yard 
become the Tyburn of suicides. 



►— •- 



%mn'% ^Mu 



Prof. H. F. Bigoar has severed his connection with the 
medical college at Cleveland. His successor is not announced. 

Dr. H. N. GvXRNSET has resigned his professorcrfaip in the 
Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia. His successor 
is Dr. E. A. Farrington. 

The 23d soYni-annual meeting of the HomoBOpathic Society 
of the State of New York will be held at Syracuse K Y., 
Tuesday, September 8th, 1874. 

A CALL is issued for *'A Western Academy of Homoeopathy." 
The profession in "the West" are invited to convene in St. 
Louis, on the third Tuesday (15th) of September, for the 
purpose of organizing in behalf of western interests. The 
Committee Drs. James Lillie, of Kansas City; E. C. Franklin, 
of St. Louis, and W. A. Parsons, of Atchison, seem earnest 
about the matter and will no doubt succeed. 

Speaking of obstetrical manipulation, a recent writer in 
one of our exchanges says: "When you think it necessary to 
take her in hand, request her to go to bed, and lie upon her 



Editor's Table. 239 

back until you have made the proper vaginal examination.-' 
There must be some mistake about this for a new order of 
things is here introduced or there is a mistake in the position 
of the second comma. The position of the comma is bad 
enough but an accoucher in the position indicated would be 
still worse off to say nothing of the patient 

That the publishers of St. NicholaB have fully succeeded 
in attaining their highest aim in the excellence of the maga- 
zine in all departments, we think nobody will for a moment 
question. That this is to bring them something correspond- 
ing to their effort and their outlay in a pecuniary return, there 
should be scarcely less of doubt remaining. But there are ob- 
stacles in this direction still to be encountered* The princi* 
pal of these is in the fact that the young of to-day have Been 
so seriously debauched by sensational literature. There is 
also an unwillingness on the part of many parents and tesich- 
ers to pay three dollars a year for a periodical for children, 
although thai is the price of only a second-class magpazine for 
adults. Yet on this last point, an inTestigation of the expenses 
that attend this style of publication would convince them 
that St. NicholcL8 is wonderfully cheap. If the edition of the 
magazine were only five thousand copies, each number would 
absolutely cost over one dollar. The editors' salaries and 
sums paid to contributors and for pictures are at the rate of 
over $25,000 a year. 

Dr. W. H. H01.COMBK, of New Orleans, will shortly remove 
to Cmcinnati for the purpose of making this his future home 
He has formed a co-partnership with Prof. Beckwith and will 
give special attention to chronic diseases and medical con- 
sultations. Dr. Holeombe will deliver a coarse of lectures on 
Clinical Medicine in Pulte Medical College the coming ses- 
sion and the pages of the Advance will doubtless be graced 
with frequent contributions fVom his pen. In view of the 
fact that Chicago, New York and Boston have made stren- 
uous efforts and liberal offers in order to secure Dr. Holeombe 
we may well feel proud of the good fortune of our city and 
College. The doctor is in the prime of life with a reputation 



240 



Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



more than national and he has given us personal 
that be 'will give the profession the benefit of his most active 
labord. So distinguiBhed a writer and teacher as Dr. Holcomb 
cannot but attract students and we hope they will not fail 
to appreciate this, among other important advantages pos- 
sessed bj the Cincinnati School. 

The attempt to decry Put-in-Bay is all dno to Ignorance. 

First, the objectors mistake the design of the Institute. 
They tell us, "it is needed to do missionary work." The na- 
tives of the west must have their eyes opened by the aston- 
ishing spectacle of its gathering hosts. Wouldn't a brass 
band, and "a banner with this strange device:" Similia Sinf 
ilibus Curantur help to make the 

And monarchs Irerable in their Capitola?" 

The Institute was once supposed to be a scientific body 
having work of its own to do, and never until last session 
was that work well done. These same objectors protested 
against going to Niagara Falls — it was out of the way; no 
society of doctors to give us entertainment; a watering place 
full of distractions and alluromcnts. But we wont and know 
too well the results to shut our eyes to their value. After 
such an experience, we are loth to throw ourselves into a 
hot, dusty city where we may be entertained by the local 
squabbles of the resident physicians; made to live in a half 
doeen liotels and put a load of expenses on the society whose ' 
guests we may be. The gods set us a good example, when 
for high conclave, they wont into Mount Ol3'mpu8 and 
there apart from mortal intermodlings discoursed "of things 
past, present and to come." 

Put-in-Bay would never have been rocomraended but fbr 
the fact that in all its appointments it was known to be ad- 
mirably fitted for our gathering. Tho physicians of Ohio 
will cheerfully assume all responsibility in the matter. Bo- 
duced fares by railroad and at the hotel have been already 
in part secured and if those not well informed of the 
design of our meeting and the accessibility and beauty oi 
Put-in-Bay will only keep quiet wo, will have a glorious 
meeting next year. 




jpintinnali Ae&ical S^&ditttcc. 



VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.— OCTOBER, 1874. [NO. 6. 

■^'SutHcripUoiu to the Adtanck iluHild be kdC to Dk. T. C. BiuDrDiui, P. O 

Dnver iiSt^, Cinciiuialt, Obio tj.ODiycv.iN ACVAim. 

All badno* comimuiiciitlaii*, Rlating lo the publlcltlMI ot to advcrtUn^, ihould be 
t. T. P.WiiBOH, S. W.Cor. ScTCDth and Hound Sti., CiDdnniitl, Ohio. 




If any to whom the Advance ia sent do not want it they 
have hut to send us information direct. It does not an- 
swer to notify the post master for he setdon rememhers to 
notify us. 

Buffalo papers report a case of successful ovariotomy 
at the Homoeopathic Hospital in that city performed by 
Dr. H. F. Biggar, of Cleveland. The patient was under 
care of Dr. A. C. Hozie. The tumor removed weigbfid 
thirty pounds. 

OcM 241 



Cincinnati Mediccd Advance, 



Its too bad the old United States Medical and Surgical I 
iTournal has been obliged to strike her flag. Holding some T 
paternal relations thereto it pains us to see the uoble craft 
go down. The Investigator falls heir to the whole estate 
and will no doubt worthily sustain the fair fame of its late 
convoy. ' 

The Cincinnati Indu8trial Exposition is now in full and J 
succeEsful operation. Its beauty and grandeur surpass oara 
descriptive powers. It must be seen in order to be fully C 
appreciated. If auy do not believe in the world's progrcasfl 
they have but to enter and behold the endless and magnifi'l 
cent display of art in all its departments. Let such see and 1 
be conquered. Our friends abroad will do well to give th^l 
Exposition the benefit of a few day's recreation not forget* 
ting to call at our sanctum on the way. 

The Indiana Journai, of Medicine is distressed at ourj 
want of historical accuracy. It complains of our abuse < 
the Allopathic school. It calls our little brochure on Oph-J 
thalraology a "rehash" and a "tirade." And it seema not j 
to see that this but confirms our statements of the gcnenit 
attitude of the old school toward Horaceoapthy. It has es- 
caped our memory if any Allopathic journal ever uttered 
a generous word toward anything issuing from the Honireo- 
pathic press. An honest criticism tbcy never indulge in; 
only aueers. But so long aa they dare not, they will not^_ 
utter kind or hopeful wordi of anything not "regular," 

Until just now we have entirely overlooked an naprfl 
tentious circular which has been lying on our table somJ 
%veeka. It is an appeal from the Secretary of the N. Y1 
Homceopathic State Society, to the physicians of tliat statfl 
to organize themselves in a thoroughly systematic way intQ 
sub -societies. The author of the circular Dr. F. L. Vini 
cent, has infused a wonderful amount of iire into hia &pp< 
and while it is to much to expect ofhuman nature that i 
that is here set forth should be accomplished, yet we cou] 



Editorial 243 

wish every member of our school could read these inspiring 
words. They would help us all to renewed interest in pro- 
fessional co-operation. 



»♦ 



Conoondiig tlio Frogross of Sdoiico. 

No one at all familiar with the progress of science for 
the past two or three centuries can haye failed to observe 
that such progress dates from certain epochs^ that while 
from century to century progress is continually being made, 
such progress has been from time to time accelerated by 
discoveries which demand a halt, and put a new interpre- 
tation on previous discoveries and observed phenomena. 
The adjustment according to the new order of things having 
been, to a certain extent completed, another discovery is 
made, and re-adjustment again begins. 

The history of these discoveries, the character of the 
men who made them, and the manner in which they have 
been received by all but a few earnest students of nature is 
very much the same. Generally the bare announcement 
of the discovery has met with comparatively little resist- 
ance from the masses or those in authority, unless, as in 
Galileo's case, the announcement contradicts some theologi- 
cal dogma. Generally the trouble commences when the old 
land marks are overthrown, and re-adjustment is under- 
taken; "for things settled by long use, if not absolutely good 
at least, fit well together.'' Discoveries like those made 
by CJopernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton and Rumford, 
have a somewhat similar histor)'. The most far-reaching 
discovery that science has yet announced, and which, not- 
withstanding, the great increase and more general diffusion 
of knowledge m later times, has upturned the very founda- 



Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



lions of thingB aa completely as any in the paat, when' 
knowledge wae confined to the few, and they largely of the 
priesthood, is undoubtedly that of the correlation and con- 
servation of force, and yet important aa is this discovery, it 
is far less a sign of progress than the more candid and 
critical, I might add charitable, manner in which it hi 
been received. Compare the hot and earnest discussion of 
the law of evolution and Darwinism, which is all its most 
zealous advocates could desire, with the summary mannerj 
in which Galileo's judges undertook to settle the debal»1 
which he proposed. It may be that the spirit of dogma- 
tism, backed with a "thus saith the Lord" ia really no 
more inclined to toleration and charitableness now than 
three hundred years ago, but the box of Pandora has been 
broken and after the imaginary evils which it was prophi 
sicd would result from the diETusion of knowledge amoni 
the masses have lost their terrors, hope has been found, 
of old, smiling at the bottom. Authorities yield as soi 
as the people refuse to submit and be terrified, and 
sooner do the people throw off the last fetter, than thei 
same authorities proclaim themselves from the begi 
the heralds of freedom. Is it not strange that so much oi 
position should arlae at the announcement of the discovery 
of a law of nature, no invention of man, but the eternal 
rule of the divine architect, wrought out from the quarries 
of nature by patient toil, privation and devotion which no 
persecution could stay, and which should put to the blush 
every offering of blood or lip service ever made by mansi 
It may be an easy matter with the lipa to confess or deni 
Mohammed even though death were the penaltj- in eilht' 
case for refusal, but to devote one's life to ceaseless toi 
hunger, privation and certain persecution, for the sake 
truth and knowledge, with no other hope of reward thi 
the love of truth and increased life, is a labor never to 
attempted by the lazy neophyte sitting in silent adoratii 



r 



Surgery. 245 

with folded hands at the foot of a mouldy shrine^ waiting 
for the loaves and fishes here^ or anticipating the golden 
crown hereafter^ promised to him who thus surrenders his 
life and his manhood. 

We are told that man's first sin was a desire for knowl- 
edge^ and with millions of human beings to-day^ knowledge 
is the forbidden fruit. No greater libel on human nature 
and human well-being was ever promulgated. The desire 
for knowledge is the saviour of men^ and the difiiision of 
knowledge is the hope of the world. It is for want of 
knowledge concerning his own being to-day^ that man sins 
and suffers. 

The scientific knowledge of human nature will do more 
for the elevation and happiness of the race than all the 
^'schemes'' and ^'plans'' and creeds ever devised by man. 
Through a knowledge of natural laws man may bring his 
own nature into harmony with all nature; in no other way 
can the highest manhood, or womanhood be attained. 

J. D. B. 



Sa(g((g. 



On tlie Antiseptic System of Treatment in Surgery. By £. s. 

Stuard, M, D., Covington, Ky. 

From the researches of M. Pasteur, we know that the at- 
mosphere contains among its floating particles, the spores of 
minute vegatations and infusoria, and in greater numbers 



Cbwinnati Medical Adoanct 



where animal nnd vegntable life abounds, as in crowded cities J 
iind under the shade of trees than where the opposite condi- I 
lion prevails, as in unfrequented caves and extreme northern| 
latitudes. 

It is affirmed bj Pasteur that the septic or decomposing^ 
properties of the atmosphere depends upon the universal dif-T 
fusion through the air of these minute organic molecules,,! 
which, by their development in the blood or serous exudations 1 
in wounds in which they irre deposited, give rise to fermcn-l 
tative and pntrefai5tivc changes. This septic energy of the 1 
air is direflly proportioned to the abundance of the n 
organisms in it, and it is destroyed entirely by means 
laled to destroy its living germ. This, the antiseptic 
inent propohcs to do. 

Mr. Joseph Lister, professor of surgery, in the University-! 
of Glasgow, says: "The cases in which this treatment is most* 
signally beneficial are divisible into thi*ee great classes: incised I 
wounds of whatever form; contused or lacerated wounds, in- 
cluding compound fratftures; and abscesses, aculc or chronic," 
Our aim in each of these groups is to prevent the occurrence I 
uf decomposition, which, according to the "Germ Theory," is ' 
ilue to the presence of "vibrios," endowed with the faculty of 
locomotion in the atmosphere. The preparations employed 
by Mr. Lister for the prevention of these putrefaiilive changes 
are carbolic oil, carbolic lotion and carbolic paste. The com- 
position of the first is five parts of boiled Unseed or other fixed 
oils and one part of carbolic acid; that of the second, one part 
of carbolic acid to thirty parts of water; imd that of the thirdfj 
carbolic oil with whitening, in the proportions requisite foti 
the consistence of putty. In cases treated upon the antiseplieu 
plan, the wounds may be sponged with the weak carbolic 1< 
tion, and in the case of compound fraiStures, the lotion may b 
freely injeded between the broken cndsof the bones, and It 
soaked in it may be applied over the wound which may a 
be covered with the carbolic paste. In acute or chronic at)-*] 
scess, after their evacuation by a full incision, a still weaker^ 
solution of carbolic acid (one part of the acid to sixty o 
hundred parts of water) may be injefled and lint wet wi(li| 



Surgery. 247 

Lieter^s carbolic lotion may be laid over the wound. Amonp^ 
other antiseptic preparations may be mentioned lime water 
diluted with equal parts of water, this forms a very useful 
dressing for inflamed and suppurating wounds; water im- 
pregnated with creosote, compound tindlureof benzoin, weak 
solution of iodine, weak solution of chloride of zinc etc. 

Few physicians have recognised the importance of exclud- 
ing the air from open wounds, and still less have physicians 
recognised the decomposing influence of water. Wash- 
ing wounds with ether instead of water contributes to the 
healing of many lacerated wounds which appeared unlikely 
to heal by the first intention. 

Hippocrates, when speaking of the treatment of compound 
fractures, says: "The wound is to be dressed in summer with 
compref^es soaked in wine, and in the winter they should be 
dipped in oil, and the -dressings will need removal every day." 
From the British Medical Journal, Jan. 4th, 1868, we copy the 
following cases and their antiseptic treatment: Compound 
fradture, J. P., a boy aged 5, was admitted on the 30th of 
September, with bis leg so seriously injured by having been 
caught between the spokes of a cart wheel that it seemed at 
first sight to admit only of amputation. There was a com- 
pound fradture of both bones, and, in addition to this, a wound 
of the integuments and muscles, almost completely surround- 
ing the limb at a higher part. The bones were much dis- 
placedy and the soft parts severely bruised. Chloroform 
having been administered, the carbolic lotion was freely in- 
jc<^ed between the broken ends, and lint soaked in it was 
applied over the wound. The bones were then adjusted and 
retained in position by means of lateral splints. There was 
not the slightest constitutional disturbance, or any discharge 
of matter from the cavity, to the orifice of which the carbolic 
paste had been regularly applied, and the limb is now per- 
fedtly well and strong. 

Chronic abscess of the mamma. C. A., a married woman, 
aged 25, was admitted Dec. 2d, for a deep seated tumor of 
the mamma, which she said had existed for twelve months. 
Having ascertained that it was an abscess, I made a free in- 



248 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

cision and discharged six or eight ounces of purulent matter. 
The wound having then been sponged with the carbolic lo- 
tion was covered with the pa^t^. On the 6th, that is two days 
afterwards, there was no discharge whatever, either serous 
or purulent. On the 9th the patient was dismissed, and, at 
the end of a fortnight, the patient returned to show that the 
breast remained perfedlly well. 

Acute abscess. T. D., a man aged 59, was admitted on 
Dec. 4th, with a very large abscess of the forearm, extending 
from the elbow to the wrist which, he said, had commenced 
about a fortnight before, and had been very painful. On the 
5th,. a free incision was made under the protedtion of carbolic 
oil, and nearly a pint of purulent matter discharged; after 
which the paste was applied over the wound. On the Sth, 
there was a little serous oozing; on the loth, it had nearly 
ceased; and on the 12th, the cavity was completely consoli- 
dated. 



-•-•- 



Cases of Intestinal Obstruction, Simulating Intnssrisception and 
Strangulated Hernia— Eecovery. By Wm. Owens, M. D. 

Case I. N. G., aet. 65, resident of this city, had been eating 
freely of vegetables, fruit, etc., and among other things corn 
and beans in the form of succotash. 

Was seen August 6th, 1872, at 3 o'clock, p. m.; was suffer- 
ing from severe pain in the bowels at a point on the right of and 
below the umbilicus. At first, the pain was slight and grad- 
ually increasing until about 12 o'clock, m., when stercoraceous 
vomiting and large eru<5tations of intestinal gases set in. There 
was great distension and tympanitis of the abdomen, which 
was exceedingly tender all over its surface. A lump or tumor 
was plainly discernable at the point indicated, and extending 



Surgery. 249 

downward toward the pubes. The countenance presented a 
painful, pinched appearance. The pains in the abdomen were 
rending, stitching, burning in character, and sometimes felt as 
if the bowels were elongated, then pinched or contracted and 
seemed to come on at intervals of fifteen or twenty minutes. 
They were increased at every effort to vomit. He could sit 
up only a few minutes, and must always lie on his back with 
his limbs flexed. 

I found that for several days Mr. G. had been indulging in 
corn and beans quite freely, and that the day before the attack 
had been working in the garden and had become overheated, 
and in this condition ate a hearty dinner drinking butter milk, 
declining to eat any thing for tea. 

The diagnosis arrived at was impaction of the intestine at a 
point near the lower end of ilium. Large dry cups were ap- 
plied over the caecum, umbilical and hypogastric regions, and 
were allowed to remain about twenty minutes when they 
were changed to the region of the ascending and transverse 
colon. This was followed by copious inje<5lions of warm wa- 
ter with no satisfactory result. Nux vom. and Bell. 3d were 
administered in alternation. Upon a re-examination it was 
thought that the tumor had become somewhat softer. The dry 
cups were applied a second time, followed by the injection of 
more than two quarts of warm water without relief. The 
belching of intestinal gas and vomiting continued without 
abatement. Colocynth was now substituted for BelL\ hot 
fomentations followed the cups which had to be discontinued 
on account of the tenderness of the abdomen. The swelling 
and tympanitis had not improved. After six hours of inces- 
sant labor, in this way, a very large cup, covering the space 
between the umbilicus and ilium, was applied; in fifteen min- 
utes he expressed a sense of relief. A rumbling was heard 
and felt along the ascending colon, and in about twenty min- 
utes more we had a copious discharge of undigested corn and 
beans, followed by two others, and our patic«t was relieved 

Case II. May 22d, 1873, I was called to see W. W., archi- 
tect, found him lying upon his back with his limbs flexed, 
complaining of a severe cutting, darting pain in the abdomen 



250 



Cincinnati MttUcal Adva. 



in the umbilical region, the pain extending upward tow 
the liver and downward toward right inguinal region with 
great tenderness over the entire abdomen, but greater below j 
and to the right of the umbilicus. The abdomen was tympan- 
itic and greatly distended; had passed nothing from the bow- 
els for forty-eight hours, but had not snlTered pain or incon- 
venience until the duy before my first visit; on that day hi: 
was upon a building giving direiflious to the workmen. 

When passing from one part of the building to another, J 
he placed his hand upon a piece of scantling to steady himself 1 
when it gave way, and in endeavoring to rectify himself he [ 
felt something slip and a slight pain about the irnibilicns 
tended. The sensation was that of discomfort rather than I 
pain. Toward the middle of the afternoon it became worse, I 
and it became necessary for him to leave his business and 
home and to bed, where he underwent a thorough course of J 
fomentations and mustard plasters until the next day at two f 
o'clock p. m., when I saw him for the first time in the condi- 
tion above described. It was thought that possibly the exer- 
tion made catching himself might have caused a rupture, but^ 
a careful examination revealed no evidence of such an ac( 
dent. A great degree of fullness was found in the rig 
lumbar region which was exceedingly tender to the touch, 
tumor extended from the crest of the ilium to the hepatic flex- 
ure of the colon. Knotty masses of hardened fceces could ha I 
dlstini5lly felt along the courses of the transverse colon as far J 
as the splenic flexure. 

He had been complaining for some hours of intense nan 
belching up offensive gases every few minutes, and finally | 
vomited freely; at first, the remains of food taken at his hreak- 
fast, then bilious and ftecal matters. Intussusception and j 
impaflion both were suggested by the symptoms as no indi- 
cation of hernia could be discerned. The countenance became J 
pinched. Hiccough and great prostration followed as nighl i 
advanced. As this condition had now existed for about forty I 
hours, it seemed as if death must ensue. He had taken Xiiit \ 
coin, and Bell, from two o'clock p, m. until ten. When Co/o- 



Surgery, 251 

cynth was substituted for Bell, Large dry cups and hot fo- 
mentations had been used alternately, and large injections of 
tepid water with molasses. Soap or beef's gall in solution had 
been administered every two hours without, at any time giv- 
ing decided relief, until two o^clock in the morning; when, 
for the first time, a considerable quantity of hardened stool 
appeared in the inje6lion. The injections were continued, 
when larger hardened masses appeared. The vomitings be- 
came less frequent, belching of intestinal gas ceased and in 
six hours the whole train of symptoms had disappeared ex- 
cept some soreness of the abdomen. The history of this case 
would point to hernia or intussusception, the other one to im- 
paction. 

Case III. C, aet 40, pale phthisical constitution, had for 
some weeks suffered from cough and haemoptysis, while dur- 
ing some exertion he experienced some pain in right inguinal 
region and the sudden appearance of a tumor there, he had 
for some days been constipated; vomiting set in a few hours 
later. When first seen he was found lying upon his back 
complaining of severe colic, pains in the epigastrium and 
umbilicus. Examination showed an oblique inguinal hernia 
which taxis could not place beyond the internal ring. An 
operation for strangulated hernia was performed, but without 
relief. The wound was closed and the man left to die. But 
strange as it may seem the man would not accommodate them. 
The abdomen was greatly distended and tympanitic. He 
vomited faecal matter and belched gases continually for almost 
three weeks; at the end of that time the bowels moved freely. 
The vomiting and other unfavorable symptoms all disappear- 
ed, and the man recovered. — {Med. and Surg. Beporter.) 



The manner in which Sir Henry Thompson's famous pro- 
posal has been taken up in all civilized countries leaves lit- 
tle room to doubt that cremation as a means of disposing of 
the dead will soon supersede inhumation. 



252 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



%^tm% att& §udit$. 



Ssarlatlna and Cold Water— LactaUon Bsstored by Electricity.'*' 

Dr. J. S. Douglass, of Milwaukee, gives his experience with 
scarlatina and says, that in the inflammatory type he has 
through a lifty years' practice always used cold water, spong- 
ing the surface of the patient often, and with that and plenty 
of fresh air lie has managed to keep his patients comfortable, 
and secure them recovery. There is, however, an asthenic 
type of the disease, prevalent at the West, which will not 
bear this kind of treatment And he adds, *'At the time I 
refer to hydrophobia and atmospheriphobia were very preva- 
lent diseases of the medical profession, and I regret to say 
they are not yet extindt." 

The re-establishment of la<5tation by Faridazation is discuss- 
ed by Dr. Tooker, of Chicago. His theories about the matter 
are more curious than satisfa<5tory. But the cases he relates 
are of interest. 

Case I. Mary — aet. 36, tall well formed; sanguine bilious 
temperament; in good health; employed as a wet nuse, got 
angry and quit her station, and in four days lost her milk. 
Dr. T. says: 

*^I applied th); Faradic current, placing the positive pole 
between the shoulders, and after a short interval to the side 
of the neck, and the base of the lower cervical triangle, so as 
to reach the sympathetic nerves, and keeping the negative 
pole alt the time at and about the breasts* Afterwards the 
two poles were placed on opposite sides of the mammae ser- 
iatiin, and the current passed through and through them. A 
second and similar application was made at five o'clock on 
the same day, at which time she reported while at dinner, 
*U. S. M. and S. Journal. 



Theory and Practice. 258 

some three hours after the first seance, she distindily felt what 
nurses call "the draught," and which she herself described 
as a "sudden flowing in of the milk." From that time her 
milk was more abundant, and the following morning she had 
as much as usual, and she always had a surplus, though the 
child she nursed was an unusually large and healthy boy. No 
further application was made, none being deemed necessary. 

Case 11. was that of Mrs. R., a woman in the neighborhood 
of thirty, of medium height and well formed, general health 
usually good, though excessively nervous, and subje<5tto some 
local derangement in consequence. She was the mother of 
three children, the youngest four weeks old. She had tried 
to nurse her first two children, but never had enough milk, 
and what little she had vanished when the first child was 
three or four weeks old, and she was able to nurse the second 
but little longer. She came to me to inquire if 1 knew of a 
good wet nurse whom she could employ, as her milk was 
rapidly diminishing as it had done each time before. 1 in- 
duced her to try Faradization, some decided effedts from 
which were noticeable after the second application, and she 
was dismissed aiter the eleventh with more milk than she ever 
had before, and quite as much as the demand required. This 
supply kept up evenly, for so long a time as 1 had knowledge 
of the case, some four or five months. From this ahd other 
cases of which 1 have knowledge, 1 should have no hesitancy 
in promising to any mother desiring *to nurse her offspring, 
and unable to do so for lack of a sufficient quantity of milk, 
that in the absence of other impediments than those here in- 
dicated, the use of the Faradic current would bring to her the 
requisite ability. 1 would also think it possible that those 
cases referred to by Donne, where the milk is sufficient in 
quantity but poor in quality, might be equally amenable to 
electrical treatment. 

In conclusion 1 would repeat the statement for the benefit 
of those not skilled in the use of eledtricity, that in all those 
cases treated by me 1 have uniformly applied the negative pole 
to and about the mammary glands, and the positive to some 
point remote, generally over the upper spine or the neck, and 



254 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance. 

for the reason already stated, that the negative has many times 
the power of the positive to stimulate to adlivty a dormant 
nerve. 



«♦ ♦ " 



Drs. BUdr and Hammond on Aloohol in Medical Practice. By 

Mary A. B, Woods, M, D., Erie, Pa. 

I want to occupy a portion of your space in reference to 
the pra<5tice of physicians recommending the use of alcoholic 
drinks as a remedy, and will base my remarks on the report 
of Dr. Blair's address before the Iowa Society, contained in 
the July number of the Advance. I do this because his words 
are the echo of what we hear quoted by physicians in every 
community. 

I have to contend against this dodtrine so much in my prac- 
tice that I feel that I have a right to speak on the subjedt. 
More than this, my convidlions of duty will not allow me to 
remain silent. I believe that physicians are more responsible 
for the evils of intemperance than any other class of persons 
in the world. 

The quotation from Hammond that, "if he advised a sea voy- 
age for a patient and the vessel being wrecked ?nd the individ- 
ual lost, he was as dire<5tly responsible for that loss as he would 
be if, advising a stimulant as a medicine, and the patient dire6t- 
ed it to another and wicked purpose, he should thereby lose his 
manhood or his life," is a poor illustration. If the majority of 
people that go to sea become lost or maimed for life, and if it 
was almost absolutely certain that, if a sea voyage was taken, 
such would be the result, the illustration would be a better one. 
But such is not the case. The number of ship- wrecked people 
compared with those who make successful voyages is infi- 
nitely small. Whereas, it is just the reverse with the number 



Theory and Practice. 256 

who can use alcoholic drinks for any period of time and not 
acquire an appetite for the desirable remedy. 

When a vessel is wrecked what searching investigations 
are made into the cause of the disaster, and what denuncia- 
tions are pronounced upon the individual who, through care- 
lessness or ignorance, is found responsible. But out of the 
hundreds and thousands of lives wrecked by the use of alcohol 
how many have courts of enquiry established that it may be 
known who is responsible? 

Ex-Surgeon General Hammond would hesitate long before 
recommending a sea voyage to a patient in a leaky ship, or 
one that was poorly manned or controlled by incompetent 
officers, even after every other known remedy had failed, and 
why? Because the dangers of the voyage are as great as the 
dangers of the disease, and a physician who could do this and 
then satisfy his conscience by shifting all the responsibility 
from himself is forgetful of the high trust reposed in him. 

We ought to expe<5l a better state of things from Homoeo- 
pathic physicians at least. I deeply regret that in this re- 
specEt, they are no better than others. The dodlrine of Dr 
Blair was advocated at Springfield and at Niagara and is 
practiced by Homoeopathists everywhere. 

I am not writing on the impulse of the moment, I have 
been bearing witness to this matter for years and have held 
my peace, but the time has come when I would be heard 
from the house tops. The number of men who have learned 
to love strong drink from their physicians recommending it as 
as a tonic and so on, is fearful to contemplate. But the evil 
does not end here. I am treating at the present time women 
who have acquired such an appetite for stimulants that they 
would sooner go without bread. More than one has said to 
me in the deepest anguish '*Oh! give me something to de- 
stroy this terrible thirst or let me die." And in every instance 
I have found upon inquiry the physician's prescription was 
what did the work. In most cases the symptoms for which 
the stimulant was recommended still remained, thus giving me 
a double work to do not only to counteract the effedls of alcohol, 
but also to treat the disease for which it was prescribed. As 



256 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

far as my experience extends, I have every reason to believe 
that in the majority of cases physicians advise the use of 
stimulants through sheer indifference to the case. The usual 
remedies fail to have the desired effedt, when instead of making 
a thorough diagnosis of the cause of the diifficulty, a stimulant 
is recommended and the patient is discharged with as little 
thought as is exercised when one prescribes smoking as a 
cure for dyspepsia. 

What are the results of such a pradtice? Hundreds of men 
and women becoming the victims of intemperance through the 
instrumentality of their physician. Were it admitted^ which I 
do not, that the use of alcoholic drinks will produce the de- 
sired eifecEts are we as physicians justifiable in prescribing 
them, when such disastrous results are so likely to follow? Do 
you tell me that nothing else will answer as well? ~ Then I 
deny it. In my entire pradtice I have never yet had a case that 
I was obliged to treat in this way. For every disease men- 
tioned by Dr. Blair we have other and better remedies. Then 
by all means let us use them. Like the distinguished Dr. 
Rush, let us say, *'No person shall look me in the face in the 
day of judgment and say you made me a drunkard." The 
physician's influence is too great to be indifferently used. 
**While deprecating the habit of tippling, and deploring the 
evils of drunkenness, let us maintain what we know to be 
right," regardful of the fadt that we are responsible to God for 
the use of the talent given us. 



♦ » 



Psydiic Inflnenoe in Therapeutics. By T. P. Wilson, M. D. 

If medical science does really exist, it does so in defiance of 
logic. It does not conform to reasoning a priori or a poster- 
iori. We know, for instance, that men get sick, and we know 






TTieory and Practice. 261 

they get well. The cffe6t is cognizable. Now suppose, we 
enquire into the cause: How are they made well? 

Our logic run»this wise: The patient was treated homceo- 
pathically, ergo homoeopathy cured him. But stay. He was 
treated allopathicallv,ergo allopathy cured him. But stay again. 
He was treated by an ecledtic, a Thompsonian, a magnetic, an 
ele<5tropathic, a clairvoyant do6tor, or rather he was prayed 
over and had hands laid on him, and finally he had no doctor, 
took no medicine, and still he got well, ergo— What? 

A mind untrammeled by the prejudices of the schools wouki 
stand utterly bewildered amid such conflidting testimony. If 
from such an effedt we can consistently reason back to so 
many and diverse causes, what is the use of logic? 

And we are no better off, if we attempt to reason the other 
way. Suppose we try it. The materia medica of the various 
schools are totally unlike. An electrical battery, a pious 
prayer, an infinitesimal attenuation, a water bath and an opiate 
can have little in common. Taking these as efficient causes, 
we might — ^indeed we could only — come to the conclusion of 
of effedts quite as various as the causes themselves. 

And allowing the patient to have gotten well without any 
intervention, we are obliged to reject the claims of all schools. 
There is no logic in medicine. 

A convenient way of disposing of this problem is to assume 
that all cures, made through the agency of medecine, are the 
result of the operation of the homceopathic law. That is 
many of those who give medicine unwittingly, or otherwise, 
give that which is homceopathic to the case; and so make a 
cure. This might be true of treatment given by an allopath 
or an eclectic or a homoeopath or a Thompsonian or of any 
treatment made by drugs. 

But this assumption does not account for cures made by 
prayer or by animal magnetism or by elecEtricity, and spontan- 
eous cures must stand apart from all of these. 

If this Gordian knot is ever cut it will not be by the blade 
of logic, unless we change the premises of our argument. 
Oct-2 



958 CincinnaH Medical Advance. 

In every case of disease cured, there is but one element 
found as a constant fadtor. And that is unchanged whether 
all schools or no schools of pradtice are invoWed* And that 
fadtor is the human mind. The student of psychology need 
not to be told of the power of the mind over the body. This 
fact is one recognized since the earliest ages. At least, we, 
it^ho are wiser grown, can easily trace its a^ion through the 
traditions and superstitions of the past. 

Perhaps in nothing has it figured so conspicuously as in its 
(>ower over disease. The Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments are full of illustrations. The braz en serpent,he 
blood of the lamb sprinkled upon the lintel and the door posts, 
the pool of Bethesda, whose waters were troubled by an an- 
gel, the healing virtues that went out from Christ and his 
apostles by which all manner of diseases were cured, these all 
show the power which the mind had in curing disease. 

If these were miracles in the common sense of the 'term, 
then the age of miracles is not past for, to*day, invarious parts 
6f the world we have the same phenomena transpiring, and 
there is only lacking in the public mind the universal spirit 
of ignorance and superstition to make them signally notorious. 

It is difficult to pursue this subjedt without trespassing upon 
some one^s cherished faith. But he who holds truth above 
dogma will not turn away grieved or angered from this con- 
templation of a problem for which no satisfactory solution 
has yet been discovered. Law enlightens us, while miracles 
only serve to confound us. God is infinitely more honored 
in the uniformity and consistency of his operations than in 
the performance of irregular, unnatural and unexpected a^. 
For our part, we believe in a science of history just as we be- 
lieve in a science of language and of religion and of nature. 
Qiven any authenticated historical fadt and it can be made to 
take its place with other fadts as orderly parts of an orderly 
government, be that government divine or natural only. 

• And it is so of phenomena as they transpire to-day. The 
problem of curing disease meets us at every step. Only one 
ignorant and bigoted will shut his eyes to the fadl, that, while 



Theory and Jh^aetice, 259 

he is curing the Rick after a certain manner others, are doing 
the same thing in an entirely different manner. Now if any 
one chooses to assume a variety of causes having a common 
effect, or if any one assumes a cause which will cover only a 
|>art of the efTe^St he docs it without the warrant of logric or 
reason. 

Time and space are too limited to give full scope to our 
thoughts upon this subje<5l. We can only indicate what 
might be a safe line of argument 

We have the body suffering from disease. In consequence 
of this, in functions and organic structure, it undergoes im- 
portant modifications. Disease in many of its forms is self- 
limiting. In such cases we may expedt the patient to get 
well, unless substantial hinderance is offered as is to often the 
case. But we may throw all these out of the category. An- 
other class of diseases are held to be by their very nature in- 
curable. Only charlatans can hold out hope in cases of this 
sort All systems alike fail to cure them, and so they too 
may be left out of the count. The other class, comprising 
the curative, and such as are beneficially modified by medi- 
<:ines, contains all the cases of disease which have to do with 
remedial agencies. This excludes all diseases that can be af- 
fected by palliatives only, and includes all those that may be 
treated curatively; and this, by no means, comprises a large 
share of the diseases we find existing among the human race. 

We are narrowed down to a fractional part of the diseases 
occurring; and can allow no claims for cure except as they are 
made good against cases of this class. Now, let those who 
dare, deny that many of these diseases have been sured in all 
the various ways we have specified. For our part we cheer- 
fully allow it Each mode of practice has had its moity of 
success. We were never so thoroughly sedtarian as to deny 
that doctors of all sorts do cure. Our modesty never allowed 
us to claim absolute but only relative superiority. Our per 
cent of mortality has always been comparatively less but nev- 
er zero. 

This much granted, or at least understood as claimed as 
part of our argument, we call your attention to the fa6t that 



260 CineinncUi Medicai Advance. 

it has long been allowed that the mind plays an important part 
in the cure of disease. No ship has been more surely 
saved through the undaunted courage and hope of its officers 
and crew than has the life of multitudes of sick been saved 
through faith. In the killing of men, disease has given the 
palm to fear, and in the saving of men, all remedial agents 
must give the palm to faith; and faith is but an exercise of 
the mind's confidence and hope. 

This point needs no elaboration or proof. It needs only to 
give it a logical application. Assuming it as an efficient 
and universal cause, existing every where in every known 
case of disease, cured by whatsoever agency, natural, artifi- 
cial or divine, it leads us to the diredt conclusion of the effe^ 
wheresoever it may occur. 

And now it remains for us to guard this single point. The 
mental power that cures may be the patient's, and will be, if 
the brain of the patient be in proper condition to exercise 
the necessary power. If from infancy or diseased action, or 
any abnormal condition, the brain of the patient is incapable 
of a<^ion, or, having the necessary power, cannot be at all, or 
only slowly brought into action, then that power must ema- 
nate from the brain of another party; which party may be 
the attending physician or the clergyman who ministers by 
prayer and hopeful words full of magnetism, which is in fa^ 
but the brain power. 

How do I reconcile this with my belief in homcoopathy? 
I answer easily, and in this way. In eyery case treated ac^ 
cording to the schools, the brain power of the physician sup- 
plements that of the patient. The most successful do<5tor is 
the one superabounding in animul magnetism, and who can 
inspire the sick and their attendants with the highest degree 
of hope. 

A practice based upon empiricism as notably are allopathy 
and ecle<5ticism gives no great encouragement to its pradti- 
tioners, and having little themselves, they can give to their 
patrons no large amount of confidence. It is with then), all 
trial and guess work. But not so with the practitioner who 
follows the law of similia. Guided by a certain law of nature 



TTieofy and Practice. 261 

in the seledtion of his remedies, he gives those remedies with 
a confidence that is marvelous in the eyes of an allopath. 
And just in proportion as he seledts his remedies with care, 
looking to their homoeopathic relations to the disease, just in 
that proportion will he be himself sure of success. And iC 
the dodtor be overcome with despair, he can do no better 
sometimes than to call in a clergyman, being careful to sele6: 
one that is not dyspeptic, bilious and gloomy, but one that 
hopes more for the patient's temporal than his spiritual wel- 
fare. 

Our view of this subje<5t must necessarily be brief and 
may therefore prove unsatisfacEtory. But we are obliged to 
forbear making more than these brief suggestions. 



» ♦■ 



DiSCfOSSion on Dr. Wilson's Papar. Reported by Charles E. 
Fisher, M. D. 

Dr. Haines: I have an incident in mind which illustrates, 
fully, the power of animal magnetism as curative in disease, 
in the case of an old lady who had been very sick with pneu- 
monia, but who was getting along very nicely under the 
treatment of an Hydropathic physician. I was called to see 
her because she entertained the idea that she would die, and 
all her friends and attendants were of the same opinion, and 
as solemn as a church yard. She was certainly very feeble, 
exp<5torating freely, with severe cough. She had an utter loss 
of will. I told her she must be rubbed and commenced the 
process myself, finally succeeding in arousing her will, and 
left her much better than when I first saw her. The next 
day the process was repeated, and she was inspired with 
self-confidence, and made a speedy recovery. In another case 
the symptoms were like those of sea sickness, when patient 



262 Cineinnatt Medical Advance. 

feared at first she would die, and upon getting better determ- 
ined not to get well, preferring to be treated and petted as 
when she was quite ilL I finally tried the influence of fear, 
and upon finding she could use her limbs, she did use them^ 
and a speedy convalescence was the result. 

We must study each patient's character and peculiarities and 
through such knowledge, the well diredted use of the will 
power will, when recovery is at all possible, assist us greatly 
in the cure. Certain classes of patients should be made an* 
gry, others hopeful, others fearful, and in each case where 
there is any susceptibility to the influence of the mind of the 
physician (and in few there are not) there will great benefit 
result to the patient. 

The physician's influence is noticeable in every sick room 
as we all can testify, and a cheerful disposition will work 
marvelously sometimes. Notice also the influence on the pa- 
tient of visitors, whether they be cheerful or hypochondriac. 
The patient will be affedled according to the disposition of 
those around him, showing that the demeanor of those sur- 
rounc^ing the sick bed will affedl beneficially or detrimentally 
as the case may be the mind of the patient and the course of 
the disease. 

Dr. Owens: I was very much pleased with the paper read 
by Dr. Wilson, but am sorry he was not clearer on two 
points. 

First, on the definition of Psychic Influence, and second, 
on the amount of will power required to be used by the phy- 
sician toward the patient. 

Theologists I believe are as yet undecided whether the mind, 
the spirit, and the soul are one and the same, or different 
Are there three elements required to make up the mind, 
spirit and the body? If not which does this psychic influ- 
ence arise from or is it really a psychic influence? I think 
not, but that instead of its being a psychic force 'tis a vital 
force. A lady who came under my observation who had 
witnessed an operation for fistula lachrymalis, in six weeks* 
time had a similar and complete fistula. The first symptoms of 
which were of a painful boring sensation commencing short- 



Theory and Practice. 266 

\y after witnessing the operation. Was this from mental 
causes or was the vital force so strongly imparted from th^. 
patient operated on to this lady, as to cause a similar fistula, f * 

Another case, that of a young lady who had witnessed an 
operation for an ahdominal tumor, whether ovarian or not I 
do not know, but in three years she had a complete and large 
sized abdominal tumor herself, and could distindly trace thf 
first symptoms back to the date of that operation. 

A case came under my notice some time ago of a gentle- 
man who had been present at a post mortem examination on 
the body of a friend who had died of abscess of the liver, and 
in a few months he had aching throbbing pains in the re^- 
gion of the liver, and was thoroughly satisfied he was sufferr 
ing from hepatic abscess although he could trace it to no . 
cause but the witnessing of the post mortem on his friend. 
The abscess opened through the diaphragm in about four 
weeks, and large quantities of pus were discharged by the., 
right lung, the patient making a good recovery. 

A certain degree of unconscious cerebration will sometimes 
cause disease without any intentional psychic influence, and 
in these cases I find it much more satisfadtory to treat patients 
by the removal of the causes of this peculiar cerebration than 
by medication. I am of the opinion that these cures come 
from an exhibition of vital rather than mental force, a<Sling 
similarly to the dynamic adtion of medicines. We have aH 
seen marked results from placebo treatment and proofs of 
these theories are every day apparent 

I have a case of a patient subjedt to epilepsy, thei spasms 
occurring sometimes daily and again only once or twice ft 
week. These can be checked by his brother, merely laying 
his hand on the patient and in this case 'tis certainly by vital 
force as the patient is unconcious at the time. This brother 
is peculiarly possessed of a large amount of animal magnet- 
ism, and I have seen him draw a hat from the floor to his 
hand, by placing the hand at least ten or twelve inches from 
the hat, showing that even inert substances can be influenced 
by the vitality of a human being. 



264 CineinncUt Medical Advance, 

Dr. Buck: I do not exactly agree with Dr. Owens, in his 
point of departure from Dr. Wilson's views, and I do not 
think it entirely necessary to comprehend fully the exa<ft re- 
lation of mind, spirit and soul one to another. I do not believe 
the human mind can comprehend the anatomy of the spiiit 
or soul, and that 'tis not our province to understand fully the 
psychic or vital influence. I think the positive attitude as- 
sumed by the physician, cures our patients much oftener than 
our medicines do, and is more effedtive far with the patients 
than medicines, crude or inBnitesimal. Numerous instances 
are in my mind now, where patients have recovered under 
placebo treatment. But mind you this will not always cure, 
for I have known patients to die time and again in spite of 
all the willing to the contrary by physician and friends. 

There is another influence which is indescribable, neither 
psychic or vital, but spiritual. Let us lay aside all sedt and cul- 
tivate this line of thought, studying closely the psychic, vital 
and spiritual influence we have upon each other, and we will 
all be greatly beneflted and our patients will not be the 
losers by it. The time will come when the scientific physician 
will cure wholly by these influences instead of by medicine 
and drugs, and even organic and fundtional diseases will be 
successfully treated in this manner. The will is the lever, the 
focal point, and the latent forces still undeveloped are greater 
by far than what we now know of man physical and menta). 

Dr. Slosson: Physicians should look to the moral condition 
of their patient. The will foice has great dire6t-power, and 
the superior will force, combined with the vital force, will 
predominate and good or evil will result, as it is used. We 
have not yet reached the point where we can lay aside our 
medicines although, as Dr. Buck says, the time may come 
when the exertion of will power alone will cure the sick. 

I had a patient once, a young man in the employ of Adams 
Express Co. in this city as money clerk, who was very sick 
with typhoid fever, the worst feature of the case being his 
despondency from which I was wholly unable to arouse him, 
although I exerted my will to that eflTedt to its utmost extent. 
The patient died in spite of all my eflbrts, his spirit of des- 



Iheorif and I^actiec. 2C5 

pondency overcoming my will to the contrary. Cures are 
always effedted more readily when the patient is susceptible 
to a spirit of hopefulness than otherwise. 

Dr. Buck: 1 have witnessed a peculiar phenomenon in the 
case of a dying patient, first noticed by accident and confirm- 
ed bv experiment, where by placing my hand upon the pa- 
tients head, or taking his hand it would effedt me so seriously 
as to put me to sleep, even at times when I was horrified to 
find myself drowsy, and I do not doubt but that it might be 
really dangerous for certain persons to try this experiment. 

Dr. Haines: I have also noticed similar circumstances and 
have thought it very remarkable. 

Dr. Frain: I agree with Dr. Owens as to this being a vital 
instead of a psychic force as I have known instances of pa- 
tients recovering by the presence of a physician even when he 
was indifferent on the subject. 

I was once called upon unexpedledly to visit an old lady 
who was very sick, and was requested to see what I could do 
by animal magnetism. I took both her hands in mine and in 
spite of my will power our hands shook violently for several 
minutes. This was done on another occasion also with the 
same patient. The efledt was very beneficial on her. 

Dr. Wilson: There seems to be no special mystery in the 
minds of the people concerning the power of drugs to cure 
disease. But in these cases even the presence of the physician, 
the faith of the patients and the confidence of the friends have 
been held to have something to do. But these have been in all 
ages of the world in various ways held to be truly mysterious. 
The pra6tice of theurgy has always existed and the gods and 
the demi-gods and the devil, and especially the true God have 
been supposed to be the adtiye and eilicient agent in produc- 
ing these cures. Now the obje6t of my paper was to show 
that all these cases were clearly referable to a law of nature, 
to a common cause, viz: the power of the mind over dis- 
ease. I have ventured further and asserted that in all cures, 
whether drugs were used or not, it is after all the mind which 
cures. This may not relieve the question of mystery, but it 
simplifies our conception of it. 



266 CincinncUi Mtdical Advance. 



Fliarmaceatioal Eomceopatliy. 

The forms in which homcBopathio medicines are dispensed 
are powders, tinctures, pilules and globules. 

The powders consist of sugar of milk, to which has been 
added a given quantity of the trituration prescribed, or on 
which has been dropped a given number of drops of the tinc- 
ture. It is necessary, therefore, to remember that only these . 
attenuations can be dispensed in the form of powder which 
have been made with proof, or stronger, spirit. If prepared 
with a weaker spirit, the sugar of milk will partially dissolve, 
and thus a most inconvenient preparation will result. The 
tinctures themselves are often dispensed, either in bottles with 
directions to mix so many drops to a given quantity of water, 
or the prescriber orders so many drops to be mixed with so 
manv ounces of water, and sent out as a mixture. In order to 
possess a convenient form for administering fractions of a 
drop, Hahnemann adopted the plan of saturating sugar glob- 
ules with the attenuated tincture, and then directing so many 
of these to be taken at a dose. Since Hahnemann's time a 
larger sugar globule, termed pilule, has been introduced, and 
is much used both in this country and America. Another 
form of powder has been recommended in America, and used 
occasionally in this country, and is at tiroes very convenient. 
It is called a tincture-trituration, and is prepared as follows: 
A weighed quantity of sugar of milk, for instance two ounces, 
is put into a mortar, and one fluid ounce of the tincture (usu- 
ally the mother tincture) is poured over it, and the whole is 
well rubbed together, forming a soft paste. This is put on one 
side in a dry place, lightly covered with paper to exclude dust, 
but not to prevent evaporation; and as the paste s^ets drier it 
is again and again rubbed up well and scraped from the mor- 
tar and pestle until it becomes quite dry, when a second ounce 
of liquid is added and the operation repeated. When dry it is 
put up in bottles and preserved like any other preparation. 
From the way it is made it will be obvious that one grain of a 



TT^eory a»4d Pradice. 267 

tinctnre-tritnration will contain as much of the medicines 
as one minim of* the tincture itself. 

Beyond the convenience of carrying them abont and dispen* 
sing them as powders, there is no advantage in the tincture- 
trituration over the tincture; and it should never be used for 
the purpose of making attenuations, which should invariably 
be prepared direct from the tinctures themselves. 

A few words must be said respecting the obtaining and medi* 
eating pilules and globules. 

These preparations are made of sugar and starch, and it is 
always better to procure them from a manufacturer who pre* 
pares them especially for homoeopathic chemists, rather than 
from the confectioner, who, having frequently to color his 
preparations, would be very apt to employ his machinery in- 
discriminately for the colored and the colorless, and hence the 
latter would not be sufficiently pure for our purpose. 

In medicating the pilules and globules a suitable quantity 
should be placed in a bottle, and the tincture with which they 
are to be saturated poured over them in sufficient quantity to 
thoroughly moisten every one of them, and the regular admix- 
ture of the tincture and the globules should be insured by re- 
peatedly sh;iking, or, better still, by rolling the bottle hori- 
zontally in the hand. Some chemists fill the bottles with the 
tincture and leave them to macerate for several days; while 

others carefully ascertain how much the pilules and globules 
will absorb, and add exactly that quantity. Whichever plan 
is followed the greatest possible care is required to secure per- 
fect saturation.* The latter process, when carefully carried 
out, has the advantage of avoiding all exposure of the pilules 
and globules in drying; whereas, if the former plan is followed, 
it is necessary after a time to pour off the excess of tincture, 
and to dry the pilules and globules between sheets of filtering 
paper, a plan which is objectionable on many accounts. 

^It is found tdvantageouB in medicating pilules and globales with attenna- 
tionii, which are usually prepared with strong alcohol, to make those re- 
quired specially with 20 O. P. spirit, which will he more readily absorbed, 
than stronger spirit. 



208 Uincinnati Mtdlcal Advance. 

Before closing these practical directions it will bo wdltosaj 
a little about the proper method of cleaning the uteoBils em- 
ployed by homoeopathic chemists. It has been already stated 
that all careful homoeopathic chemists set apart separate pes- 
tles and mortars for each medicine which has to be triturated. 

All the mother tinctures, and especially all the attenuations^ 
should in the tirst' place be put into perfectly new bottles^ 
closed with perfectly new corks, and these should never iu fu- 
ture be filled with any other medicine or attenuation. 

It must happen, however, that measure-glasses, bottles 
which have contained mixtures, etc., are required to be used 
again and again, and hence it is well to know how they can be 
thoroughly freed from every trace of the medicine which they 
have previously contained. This may be effectually accom* 
plished by washing the bottle in an ascending stream of 
water, in place of a descending stream, as is almost universally 
employed. The chemist should have a fine nozzle and stop- 
cock adapted to his water cistern in his laboratory (over the 
sink,) and so arranged that the stream of water ascends like 
the jet of a fountain. He then washes his bottle or glass, as 
the case may be, in the usual manner, carefully removing every 
visible impurity, and then, while the vessel is still wet, he 
should hold it over the fine nozzle (which must be fine enough 
to pass through the neck of the smallest sized bottle he has to 
wash,) and while in that position open the stopcock and allow 
the stream to strike against the bottom of the glass or bottle he 
is washing; in this way, as soon as the water mixes with the 
remains of the medicine, it flows down the sides of the vessel 
and escapes into the sink, and in a very short time not the 
slightest trace of medicine can remain in the glass or bottle. 
It can then be drained and dried in the ordinary way. 

ON WRITING PRESCRIPTIONS. 

The peculiarities of homoeopathic pharmacy entail certain 
peculiarities in prescribing which must be noticed. 

1. Since there are numerous preparations of each medicine, 
it is essentially necessary to mark this after the name of the 



Uteori/ and Practice. 269 

medicine. For example, it is not sufficient to order Bel la- 
donna. The name must be followed by the sign denoting the 
particular preparation. Thus: 

Bell, tinct., Bell, dx, Bell. 6, Bell. 30, 
would denote respectively the mother tincture, the third de- 
cimal, the sixth centesimal, and the thirtieth centesimal at- 
tenuations of the medicine. 

2. After the sign denoting the preparation must follow the 
usual signs for the quantity; and in connection with it must 
be a notification as to whether triturations, tinctures, pilules, 
or globules are wanted. Thus: 

Merc vivus 3x grs. 2=2 grains of dd decimal trituration. 

Merc, vivus 6 gtt. 2=2 drops of 6th centesimal tincture. 

Merc, vivus 6 pil. 2=2 pilules of 6th centesimal attenuation. 
Merc, vivus 30 gls. 3=3 globules of dOth centesimal attenua- 
tion. 
These may be written thus: 
Merc, vivus grs. |x, gtt. f , piL f , gls. ^. 
Following these necessary rules, the homoBopathic prescrip- 
tions will assume some such forms as these: 

FOR POWDERS. 

Aeon i turn 3x gtt. iij. 
Sacchar. Lactis, grs. vj. M. 
Fiat pulvis. Mitte tales iv. 

Slg — Dissolve a powder in dessert-spoonfuls of water 

and take one dessert-spoonful every hours. 

FOR MIXTURES. 

Belladonna 12, gtt. vj.; 

Aqua destill.. 3vj. M. 

Sig. — A dessert-spoonful to be taken every ^hours. 

. Two things are especially to be recommended, viz., that all 
prescriptions should be written in such a manner that any 
homoeopathic chemist may read them with certainty and fa- 
cility; and that the directions for taking the medicines should 
be so written that both the patient and chemist can understand 
Xhem.^Hom€topathic Review, 



270 Cincinnati MediccU Advance, 



Slectro-Therapefatics. By c. E. Walton, M. D. 

It was during the time of Thales, the sage of Miletus, that, 
to adopt a mythological phraseology, the amber god, electric- 
ity, succeeded in drawing to his attractive, and at the same 
time no less repulsive, self the attention of the race. This 
acquaintance did not speedily ripen into friendship and 
friendship into love, for nearly 2,500 years made their te« 
dious circuit before, through the eflbrts of Galvani and Volta, 
DuFay and Franklin, there was established anything like a 
positive understanding; and even now in this so-called en- 
lightened age* the understanding is largely negative. But this 
is not strange when we Consider that the known is always 
disproportionate to the unknown, and that the grists of truth 
are furnished no more rapidly than those which are produced 
by the laggard mills of the gods. 

It is not as the expressions of an enraged Deity, or the en* 
circling agent of Puck, that electricity is a subjedt of interest 
to the physician; but as a force of nature intimately connected 
by its manifestations with the physical condition of life, and 
in so far an agent more or less valuable in the restoration of 
health. 

For an intelligent conception of the subject of eleAricity, it 
is necessary that the physician should know its kinds, their 
method of production; its nomenclature, its physiological ef- 
fects, its mode of application, its therapeutic adtion and uses, 
and its place in medical science. To this end let us examine 
these points as carefully as the limits of the hour will per- 
mit, contented in many cases to receive the announcement of 
results and principles furnished by elaborate and exadi exper- 
iments, without occupying our time with tedious details. 

Three kinds of eledtricity are employed by the modern elec- 
trician, difTering in quantity, quality and method of production. 
The first, Franklinic, static or fri6tional, produced by the cyl- 
inder or plate machine where fridtion applied to a glass sur- 
face furnishes the electricity. The second, Galvanic, Voltaic 



Theory and Practice. 271 

or dynamic, the result of chemical adtion in a battery com- 
posed of metal and acids. The third, Faradic, induced to and 
fro eledlro- magnetic or magneto-eledtric, produced by the 
adlion of the Galvanic eledtricity upon soft iron surrounded 
by insulated wire. ^ 

Many pages might be written in the description of the va- 
rious batteries and machines for the production of elediricity 
but this pertains only indire6tly to the examination of the 
subject under consideration. We are dealing with the force, 
not its vehicle. 

Much confusion seems to have arisen from the misappre- 
hension and misapplication of terms, but this is the case in 
the inception of every art or science, hence the necessity of 
clearly understanding all technicalities; unless there be a 
uniformity of expression all progress is sadly crippled. The 
term current expresses direction in the manifestation of the 
eledtncal force. This current in general terms flows from one 
part of the batteiy to the other; its point of origin is called the 
positive pole of the battery or anode, its terminus the nega- 
tive pole or cathode. Right here let me introduce/the practi- 
cal suggestion that the positive pole is always found in con. 
neCtion with that part of the battery which is eaten 'by the 
acid. In reference to the currents they are as follows, ist, 
the Galvanic or continuous which is the current as it comes 
immediately from the battery, and is the one used as a cautery; 
sd, the induced or t.o and fro or interrupted current which is 
the Galvanic current intensified by an induction coil; 3d, the 
primary current which is the induced current from a single 
coil; 4th, the secondary current which is the induced current 
from a double coil. 

We now come to a current which has been largely mis- 
understood, namely, the diredt current; this has no relation 
whatever to the kind of eledtricity, being equally applicable 
both to the galvanic and induced, but having sole reference 
to the direction of the current in its passage through the or- 
ganism as relates to the nerve centers: the current passing 
from the nerve centres to the extremeties of the nerves is 
the diredt current whilst that passing in an opposite direction 



272 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

is the invefse current. For instance, I grasp the eledtrodes or 
conducting wires in my hands, the positive pole being held 
in my right hand, the current passing up the right arm and 
down the left, now which is the diredt current and which the 
inverse? The current passing up the arm is inverse, down 
the arm or from the nerve center to nerve extremity is dire<5t. 
The importance of this distinction will be seen when we 
come to consider the physiological effedts of these currents 
when it will be found that they are diredtly opposed. 

Qiiantity and intensity are terms indicating contrasted con* 
dition of the manifestations of eledtricity, and is illustrated by 
Youman as follows: 

'*The heat in the human body is considerable in quantity 
but low in intensit}', while that of an ignited match is very 
small in- quantity, but high in intensity." Quantity depends 
upon the size of the plates in the battery cell. Intensity upon 
the number of cells; the capacity for generating heat depends 
upon the quantity, but for producing chemical changes in in- 
tensity multiplying the number of cells of equal size increases 
the intensity while the quantity remains unchanged. 

So much for nomenclature, let us now examine the physio- 
logical efleCts produced by the application of ele<5tricity to 
animal tissue. The general efleCt is expresed by the term 
cledtric shock, which has for its elements, pain and involwi- 
tary muscular contractility. The property of contraction by 
the way is inherent in the nature of the muscles and is chiefly 
manifested by nervous excitations. Take two frogs, one 
poisoned by curare which destroys the excitability of the 
nerves, the second recently killed; a current applied to the 
first produces no muscular contraction, but applied direCtly to 
the muscles contraction ensues; whilst in the second frog, 
contraction is produced by both methods. Two distinCt 
properties are thus brought to view muscular irritability on 
one hand and capacity on the part of the nerves to excite that 
irritability on the other. 

The pain produced is felt most keenly at the articulations 
which is readily accounted for by the faCt that a cross seCtion 
of the muscles, or conductors, is much less at those points, 



ITieory and Practice. 273 

conseqently the density of the eledtricity and the nervous 
excitation are greater; it is as though the contents of a broad 
river were turned into a narrowr channel, the velocity of the 
stream, or in other words the intensity of its force is greatly 
augmented 

In using the Galvanic current pain and contra(5tion are only 
manifest at the closing and opening of the current; none is 
felt or observed during the continuance of the circuit. It is 
thus possible with certain kinds of interruptive apparatus 
to institute a series of repeated shocks which though coming 
from a very weak current will kill large animals. 

"Their effe<5t" says Prof. Carlo Matteucci in the Smithsonian 
Report for 1865, "is not owing to the quantity of eledricity, 
but rather to the variations of ele(5tric condition which arises 
in the nerves and muscles of a living animal at the moment 
of opening and closing a Voltaic circuit" 

By this variable state is meant that minute portion of time 
between the closing of the circuit and the establishment of 
the continuous current, perceptible at all points. The less 
the duration of this state the greater is the eIe<5tro-physiologi- 
cal efre<5t. It is in this fa<5t that we find the explanation 
of the intense physiological effedls of the discharge from the 
Leyden jar. 

But how does the elc(5tric current excite the nerve? We 
account for the condition imposed upon the soft bar of iron 
when it is magnetized by the supposition of a new molecular 
arrangement in the iron. I think we would not be far from 
corre<5t were we to suppose a similar molecular change in the 
tissue of the nerve, a condition which is assumed and aban- 
doned with every passage and stoppage of the current. 

According to the mechanical theory of heat, the amount oi 
labor performed by the contra<5tion of a muscle should be 
equivalent to the heat developed by the oxidization of the 
zinc in the battery, but "the labor produced by the muscular 
contra6tion is at least twenty-five or thirty thousand times 
greater than that which would correspond, according to the 
mechanical theory of heat, to the quantity of zinc or to the 
current by which the nerve was excited." 
Oct-3 



274 CoiciniKUi Medical Advance, 

This result is explained by first supposing that the current 
which excites the nerve a<5ts ^*as does the spark of fire which 
kindles a great mass of powder. The second supposition is, 
that the passage of the current excites the nerves, the a<5lion 
of the nerves induces chemical a(5tion, chemical action passes 
over into heat, or more probably into heat and finally into 
mechanical labor. *^The chemical a(5tions requisite to explain 
the muscular labor are within the muscles." 

It has been conclusively proven; ist, that muscular con- 
traction "is accompanied by an augmentation in the chemical 
a<5lion of the so-called respiration of the muscles, that is, by 
the greater absorption of oxygen, by a greater exhalation of 
carbonic acid;" 2d that muscular contraction developes heat. 
From this the following conclusion is reached: "the excitation 
of a nerve by means of a current, as in the kindling of a mass 
of powder by a spark, gives rise in the muscle to chemical 
phenomena; that is to say, increases the so-called muscular 
respiration; and it is through these chemical phenomena and 
the mechanical labor of the contractions, taking into account 
also the development of heat, that we verify in effeCt the 
relation demanded by the mechanical theory of heat. 

When speaking of currents you will remember that par- 
ticular attention was called to the direct and inverse currents, 
the first running from the nervous centers to the extremities 
the second running from the extremities to the nervous cen- 
ters; bearing this in mind we are prepared to understand the 
following propositions of eleClro-physiology which shall only 
be stated without detailing the experiments by which they 
have been indisputably established. 

First: "In the mixed nerves, ih^ first and sole efTeCt obtained 
is the contraction produced at the moment when the diredt 
or descending current, rendered as little intense as possible 
or propagated with the greatest slowness, begins to pass. 
On increasing the intensity of the current or the velocity of 
the discharge, the second eleCtro-physiological efTeCt which 
arises is the contraction excited at the opening of the cir- 
cuit by the inverse or ascending current, on still increasing 
the intensity of the current the contractions occur at two other 



ITieory and Practice. 276 

instants namely, when the dire<5t current ceases and when 
the inverse begins 4o ad^" 

2d Proposition; *'By using, for the excitation of st uerve, 
an electric current of very slight intensity, and such, therefore, 
that, being still further diminished^ there would be a corres- 
ponding diminution in the muscular contra(5tion, if this cur- 
rent be forced to divide itself in half between two nerves, 
the effe^ excited in the muscle is reduced to half what it was 
at the first instant when the current passed entire in the 
nerve." 

3d Proposition: "The ele<5tric current does not a<5t, or its 
adion is at least extremely feeble, when it is transmitted 
across the nerves instead of traversing them in the dire<5tion 
of their ramifications." 

4th Proposition: A continuous current transmitted in a 
mixed nerve modifies the excitability of the nerve in a differ- 
ent, and it even may be said, an opposite manner, according 
to its dire<5tion; the direct current enfeebles and destroys the 
excitability of the nerve, while the inverse increases it within 
certain limits. The time necessary for the current to produce 
these effects is proportional to the degree of excitability of 
of the nerve and in inverse ratio to the intensity of the cur- 
rent. After the opening of the circuit the effects of the 
-curreivt- have a tendency to disappear, and so much the more 
rapidly as the excitability of the nerve is greater and thp 
current employed is weaker." 

5th Proposition: When an eledtric current has passed until 
contra<5tion has ceased, contraction is renewed when the di- 
rection of the current is reversed." 

"Humboldt first studied the adion of the current on the 
cardiac plexus and on the ganglionic system of the lower 
belly. In the former case he observed, and it was afterward 
verified by others, that on keeping the circuit closed for a 
certain time the pulsations of the heart show no difference, 
but if the eleCtric excitations be continued these pulsations 
become more frequent, and that this frequency lasts for a 
certain time after the current has ceased to pass. When the 
ganglionic system of the lower belly is operated upon with the 



276 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

current an.analagous fa(5t is noticed. The vermicular motion 
of the intestines is by degrees accelerated and this acceleration 
also continues for a certain^time after the opening of the cir- 
cuit. In these two effects, the electric excitation of the 
ganglionic nervous system would seem to differ from that of 
the mixed nerves in being, as regards the former, continuous 
during the passage of the current, slower in manifesting it- 
self and slower in ceasing. A knowlege of these ele<ftro- 
physiological effei^ts, the recital of which may very possibly 
have seemed tedious is essential to the therapeutist or surgeon 
who would make a scientific application of electricity in the 
treatment of disease. 

We are now brought to the consideration of a use of the 
electric current which is scarcely less valuable than its use as 
a therapeutic agent, and that is its use as a diagnostic agent 
Too much can not be said of the value of reliable means of 
diagnosis, and none appreciate this value more than the intel- 
ligent physician who considers a correct diagnosis to be nearly 
if not quite as important as a cure. A patient is brought to 
us with a paralyzed limb, it is important to determine the de- 
gree of irritability in that limb as compared with the sound 
limb, and we send the least current up the limb that will cause 
contraction. If the same current sent up the sound limb 
causes no contraction, the conclusion is obvious, there is the 
greatest irritability in the afTeCted member. 

Where now is the appropriate cause of the paralysis. Is the 
muscle removed from the influence of the spinal cord, or while 
still under the influence of the spinal cord js it paralyzed to 
the will? In other words do we have what Dr. Marshall Hall 
meant by "spinal paralysis," the functional separation of a 
muscle from the cord, or is there cerebral paralysis. With 
one pole of the battery placed over the spinal cord and the 
other placed over the muscles whose nerves arise at that por- 
tion of the cord, we find that tl>ere is no irritability. Diagno- 
sis: some lesion of the nerves between their origin and distri- 
bution, or .the cord at the origin of these nerves is the seat of 
disease. On the other hand irritability is found; diagnosis: 



ITieory and Practice. 277 

some lesion of cord above the origin of the nerves or in the 
brain itself* 

A man is injured while traveling by boat or rail^ there is an 
apparent paralysis of one or more limbs, he brings suit for 
damages and claims his insurance, possibly he may be a mal- 
ingerer: a strong interrupted current is sent through the sus- 
pected member, causes little or no contraction. The diag- 
nosis of paralysis is at oiice established, and the man^s honor 
stands unimpeached« No human will is strong enough to cause 
muscular passivity under the influence of a strong eleClric 
current To speak of all the diagnostic uses of electricity 
would swell this article to formidable proportions, and enough 
has been said to indicate its general adaptability, and for more 
specific information the little work of Reynolds on ^'Clinical 
uses of Electricity^ will be found exceedingly valuable. 

As a therapeutic agent eleCtricity is being largely employed. 
The battery is rapidly assuming the rank of a necessity in the 
outfit of a physician, and yet there is reason to believe that in 
a large majority of cases nothing but a very superficial know- 
ledge is brought to the direction of its use. So powerful an 
agent should not be carelessly used, for if it does not do posi- 
tive injury, it may so prejudice opinions that its benefits may 
not be enjoyed because of the unwillingness of patients to 
submit to its employment 

Let us consider some of the therapeutic uses and mode of 
application. 

Over activity of muscle, nerve or vessel may be reduced by 
the continuous Galvanic current, — the very rapidly interrupt- 
ed induced current, or by a charge of static eleCtricity. The 
first two are those which are most commonly used. 

Where a cerebral lesion is of sudden occurrence, or of 
gradual occurrence and accompanied with pain, giddiness or 
feeling of weight in the head, do not on any account apply 
eleCtricity as a curative agent until some time has elapsed, and 
where its diagnostic use is needed, apply in a very weak Gal- 
vanic current 

In treating a painful limb the prognosis is based upon the 
degree of muscular contractility; if the limb, though com- 



278 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

pletely paralyzed, contracEls perfedlly under electric stimulus, 
the prognosis is unfavorable, likewise if contradlility is entirely 
lost. But if the degree of contra(5tility lies between these ex- 
tremes, the prognosis is in proportion to the improvement 
you can effect in the riutritive condition by one or two appli- 
cations of the current, and when you have brought the con- 
tractility up to the normal standard you have done your 
patient all that electricity will accomplish; the paralysis will 
generally be lessened and sometimes cured. If you use the 
Galvanic current, interrupt it by moving one of the electrodes 
up and down the limb, as the continuous current will be of 
no benefit. One precaution, never cause pain if you would 
benefit your patient, and again do not weary your patient by 
a too prolonged application. 

There is an important difference in the application of the 
Galvanic and Faradic current. In the former, the electrodes 
may be widely separated, in the latter, the electrodes should 
be close together; take the poles in one hand and apply to 
the muscles in succession. The explanation of the electric 
effect upon the paralyzed limb is this: It restores the depress- 
ed nutrition of both muscles and nerves and by reflex action 
improves the nutrition of both spinal cord and brain. The 
benefit derived depends upon the extent of this effect. 

In cases of recent contraction with rigidity, it is not advis- 
able to apply electricity; but in old cases much may be done 
to relieve or at best prevent further progress. 

To speak of the various conditions susceptible of relief by 
the use of electricity would tax your patience beyond endur- 
ance, and possibly discourage the resolve already formed to 
inquire further concerning these things. Therefore we for- 
bear to speak of its application in aphonia, sciatica, tonic and 
clonic spasm, local paralyses, such as ptosis, strabismus and 
facial paralysis. We will not step into the domain of surgery 
and speak of the electrolyzation of tumors, the removal of 
urethral stricture, the amputation of polypi and other opera- 
tions both interesting and valuable; but we will endeavor to 
emphasize the necessity of determining the sphere of elec- 
tricity in the treatment of disease. 



Theory and Practice. 279 

While it may be readily conceded that in homoeopathy we 
find the expression of the highest known law for the admin- 
istration of drugs, we must also acknowledge that homoeop- 
athy does not exclusively cover the domain of medical science. 
It must have its adjuncts. We make this admission not be- 
cause of ignorance of the application of the law, but in rec- 
ognition of the fa<ft that every law has a limit of applicability. 
The laws of growth and chemical laws are not interchange- 
able, they apply to the recurrence of very different phenomena 
and yet in many are co-existent and find harmonious expres- 
sion. 

The dread of a name has kept many a man from asserting 
a principle, declaring a belief or instituting a course of action 
The fear of the name "infidel" has restrained many a tongue^ 
whilst "Revolutionist," "Inflationist," "Jacobin," "Whig,"' 
"Tory," "Hugenot," "Catholic," "Heretic," has restrained 
many to inglorious passivity. There is at least so much in a 
name if nothing more. This same fear has not been inoper- 
ative in the medical ranks. One must not use water verv 
freely or his good name will be marred with the suffix, hy- 
dropath; should he use small doses or large doses, or doses of 
herbs, of steam, of ele<5lricity what an array of titles will he 
fall heir to: "Homoeopath, allopath, root-do6tor, steam-do6tor, 
eledtropath, and last of all should he employ all these methods 
to what a level has he sunk that he must be called an ecledtic. 

It is for the wise physician to determine as far as possible 
the sphere of all methods of treatment, and not blindly to 
adopt any one method to the exclusion of others. If he will 
accept the law of similia as the best guide in the administra- 
tion of drugs, so far so good; the whole question of the use 
of drijgs is at once settled; but aside from that there are many 
adjuncts which it is certainly not the mark of wisdom to dis- 
regard. One of these has been brought to notice as the sub- 
ject of this paper. So much has been done with this agent, 
so much is being done, and so great are its apparent capabili- 
ties that the subjedl of electricity, in its therapeutic bearings, 
becomes a matter of necessary consideration on the part of 
every physician. To this end allow me to acknowledge my 



280 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

indebtedness to Dr. Reynolds and Prof. Matheucct in diredl- 
ing your attention to the "Clinical Uses of Ele<5tricity" by the 
former, and the elaborate paper of the latter on £le6tro- 
Physiology published in the Smithsonian Report for 1865. 



-» ♦■ 



ICcroscopic Terrors. 

This is the age of detectives in medicine. The best minds 
are pursuing the physical causes of disease with the micros- 
cope, with chemistry, with imagination. Disease is no longer 
dynamic, but material. Its seeds float in the air, and about in 
water, in milk, in food. When one takes a drink of water the 
chances are that he swallows a myriad of living organisms, 
vegetable and animal, which will carry into his blood the 
germs of typhoid, of tubercle, of cholera. Milk may be 
fraught with the poison of typhoid fever, and may scatter the 
pestilence broadcast. It may conceal the seeds of cholera and 
plant a great harvest of that scourge. So we are taught. 
More than that, we are now assured that milk can propagate 
tubercle. A French scientist has demonstrated that calves 
fed on substances with which tuberculous matter is mijced, 
will become tuberculous, and of course that the milk of tuber- 
culous women will do the same. And then we can not breathe 
the air with safety, for it may.be filled with the germs of pal- 
mella, which will enter the blood and grow into an ague fit. 
Pork and beef are dangerous from the trichina, and tenia is 
smuggled into the stomach with vegetables and spring water. 
We live in a dangerous world, and what with the multiplica- 
tion and improvements of binoculars the dangers increase every 
day. It is to be hoped our microscopists will give us a bill of 
fare, informing us what we may eat and drink, if indeed there 
is anything salubrious. — Pacific M. and S. Jour. 



Tlieory and Prcictitc. 281 



Homoeopatliy is ])ead ! ! 

The thing is done! The agony of the last seventy -five years 
is over! Homoeopathy is dead! How often during this per- 
iod has it been killed. But this time it is the genuine article, 
the legitimate child. Yes genuine Homceopathy is dead; 
think of it! Not the mongrelism of the Germans nor the 
Electicism of the Americans. How could such a thing happen 
while the head-center and patriarch of the Homoeopathic 
school was living? Did Homoeopathy die secundem artem 
under the administration of legitimate drugs injected into the 
system with the hypodermic syringe, a la Pfaffenberg, and a 
score of others? Or from the application of the Galvanic cur- 
rent as did the poor Irish woman, for which act the great 
electro-therapeutist was reprimanded by his brothers, the as- 
sembled wisdom of the fraternity? No such thing! Did it 
die of sun stroke? No! It died, according to the report of the 
wiseacre of a contemporary Allopathic weekly periodical, by 
being moon struck. His charge to the jury — the public — 
reads thus: "Gentlemen, you have their own confession: they 
claim that sun and moon light will influence the human or- 
ganism and its functions, and bring about, under certain con. 
ditions, a curative effect.'* He brings then as evidence an 
article in the North American Journal of Homoeopathy, in 
which a contributor of said journal relates several cases of re- 
covery from the effects of moon light, and also improvement 
in cases of dysmenorrhoea by the administration of water 
which had been exposed to the rays of the moon for some 
time. 

Before the verdict is rendered we demand a patient hearing. 
We find in the same journal, the Clinic, No. 25, an article by 
the editor, entitled "Music as a Medicine." We know further 
that a stock-holder of the same paper has thrown all physic 
to the dogs and relies almost exclusively in the cure of all the 
ills that fiesh is heir to another of the elementary forces viz., 
electricity. What is electricity? What is sound (music)? 



282 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

What are light, magnetism, even vegetable and animal life? 
They are, according to the modern theory, as expounded by 
Gross, Tyndall, Helmholtz, Liebig and Carpenter, nothing 
else but the manifestation of matter in motion. The difler- 
ence of their manifestations depending upon the different 
modes of motion. Nay, they are correlated with each other 
so that one can be transmuted into another as heat into chem- 
ical action, magnetism into light, light into sound, etc. 

On what ground then will you exclude light, be it direct, 
or reflected (may be polarized) from the list of thera- 
peutics, when it can be proven that it is a far more powerful 
factor than your music or your battery on account of its con- 
stant and steady influence upon the organism, in as far as all 
the- functions share in the benefit of light? Alex, von Humbold 
ascribes the absence of scrofula to the direct influence of sun 
light upon the naked bodies of the children in Central 
America. 

Have you ever heard of ozone, and how it is developed un- 
der the direct action of the rays of the sun? Schsedler calls it, 
rightly, "the problem of the future." Will you deny that wa- 
ter, after having been exposed to the direct rays of the sun, 
has not changed in quality? The moon's rays, although less 
powerful in heat, may efl'ect the same or, possibly, much more. 

"That may be all so," you say, "but there is yonr infinitesi- 
mal dose of the 6ooth or 6oooth which brings ridicule upon 
the system and its exponents. 

As professor of Physiology you are certainly acquainted 
with the results of spectrum analysis by which it can be dem- 
onstrated that the urB'.TriTr.Tnnr of o^ie grain of sodium can pro- 
duce a sensible impression on your retina. 

But if this will not satisfy you, I advise you to become 
acquainted with the results of the experimental investigations 
of Messrs. Coze and Feltz for your benefit and for the benefit 
of the jury we furnish the following extra6t: 

"But the most singular thing in these Pathological fermen- 
tations is the faA noted some years ago for the first time by 
Messrs Coze and Feltz, and the study of which M. Davaine 
took up last year. Davaine demonstrates by experiments 



Theory and Practice, 283 

made on Guinea pigs, that one drop of blood from an an- 
imal affecEled with septicaemia, has the power of imparting 
the infection to another animal innoculatcd with it, that a drop 
taken from a second can transmit the disease to a third 
and so on. Still more wonderful, the poisoning power of 
the blood of these animals increases with the degree of ad- 
vance in the series of inoculations. The culture of the virus 
heightens its malficent properties. This gradual increase 
of the virulent force is such that if we take a drop of blood 
from an animal representing the twenty-fifth term in a series 
of successful inoculations, and so dilute this drop with water 
that a drop of the dilution corresponds to one trillionth of the 
original drop, we get a liquid of which the smallest quantity 
still displays mortal adlivity. These experiments of M. Da- 
vaine, which exhibit the degree of venom as increasing in an 
inverse ratio to the apparent quantity of the poison, have 
been repeated and confirmed by several eminent physiologists, 
among others by M. Bouley, and have produced a sensation 
which still continues in the schools of physiology and mediqine. 

The assertion of its being "genuine Homoeopathy" is, to say 
the least, a piece of bold assumption on the part of a man so 
young in his profession and altogether unacquainted with the 
diflerent sects of a school of medicine foreign to him. 

In proof, we submit a statement of Dr. A. Lippe, one of the 
oldest practitioners on this continent, in the Sept. No. of the 
Medical Investigator, a monthly journal of the medical 
sciences, published in Chicago; a journal of acknowledged 
ability and high standing among the six thousand HomcDo- 
pathic practitioners in the United States. 

"There does not exist a county or state society which has 
thought proper to give such a definition; and the American 
Institute could not, if even it would, speak authoritatively, as it 
is not a chartered institution. There exists at present such a 
great diversity of opinions as to what constitutes a Homoeo- 
pathician, and as to what should be taught in Homoeopathic 
colleges. We find men advocate the teaching of principles, 
while others indulge in the rejection of principles, and advo- 
cate the teaching of a multiplicity of opinions. And within 



284 CincinfuUi Medicaf Advance. 

the faculties themselves there docs exist the widest diversity 
of views about the definition of Homccopathy, a large major- 
ity of the present teachers advocate Electicism and reject al- 
most, if not all, of Hahnemann's teachings." 

The verdict of the jury was this: 

**In so far as the genuineness of the theory has not been 
demonstrated, we decline to give judgment in this case for or 
against, but would counsel the prosecutor to disprove the 
statement given by the contributor to the "journal of Homoe- 
opathy" by instituting a series of experiments, by which alone 
such controversies can be decided. 

Considering the sluggish or dormant intellect of our pres- 
ent time (only half or little civilized) we can be contented 
with the verdict given? 

A jury — ^after all nothing else but public opinion — of the 
next hundred or thousand years would pronounce diJBTerently 
in all probability, in the following manner: 

The words Homoeopathy, Allopathy and Hydropathy are 
misnomers, since Virchow has demonstrated that there is no 
pathy. We have a science of medicine, the practical appli- 
cation of all the natural sciences, one branch of which is the 
science of therapeutics. 

We may have, therefore, electrotherapy, hydrotherapy, ther- 
apy of gymnastics and Homoeotherapy. 

But the administration of drugs, be it in small or large doses, 
is a small item of the medical science. Paramount to the 
highest technical skill and the most successful application of 
remedies, when disease actually exists, is the study of the 
cause of diseases and the search for measures of prevention. 

**In this broad field," says Heber Smith, M. D., in the Re- 
port of the Marine Hospital Service, "the physician becomes 
student and investigator not only of man's physical, but also 
of his social and moral environment, and the bearing and ef- 
fect of the most diverse and apparently remote influences are 
traced to their results in the production of disease and death, 
or the conservation of health and life. And as to the admin- 
istration of drugs, the disciples of Hahnemann, the so-called 
Homoeopaths, whom you are pleased to designate as "quacks," 
come much nearer to the true idea of Hippocratic doctrine 



Theory and Practice. 285 

"w*7 noccere, do no harm," than you with your blood lettings, 
your hellish compounds and hypodermic injections, in as far as 
they, firm believers of the law similia similibus, which after 
all is a law of nature, with their so-called infinitesimals can, 
as can be proven by statistics, lay claim to as successful re- 
sults as the so-called regulars. 

It seems to me the judge of the future will declare that 
these very prosecutors were mere "dolors" but no physicians 
who, after having received a piece of sheepskin signed by a 
number of respectable and dignified looking pra<5litioners, call- 
ing themselves professors, peddle their deco6lions and pills, 
become popular by a showy and attractive outfit, yielding lo 
the whims and prejudices of a half educated community, 
sharing their superstitions, by which popularity they gain 
riches and become respected among the respectable. 

"But I reckon," the judge continues, "that in spite of all 
their respectability they resemble, in a great measure, the beast 
of the field and the forest, fattening upon the worm-eaten 
and decaying fruit dropped to the ground, without ever look- 
ing upwards to the source of their income. 

They ought to have read once in a while the picnic scene 
in Go3the's Faust where the peasants eulogize Faust and his 
dead sire for the deeds done during the Pest. 
Says Wagner to Faust: 

"With what a feeling, thou great man, must thou 

Receive the people's honest veneration? 

Thou art shown to aH the younger generation; 

Each asks and passes on to gaze. 

The fiddle stops, the dance delays; 

Thou goest, they stand in rows to see. 
And all the caps are lifted high. 

A little more and they would bend the knee 

As if the holy host came by." 

aust answers: 

"Couldst thou but read within my inmost spirit 

How little now I deem, 

That sire and son such praises merit. 

This was the medicine* the patients woes soon ended. 

^Hjpodermic Syringe. 



286 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance, 

And none demanded, who got well? 
Thus we our hellish boluses compounding 
Amongst these vales and hills surrounding 
Worse than the pestilence have passed: 
Thousands were done by poison of my giving 
And I must hear, by all the living, 
The shameless murderers praised at last." 
Cincinnati, O. G. Saal, M. D. 



^u\ MMu%. 



The Sphygmograph. 

This little instrument has for sometime been made use of as 
a means of detecting changes in the pulse wave, which wave 
reflects in this visible manner the action of the heart and the 
tension of the arteries, two very important factors in the 
mechanism of animal life. Under the above title Dr. Edjrar 
Holden publishes "The essay to which was awarded the 
Stevens' Triennial Prize, by the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, New York, April, 1873." ^^^ work is printed by 
Lindsay and Blakiston, of Philadelphia, on heavy tinted 
paper, and amply illustrated; making altogether the most com- 
plete treatise on the subject that has come under our observa- 
tion. Aside from a general dissertation on the mechanism, 
phenomena, recoil and tension, etc., etc., of the pulse. The 
practical application of the Sphygmograph, with sphygmogra* 
phic characteristics of certain diseases. The third part of the 
work is devoted to the action of medicines, and it is this de- 
partment of the work which seems to us of most importance 
to the science of medicine. While the author does not claim 
for the experiments here recorded, that they are the "universal 
and invariable exponents of individual diseases;'* he never- 
theless very justly claims that such experiments will "probably 
prove in all cases suggestive of the pathological condition in- 



Theory and PnicUce, 28 



>• 



volved." and this estimate of his own labors and of other la- 
borers in this field, it seems to us, apply in a special manner 
to experiments made upon the healthy with drugs. 

The volume under consideration contains the record of ex- 
periments made upon individuals with aconite, gelseminum 
and quinine, the changes produced thereby in the pulse wave 
being carefully noted and set forth in sphygmographic tracings. 

We can not, at present, undertake to estimate the value of 
these experiments to therapeutics, although the plan of so 
proving drugs and noting in every possible way their eflects 
has long been pursued by the homoeopathic school. 

What we desire, at this time, is, to call special attention to 
this new mode of ascertaining the precise action of drugs, and 
to advise every physician to procure a copy of the above 
work, where may be found "key notes" no less valuable, for 
future experiments, than as indications for the use of drugs so 
tested in disease. J. D: B. 

Transactions of the American Otological Society— Sixth Annual 
Meeting. 

This Society numbers over forty of the Allopathic special- 
ists of this country. That they are very earnest and success- 
ful workers their yearly volumes of transa<5tions clearly show. 
In point of numbers New York City takes the lead, but the 
greater part of the work done in the present volume comes 
from Philadelphia. Three papers are contributed from the 
former city, four from Boston, and with one exception the 
remainder comes from Philadelphia. Not a word from the 
West. This doesn't speak well for this section of the coun- 
try. As we can hardly impugn the ability of the western 
members we must per necessity discount their energy. If 
every member had contributed something we would have 
had a larger and much more valuable contribution to science. 
The Ophthalmic and Aural bureau of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy, now in its third year of existence, will make 
nearly as good a showing in its next report. The transac- 
tions of both bodies will always be worth having. 



288 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 



%H%n'% %tXU, 



A SLIGHT epidemic of new medical journals is at 2)resent 
prevailing. 

Dr. Jennie Bkauby has removed to Linesville, Crawford 
CO., Pa., taking Dr. H. M. Lbgee's practice, the latter, having 
removed to Oxford, O. 

The *Trial for practicing Homoeopathy," which took place 
in Boston some two years ago, is all out in a pamphlet and is 
readable and instructive. Copies might be procured by ad- 
dressing Dr. Talbot. 

Dr. Adam Earnest one of the Pulte boys is spending the 
year in London at the medical department of King's College. 
He places us under obligation for numerous favors. 

Dr C. S. Williams, an alumnus of the Pulte, has gone to 
Europe to spend a couple of years. He promises to give our 
pages the result of some of his observations. 

Prop. N. Schneider, of Cleveland, has returned from a 
year's visit to the old country and will if his health permits 
resume his practice. 

A (}rand Cliarity Fair. 

The ladies of Cincinnati and suburban towns have resolved 
to hold a grand fair for the benefit of the Homoeopathic Free 
Dispensary and the College. The beautiful property corner 
of Mound and Seventh Sts., now occupied by these two in- 
stitutions jointly, is only partially paid for and is greatly in 
need of substantial aid. The friends of Homoeopathy are 
bound to give the institution the support it deserves and to 
this end will hold one of the grandest fairs this city ever saw. 
At this writing the the time has not been fully agreed upon 
but it will probably take place early in December. No 
pains will be spared to make the affair one of the highest 
success. We bespeak for it the aid of all our friends. 

Later. The General Committee have decided on the first 
Tuesday in December. 



THE 



€iudituali tlE(6kaI MHntt. 






VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.— NOVEMBER, 1874. [NO. 7. 



'Subscriptions to the Advance should be sent to Dr. T. C. Bradford, P. O 
Drawer 1284, Cincinnati, Ohio. $3.00 a year, in advance. 

All bumness communications, relating^ to the publication or to advertising-, should be 
addressed to Dr. T. P. Wilson, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Mound SU., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Our Homceopathic Fair will open December 7th. The 
most extensive preparations are being made^ and every body 
is invited to lend a helping hand. 

All the medical colleges have opened 'Svith largely in- 
creased classes/' Venerable professors are now busily 
reading their musty manuscripts to gaping (partly from 
wonder but mostly from drowsiness) classes. "The demni- 
tion grind'' is on, and students are to be incessantly worried, 

thoroughly frightened and certainly graduated. 

"It was ever thus." 

A HAPPY FAMILY are the Allopathic doctors of Cincin- 
nati. They are well nigh to bursting with mutual admiration. 
So devoted are they to this pleasant pastime they have no 
time to abuse any body else, au/i we, "of the other school," 
Nov-i 289 



200 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

move on in the even tenor of our way. Should they not 
maintain a desirable state of health under such counter irrita- 
tion, we have no objection to giving them the benefit of our 
services. 

Washington, D. C, Sept., 1874. 
Dear Doctor, your letter came duly to hand, 
And I hope your Dispensary Fair will be grand; 
But, sir, my embarrassment no one can know, 
When I read in your letter the sentence below: 
"We shall print a Fair Paper and, with pleasure in view, 
Anticipate something quite funny from you." 
And now if you doubt it, and need a sly hint. 
The above is the proof which 1 dare you to print. 

Deacon. 
" How is it you let this fool join the Institute? Do you 

recognize the College? There is a prospect of having 

a law passed this winter cutting off such fellows as B 

and their graduates ? I suppose they think the Institute 
will help them through or rather they have become recog- 
nized by that body.'' Rest, perturbed spirit, rest, for now 
the Advance has fully reformed and will do so no more. 
We have been negligent of our duties toward the Institute 
so much so that it has lately been doing pretty much as it 
pleased. The Board of Censors have "carried on with a 
high hand" and let several parties in without our know- 
ledge or consent. No more objectionable parties will be ad- 
mitted to membership. Particularly we shall take care 
that the anonymous writer of the above is not admitted 
until he improves in his moral character and English 
scholarship, i. e. if we can find out who he is. 

We have been especially delighted with a recent visit 
to the Cincinnati Sanitarium. We were cordially re- 
ceived by Dr. and Mrs. Peck who have charge of the in- 
stitution, and shown through the entire premises, which 
we found as beautiful and ample as one could wish. There 
could hardly be more attractiveness added to the place. 



Editorial 291 

We were pleased to find the Sanitarium growing in popu- 
larity and rapidly filling with patients. Physicians visit- 
ing Cincinnati should not fail to make this one of their 



290 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

move on in the even tenor of our way. Should they not 
maintain a desirable state of health under such counter irrita- 
tion, we have no objection to giving them the benefit of our 



Washington, D. C, Sept., 1874. 
Dear Doctor, your letter came duly to hand, 
And I hope your Dispensary Fair will be grand; 
But, sir, my embarrassment no one can know. 
When I read in your letter the sentence below: 
*' We shall print a Fair Paper and, with pleasure in view, 
Anticipate something quite funny from you." 
Mv Eves I Do what Artemus Ward could not do — 
Write funny to order? — Twain failed at it too 
Do you think I can write funny things when I choose? 
You must take mc to be a young "Danbury News!" 
And now if you doubt it, and need a sly hint. 
The above is the proof which I dare you to print. 

Deacon. 

" How IS it you let this D — d fool join the Institute? Do 
you Recognize the College? There i.s a prospect of hav- 
ing a law Passed this winter cutting off such fellows as li 

and their Graduates ? I suppose they think the Institute 
will help them through or Rather they have become recog- 
nized by that Body." Rest, perturbed spirit, rest, for now 
the Advance has fullv reformed and will do so no more. 
We have been negligent of our duties toward the Institute 
so mu(;h so that it has lately been doing pretty much as it 
pleased. The Board of Censors have "carried on with a 
high hand" and let several parties in without our know- 
ledge or consent. Xo more objectionable parties will be ad- 
mitted to membership. Particularly we shall take care 
that the anonvmous writer of the above is not admitted 
until he improves in his moral character and English 
scholarship, /. e, if we can find out who he is. 

An amateur naturalist, of Cincinnati, has collected 
a quantity (some twenty varieties) of land shells peculiar to 
this section. Any one desirous of purchasing will find this 
an excellent opportunity. 



Editorial 291 

We were pleased to find the Sanitarium growing in popu- 
larity and rapidly filling with patients. Physicians visit- 
ing Cincinnati should not fail to make this one of their 
points of obsrvation. 



♦ ♦■ 



Sobert's Theory and Practice.* 

We have delayed noticing this book until we could care- 
fully examine into its merits. The market is already well 
supplied with old school books of practice. It would be a 
difficult task to do better work in this direction than has 
been done by Reynolds, Ringer, Niemeyer and Atkins. But 
as the works of these authors are voluminous. Dr. Roberts 
thought it useful to students to have in one volume the 
whole matter briefly stated, so that less trouble would be 
experienced in searching for information. His work there- 
fore has no other special merit, and for those in search of a 
short cut to knowledge, it doubtless answers an excellent 
purpose. The style of the author's writing is unexception- 
able. The make up of the work is very attractive ; but, 
like all its contemporaries of that school, it is fearfully be- 
hind the enlightened therapeutics of the age. Page 434 under 
treatment of bronchitis, the author says : "the indications 
are ; 1st, to subdue the inflammation as soon as possible. 
(And in what inflammatory state would we not have the 
same indication? This is a childish use of an axiom.) 2d, 
to prevent the development of materials forming in the tube 
and diminish their quantity if excessive. (Just, how this is 
to be done he does not say, and since we don't believe it 
can be done as a mechanical expedient, we prefer not to put 

*Hand-book of Theory and Practice of Medicine. By Frederick T. Rob- 
erts, M. D., etc., etc.: Philadelphia, Lindsay & Blakiston. 



292 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

our feith in "general or local bleeding, tartar emetic, tincture 
digitalis, aconite and calomel with opium,'' only as far as 
some of them seem Homoeopathic to the case. Indeed the 
author himself discards all but the tartar emetic, and adds 
liq. ammon., acet. and camph. tine. co. And when he says he 
has never had any "experience as to the use of digitalis and 
aconite," we see at once how imperfect is his knowledge of 
modern therapeutics, even of his own school.) 3d, to relieve 
unnecessary cough. (This discrimination between what is 
necessary and what is unnecessary is a fine task, and not 
likely to be performed successfully by any physician mak- 
ing the usual brief examination of a patient; It is an ab- 
surd attempt, and has cost many a baby its life, by checking 
the cough which was its only salvation.) 4th, to allay the 
spasm of the bronchial tube if present. ( Does he mean to 
say that this condition is wholly apart from the inflamma- 
tion, and that, if the latter were subdued, the spasm would 
not cease also ? What miserable jumble of pathology and 
therapeutics to be put forth by an M. D., B. S., M. R. C. 
P.) 5th, to pay attention to the constitutional condition, 
and support the strength if it fails. (This may be some- 
thing peculiar to bronchitis, but it doesn't seem so, and, for 
a " Hand-book of Practice," it looks like an unnecessary 
statement. As a cardinal law of therapeutics, it might pass, 
but as a specific indication in bronchitis it seems far fetch- 
ed.) 6th, to treat apnoea, excessive fever or adynamia, 
should either set in. ( This is highly interesting informa- 
tion. May we ask what he does with the other symptoms 
if he doesn't "treat" them also? And what is "excessive 
fever"? And if moderate, does he mean to say he would 
not treat it ?) 7th, to attend to complications." What's to 
hinder his going on like a Puritan preacher of the olden 
time, until he has reached his seventecnthly, and exhausted 
every form of statement that might make him appear wise 
above what is written ? This may, to some, look like 



Proceedings of Societies, 293 

science, but there's precious little of even common sense in 
it, and yet its a fair specimen of the chaos into which the 
Allopathic school is sadly plunged. It is curious to note in 
running over the diseases treated, how uniformly the pre- 
scription runs: Bleeding, calomel, opium and quinine. 
These are made use of first, last and all the time. All other 
agencies are made subsidiary to these. And these art given 
without rhyme or reason. But why should an empiric hold 
to reason ? If he had a definite rule of action he would 
cease being an empiric and, following a law of cure, would 
make his practice specific and scientific. But this is just 
what the Allopaths will never do. They endure the shame 
of practicing two thousand years without a therapeutic law, 
and glory in their shame. But this doesn't prevent the work 
before us being the best of its class, and worthy of study. 
For sale by Robert Clarke & Co. 



§ut$$Hiip of Sod(li($. 



Organization of the Western Academy of Homoeopathy, ^r. 

Franklin's Address of Welcome — iEle<5lion of Perma- 
nent Officers. 

Pursuant to a call issued by the committee in whose* hands 
the matter of a formation as a Western Academy of Homoe- 
opathy was placed by the last general session of the Kansas 
and Missouri Valley Medical Society, a number of Homoeo- 
pathic physicians met yesterday morning to consumate that 
obje<5l. 



294 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

The convention met at the Homceopathic College, 1009 
Locust street, at 10 a. m. 

Dr. James Lilley, of Kansas City, called the meeting to or- 
der. Upon motion. Dr. Mayer Marix, of Denver, was ap- 
pointed temporary chairman, and Dr. Ferd. C. Valentine 
temporary secretary. 

The chairman stated the objedl of the gathering, the organ- 
ization of a society which should embrace all that portion of 
the Union west of the Mississippi, and all east that should see 
fit to join the organization. The society which the meeting 
was about to establish was in no way antagonistic to the 
American Institute, but in sympathy with it. 

Dr. E. C. Franklin then delivered the address of welcome. 

A careful perusal of the report offered by the committee 
alluded to, will testify to the fundamental and important fa6t 
that '*a separate and independent medical organization in the 
West is imperatively demanded," while as a logical sequence 
the existing want of such an institution operates as a serious 
drawback to the promulgation of Homoeopathic science. 
Hence the obligation devolving upon us to supply the need 
and remedy the evil. The question naturally arises at the 
outset: What peculiar advantages may be expe(5led to accrue 
from the establishment of the proposed organization? The 
answer is so practical that it can neither be gainsayed or over- 
looked. It has long been a matter of regret among the Ho- 
moDopathic practitioners of the West that no specific organi- 
zation existed by which their mutual self-proteAion and 
advancement could be secured, the cause they represent fos- 
tered and developed and fraternal relations promoted in such 
a manner as to advance the welfare of all of us who pra<5lice 
our profession in the great valley of the Mississippi. To a 
refle6tive mind this is very much to be regretted, and the 
more so when we assert that the presence of these very fea- 
tures would so unite the western medical profession as mate- 
rially to strengthen our interest throughout the West, and 
afford stated opportunities for the expression of thought and 
the interchange of ideas. How true it is that we are all de- 
pendent one upon another, that we are so constituted natur- 
ally as to be more or less influenced by the opinions of our 



Proceedings of Societies, 296 

fellow men, and oftentimes yield to their controlling advice. 
This is obvious in every calling, whether mechanical, com- 
mercial or professional. How beautiful is^this law of associa- 
tion, and, when rightly applied, how beneficial in its combined 
results! In no instance, however, can this principle be more 
appropriately illustrated than by the union of those who, ex- 
ercising the duties of a noble profession, are called upon, day 
after day, to minister to the suffering wants of humanity, to 
discriminate disease and remedy its effed:s, prolong life and 
renew age, to reconstru<5t and build up the shattered consti- 
tution of thousands who, but for the medical adviser, would 
totter, peradventure, into a premature grave. I do not pro- 
pose to moralizo, but I am persuaded that if the necessity for 
associated union for the declaration and expansion of new 
ideas, theoretical and pradiical, is to be found in any class of 
society, it should most assuredly be recognized among those 
who are engaged in the practice of medicine. 

Do you wonder, therefore, that some means are proposed 
to identify more satisfa(^orily the interests of our western 
medical brethren and establish a bond of fraternal union be- 
tween them which must redound to their welfare and honor 
of the cause they represent 

Are you surprised at the a<5lion of the conference committee, 
which, agreeably with the expressed wish of an influential 
medical body, has, after impartial deliberation, reported in 
favor of a Western Academy of Medicine, and convened you 
together to consider the feasibility and decide upon its forma- 
tion? Presuming, gentlemen, by your presence to-day, that 
you are prepared to san<5lion the a<5lion of the committee so 
far, and to be in favor of establishing such an institution, you 
must bear in mind that it will involve some energy and de- 
termination to insure its prosperity and secure the end desired. 
The invitation which you have received styles the organization 
the Western Academy of Homoeopathy, but, while simply 
placing that at the head of the circular, the committee do not 
by any means insist upon its adoption. If, in the opinion of 
this convention, it be deemed advisable to adopt some other 
style by which to designate our new society, let it be done; 



206 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance. 

let us start in a spirit of unanimity; let union be our motto, 
union our strength; without it we shall be divided, with it we 
must and shall succeed. 

But whatever plan may be decided upon, there are certain 
points in conne<5tion with this institution which must be care- 
fully noted down. And first of all, it is desirable distin6tly 
to remember that the creation of the proposed academy is not 
by any means intended as in the remotest degree antagonistic 
to the American Institute; on the contrary, it will seek to' 
prove its worthy and useful auxiliary. 

One great benefit derivable from the contemplated academy 
will be that its meetings will be held altogether in western 
cities and-towns, thereby saving all that trouble, expense and 
time which far off meihbers of the American Institue are un- 
avoidably subjected to in attending its sessions in the popu- 
lous cities of eastern distri(5ts. Indeed, as the report expresses 
it, there are many pra(5titioners conne6ted with the Institute 
who, laboring in new and sparsely settled distri<5ls of the 
great West, are deprived of meeting with their brethren on 
account of these inconvenient distances, all of which it is 
hoped will be obviated by our present action. With respedl 
to the influences which must be inevitably brought to bear 
upon the cause of Homoeopathy in the West, by means of 
the Academy of Medicine, it is impossible to calculate its im- 
portance. From all sed:ions of the western country delegates 
will be present to make known their past experience, com- 
pare notes and decide a multitude of topics interesting and 
instru(Slive to the profession at large. It becomes, therefore, 
the duty of every Homoeopathic pra<5titioner throughout the 
West to enroll his name as a member of the academy, and by 
his personal influence and liberal support endeavor to advance 
its best interests, regarding its existence not simply as a want 
to be supplied, but as the highest possible compliment which 
could be paid to the great doctrine enunciated by Hahnemann 
as based upon the fundamental law of Similia similibus curan- 
tur, and indicative likewise of the unprecedented progress 
and eminent results achieved by Homoeopathic science since 
its birth. We have Xio doubt of success, but entertain every 




\ 



Proceedings qf Societies* 297 

hope that our efforts will be prosperous, for, while recogniz- 
ing the untiring perseverance and plodding industry which 
has elevated not alone the American Institute, but other eas- 
tern associations of kindred nature, we can not but admire 
the undaunted pluck and liberality of sentiment which so 
strikingly chara6lerizes our western people. The moment it 
becomes apparent that a certain essential is requisite for the 
attainment of any worthy obje<ft, it signifies not of what na- 
ture, there is a degree of unselfish, warm-hearted interest 
manifested, the more praiseworthy from its very impulsive- 
ness. It is from this enviable source that the majority of our 
western institutions spring, and flourish as they grow. Of 
course there are exceptions to every rule, but, happily, where 
the cause of enterprise and education are concerned they are 
comparatively few. We have a greater variety of individual 
elements to contend with on this side of the Mississippi than 
our neighbors on the eastern shores. The tide of emigration, 
though surely and rapidly advancing westward, necessitates 
an experience with those hard and rugged lessons which all 
new settlers are as a rule compelled to learn. Hence it requires 
more time, more energy, and more unyielding courage to 
brave the storms and clear the way before the sunshine of 
prosperity dawns, or "the wilderness rejoice and blossom as 
the rose." These are the chara<5teristics which are training 
our western inhabitants to that liberality of thought and depth 
of sentiment which so peculiarly charadlerizes them and in- 
spires with a largeness of heart and nobility of soul boundless 
as the broad prairies over which they are scattered, and deep 
us the mighty river which flows onward to the sea. This is 
not an overdrawn pidlure; it is the veritable truth; if it were 
not, I should not have the confidence to address you now with 
reference to the subje(!:l before us, but relying upon your ex- 
perience and knowledge of what is required of your hands 
for your own good and that of the cause you have espoused, 
I can not hesitate in my duty or relinquish the belief that you 
will see the importance of immediate action looking to the ad- 
vancement of your favorite science. 



298 Cincinnati Medicai Advance, 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The convention was called to order by the temporary chair- 
man. 

Dr. E. C. Franklin, Chairman of the Committee on Consti- 
tution and By-laws, reported and submitted a constitution like 
to that of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, also a set 
of by-laws for the future government of the academy. 

The different se<5lions of the constitution and by-laws were 
read separately, and adopted seriatim. 

Some little discussion took place as regards who should be 
admitted to the academy, and whether the name of applicants 
should be submitted to the Committee of Censors or to the 
members of the academy. It was finally settled that the Cen- 
sors should pass upon the qualifications of all applicants. 

The convention then proceeded to the eledtion of perma* 
nent officers. The ele6lion was made by ballot which resulted 
as follows: 

President, Dr. M. M. Marix, Denver, Colorado; 

Vice-President, Dr. Geo. H. Blair, Iowa; 

General Secretary, Dr. Ferd. C. Valentine, St. Louis; 

Provisional Secretary, Dr. W.. C. Hempstead, Illinois; 

Treasurer, Dr. R. H. McFarland, Kentucky. 

SECOND DAY. 

Dr. E. C. Franklin, St. Louis, presented a large number of 
letters from physicians throughout the country, regretting their 
inability to be present; but enthusiastically supporting the 
movement and requesting to be enrolled as members. 

Dr. E. C. Franklin alluded to the climate of Colorado in 
relation to pulmonary diseases. He understood that a sani- 
tarium was about to be established in Colorado for the benefit 
of patients suffering from diseases of the respiratory organs, 
and, in conne(Slion, offered a resolution requesting Dr. Mayer 
Marix, president of the academy, to deliver a ledture on the 
subject. 

The president acknowledged the compliment and promised 



Proceedings of Societies, 299 

to prepare a paper to be read before the academy, and such 
others as might be interested. 

On motion of Dr. Franklin, the secretary was instrudled to 
cast the vote of the academy for Davenport, Iowa, as the place 
of holding the next annual meeting. 

Dr. W. C. Richardson, St. Louis, moved that the academy 
publish a medical journal in the interests of Homoeopathy. 

Several members expressed their opinion on the subje<5t. 

Dr. Franklin spoke in favor of establishing a monthly peri- 
odical in St. Louis. It was his intention of starting such a 
journal, containing a digest of the most important faAs con- 
ne<5led with Homoeopathy and, if the proper support was 
given, he promised to start such a journal. 

A resolution was passed pledging the support of the acade- 
my in so desirable an enterprise. 

Upon invitation of the academy, the president, Dr. Mayer 
Marix, of Denver, explained the objed: of the sanitarium about 
to be established in his city. It was to supply patients who 
go there with a leisure, where they might receive proper care 
and food without being subje6ted to the inconvenience of a 
public hotel. It is to be under the care of Homoeopathic phy- 
sicians and devoted to the treatment of diseases of the respi- 
ratory organs. The estimated cost of buildings and furniture 
will be about 1 100,000. 

On motion of Dr. Geo. H. Blair, Iowa, Dr. E. C. Franklin 
was appointed orator of the Western Academy of Homoeop- 
athy for the year 1875. Ferd. C. Valentine, Sec. 



♦ ♦ 



Champlain Valley Homodopathic Medical Society. 

The regular quarterly meeting of this society was held at 
the office of Dr. C. B. Currier, in Middlebury, Vt., August 4th. 
The meeting was called to order by the President. The re- 



300 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

port of Dr. Currier, as delegate to the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy, lately held at Niagara Falls, was then in order. 

This was the most successful and best attended session 
that the Institute ever held, several hundred physicians hav- 
ing attended, and many of them accompanied by ladies. 
Delegates were present from twenty-one States, and the 
Province of Ontario, and all felt that it was a profitable 
meeting. Dr. W. H. Holcombe, of New Orleans, was chosen 
President for the ensuing year, and, in his speech of accept- 
ance, said that he considered his election to be a sign that 
the profession North and South were to work together as of 
old. 

Upon recommendation of the Board of Censors, the follow- 
ing gentlemen present were elected members: Drs. F. W. 
Halsey, of Port Henry, N. Y.; B. T. Crafts, of Middlebury, 
and G. E. Sanborn, of New Haven. 

A letter was then read from Dr. H. E. Stiles, Superintendent 
of the State Homeoeopathic Asylum for the Insane, at Middle- 
town, N. Y. This hospital, the first of the kind in the United 
States, was opened for the reception of patients March last, 
since which time some thirty patients have been received. 
The formal opening took place June 18th, when a brilliant 
assemblage of ladies and gentlemen well-known to the Ho- 
moeopathic world met to listen to the eloquent address by Hon. 
A. B. Conger, of Haverstraw, and to enjoy the handsome col- 
lation prepared by the asylum cooks. Since the opening of the 
asylum there has not been bought, borrowed or used a grain 
of chloral, bromide of potassium, morphia or any so-called 
sedatives or nervines; their place has been more than filled 
by the Homoeopathic remedies, much to the surprise of the 
attendants who come from Allopathic asylums. Every en- 
deavor is made to bring all pleasant and homelike influences 
to bear upon the patients, the halls and rooms are beautified, 
even in the violent ward, with books, papers, music, flowers, 
birds and attractive table service, while the dietary has 
been pronounced a "model" and "well founded on good phys- 
iological laws," by Dr. John Ordronaux, State Commissioner 
of lunacy. 



Theory and Pmctice. 301 

Dr. E. T. Crafts, of Middlebury, read an interesting and 
carefully prepared paper upon "Broncho-Pulmonary Catarrh" 
which was accepted with thanks by the society, and a long 
discussion of the subject followed, and various cases of inter- 
est to the profession were also presented by the members. 

The society then adjourned, to meet at St. Albans, on 
Tuesday, Nov. 3d, at 10:30 a. m. 

Samuel Worcester, Eec. Sec. 



®|$(SP| att& 3mt%iu. 



Brown-Sequard's Blunders. By J. P. Dake, M. D., Nashville. 

The facts submitted by a scientific investigator, regarding 
a subject of inquiry, and the conclusions he may arrive at, 
either in the direction of philosophy or of practical opera- 
tions, should be well considered by him before coming into 
the possession of the public. 

In reading the lectures delivered at the Lowell Institute, 
Boston, last spring, by Dr. Brown-Sequard, on "Nervous 
Force," I was astonished to come upon some statements and 
opinions altogether at variance with well-known facts and 
principles. 

After explaining, very satisfactorily, how nerve force 

dwells in nerve cells and fibers, and is manifested only in 

nervous actions, the lecturer seems to leap over a series of 

facts, jumping to a conclusion, which he calls 

"a deatu blow to animal magnetism" 

He says: "The great question is, whether the boundaries 
of the nen'ous system are also the boundaries in health of 



302 CincinncUi Medical Advance. 

that nervous force. In other words can the nervous force 
spring out of the nervous system to produce some action. 
As regards this I may say, there are no facts to prove it. You 
can easily understand that if I am right, this is a death blow 
to animal magnetism." 

Now no one, so far back as I am informed, has ever thought 
of calling the peculiar force, which has its dwelling place and 
laboratory in the nerve cells and fiber, the nervous force 
still, when acting beyond the boundaries of the nervous sys- 
tem. 

Nor am I aware, that any advocacy of animal magnetism, 
has been exclusively based upon the assumption, that the 
nervous force can "spring out of the nervous system to pro- 
duce some action." 

The learned lecturer, a little further on, has given exam- 
ples of the nerve force in action, beyond the physical limits 
of the nervous system. 

He says it then acts as electricity, as a chemical agent, etc. 

The convertibility of the nervous force admitted, what, I 
ask, has become of the "death blow to animal magnetism?" 

If that nerve force can spring out of its nerve cells and fi- 
bers, and act as a motor force in one direction, and as a chemi- 
cal force in another, and electrical force in a third, what should 
make it impossible or improbable, that in a fourth, it might so 
leap out and act as an animal magnetic force? 

There certainly are abundant facts to prove that a force 
of some kind, under certain conditions, goes from one person 
to another, giving rise to very distinctive phenomena, whether, 
that force is the vis nervosay or something else, and whether in 
its ultimate action, it be called animal magnetism or some- 
thing else. 

The lecturer must abandon his om'u premises and his own 
teachings, as to the properties and influences of nerve force, 
before his "death-blow" can be effectual; and if, henceforth, 
he should count animal magnetism among the slain, he may, 
like Macbeth, come to believe in "ghosts." 

But a more palpable blunder was made by Dr. Brown- 
Sequard in his reference to the action of strychnia in cases of 
paralysis. 



Theory and Ptactice. 303 

He Bays: ''In these cases strychnia is used with more effect. 
I will say that if Homoeopathy has any foundation at any time 
— though I most certainly believe it has not — it certainly has 
no value in these cases. Strychnia must be given in great doses 
to affect paralysis." 

Starting out under the momentary inspiration of the truth, 
the lecturer was evidently going on to say, that, if Homoeopathy 
ever has any foundation in fact, it is in the removal of paral- 
ysis by strychnia; but, as if afraid of the truth, he catches 
himself up in the parenthetic exclamation — "though I most 
certainly believe it has not" — and then proceeds deliberately to 
stultify himself, as a medical scholar, by the assertion — "it 
(Homoeopathy) certainly has no value in these cases." 

All the writers, in the Old School, of any note, recognize the 
principles expressed in these terms. Antipathy, Allopathy and 
Homoeopathy, and claim to follow, in practic, whichever may 
seem best for the patient. 

In prescribing ice for inflammation, and astringents for diar- 
rhoea they are antipathists. 

In prescribing vesicants for neuralgia and cathartics for rheu- 
matism they are all allopathists. 

And in prescribing belladonna for scarlet fever and strych- 
nine for paralysis they are homoeopathists. 

Their motto has been "no exclusive dogma" — {hut aU dog- 
mas alike, and ad libitum. 

Both in theory and in practice Homoeopathy has thus been 
acknowledged, as having some "foundation in fact;" and hence 
the foolishness of Dr. Brown-Sequard, in saying before a Bos- 
ton audience — "I most certainly believe it has not." 

Orfila, Olivier, Marshall, Hall, Copland, Todd, Pereira, and 
all other writers on the poisonous and medicinal effect of 
strychnia, who value their reputation, agree that it induces 
motor paralysis in the limbs of well people; and who will ven- 
ture to deny that, it cures that form of paralysis in the sickf 

If the homoBopathicity of this potent drug, to paralysis, 
were not already clear I would point to the language of Dr. 
Pereira, the most eminent allopathic writer on materia medica, 
where he says— "In general, strychnine first displays its re- 
markable influence on paralytic limbs." 



304 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Bat, as if too well aware of these facts, and anxious to find 
some other ground for his denial of credit to Homceopathy in 
the cure of paralysis, the learaed lecturer asserts — "Strych- 
nine must bo given in great doses to affect paralysis'' — evi- 
dently meaning that, the action of the drug can not be homoe- 
opathic because the doses required are great. 

It is hard to tell now, in which he appears the more df^fi- 
cient, in a knowledge of Homceopathy or the teachings of his 
own materia medica. 

He ought to know that the term Homceopathy and the prin- 
ciple represented by it, refer to the character and not the 
quantity of a medicine employed in disease; and that they 
point out simply the relationship which the drug symptoms 
must bear to those of the case in hand, that a cure may re- 
sult. 

He should know, that small doses are not necessarily ho- 
moeopathic, nor large ones allopathic. 

And the merest tyro in medicine should know, that if 
strychnia must be given in great doses to affect paralyzed 
limbs it must be given in much greater doses to affect limbs 
that are not paralyzed. 

The difference is made by a decrease in the power of resist- 
ance, the diseased parts being already under the influence of 
a morbific force similar to that of the drug employed. 

The gratuitous and surprising efforts of the lecturer to flat- 
ter the predjudices of old fogyism in Boston, led him into 
blunders, not at all creditable either to his scholarship or his 
magnanimity. But let us accept his own explanation and 
apology, uttered in advance, at the opening of his first lec- 
ture at the Lowell Institute. 

He said: "Physicians unfortunately — I speak of myself as 
well as of others — are biased. Their bias prevents progress. 
They have received an education which has given them cer- 
tain notions, and those notions prevent a free examination of 
certain questions." 

The case of "bias," exhibited by himself, so soon after the 

utterance of this explanatory language, was of an aggravated 
character. It certainly had prevented "a free examination" of 
Homoeopathy and given him a most distorted view of well- 



TTleory and Practice. 306 

known facts. Such a ''bias," while a sin in the private indi- 
vidual, must be looked upon as a flagrant ci^ime in the public 
instructor, who essays to mold the opinions and to govern the 
practices of the world. 

To what extent, I must inquire, has this terrible ^^hias dys- 
crasia^^ influenced the other teachings of Dr. Brown-Sequard? 

Aife in the minds of a discriminating public, how must it 
affect the reliability of all the facts and opinions he may fur- 
nish? 



• ♦ 



SiBCUadon on Dr. Stuard's Paper.* Reported by Charles E. 
Fisher, M. D. 

Dr. Owens: The poisonous effects of opium are exactly op- 
posite to those of belladonna, and each are well-known anti- 
dotes to the other. It would therefore have been much bet- 
ter treatment to have given belladonna or atropia in these 
cases, and thus antidoted the effects of the narcotic. 

Opium causes paralysis of the pneumogastric nerve, and a 
contraction of the circular fibers, affecting prominently the 
iris. The effects of belladonna are dilatation, whereas 
opium causes contraction and in narcotic poison it can be 
given with safety until dilatation of the pupil commences, and 
then it is useless as your patient is safe. In one case I had, a 

*Dr. Staard read a very interesting paper, detailing two cases of poison- 
ing by opium treated by him ; one a small child the other an adult. In the 
former case, he used a Davidson or Essex syringe ; first removing the me- 
tallic attachments at the extremities. First he pumped in a quantity of 
water, after running the tube down the oesophagus, and then reversing the 
ends he pumped out the contents of the stomach. In this novel way he 
cleared the stomach of whatever poison remained in it. In the latter ca^ 
he gave bell, tinct. to antidote the effects of opium. Both cases recovered. 
We regret we were unable to procure Dr. Stuard's paper to publish in con- 
nection with this discussion. 
Nov-2 



306 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

gentleman had taken an ounce of landannm, and daring the 
antidotal treatment, he took, in all, two and one-half grains of 
atropine and recovered, no other treatment being used. I 
used the tincture of belladonna in the treatment of a little 
child, poisoned by laudanum taken in place of Godfrey's 
Cordial, with the most satisfactory results. I am of the opin- 
ion that belladonna or atropia will antidote the differqnt^prep- 
arations of morphia every time. I would call attention to the 
homoeopathicity of opium in rigid os uteri, and strangulated 
hernia, owing to the contraction of the circular muscular fi- 
bers caused by it. I have found its use attended with good 
results, in all the cases in which I have employed it. 

The primary effects of opium last generally about sixteen 
hours, first becoming prominent about two hours after admin- 
istration, when given in poisonous doses; but its effect in the 
ordinary medicinal doses lasts about four hours, while the 
antidote effects of belladonna or atropia continues six or 
eight hours. You can therefore antidote opium with these 
agents, even six or eight hours after the administration of the 
narcotic, although of course the earlier the better. 

Dr. Walton : I would hardly expect any very satisfactory 
results from the emetics administered, as the laudanum is some- 
what if not wholly absorbed in the course of an hour after its 
administration. 

Dr. Owens: That depends a great deal on the condition of 
the stomach at the time, and not unfrequently have traces of 
the narcotic been found in the stomach ten or twelve hours 
after the poison has been taken. 

Dr. Stuard: The theory of belladonna antidoting opium is 
still a matter of controversy, and I would dislike very much 
to trust to it alone, in narcotic poisoning. In the case of the 
infant poisoned by laudanum I used it without effect, giving 
fifteen drops of the tincture. 

I deem it advisable, if at all possible, to evacuate the stom- 
ach, although it might be well enough to use the belladonna 
also. In both cases reported the subjects were thoroughly nar- 
cotized, and the pneumogastric nerve paralyzed so that all 
emetics administered were utterly useless. 



ITieory and Practice. 307 

Dr. Owens: It has been a well established fact for many 
years that belladonna is a safe antidote to narcotic poisoning. 
Its physiological action is exactly opposite that of opium, hence 
its usefulness. Cases of its efficacy are numerous, and it can 
not be questioned. 

Dr. Wilson: Many medical men worship false gods in the 
shape of certain axioms laid down by somebody as infallible. 
One of these old time axioms was that mercury had a specific 
effect in its action on the liver. The time was, when it was 
treason to doubt it. But the fallacy has been exploded, and 
that particular axiom ruled out. But then if mercury had 
not this specific effect podophyllum certainly had. This is 
another supposed axiom, and it to is being rapidly exploded. 
Another of these axioms is, that belladonna is a certain 
physiological antidote to opium, and I don^t believe it has any 
right to be so considered. Suppose you would mix the two 
what would be the effect? Would the belladonna antidote the 
opium, or vice versa, or neither? When taken in the blood, 
the opium rushes on, and either paralyses or irritates the 
the nerve center, when on comes the belladonna and, strikes 
another blow and a cure is affected on the principle that two 
wrongs make a right. This is one of the fallacies of medi- 
cine, and instead of trusting to the use of belladonna alone, I 
should vacate the stomach, if in the earlier stages, and send fresh 
blood to the parts by exercise, whipping^ with twigs, or by 
any other means which would answer the purpose. I doubt 
the fatality of the dose of morphia takeh by the child, and 
think with the treatment it received recovery would have en- 
sued anyhow. 

The improvised stomach pump, was a good thing, and I 
heartily commend its use. 

Dr. Owens: In our works on toxicology, among the many 
antidotes given for narcotic poisoning, belladonna occupies a 
foremost place, and the certainty of its antidotal effect are 
well established. I can see no reason why medical gentlemen 
should not accept as true, well proven and authenticated facts. 

I am of an inquisitive turn of mind myself, and generally 
do not accept as true, statements not well established; but I 



308 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

can see do reason why truth can not be accepted, and not nec- 
essarily denounced promiscuously. 

I think the amount taken in both these cases quite enough 
to produce death, and am surprised to hear Dr. Wilson ex- 
press any doubts of it. I also sanction the use of the stom- 
ach pump where no antidotes are given, but would greatly 
prefer the use of belladonna. 

Dr. Marvin; Would Dr. Owens, having taken half an 
ounce of laudanum in mistake, be content to trust to bella- 
donna for his life. 

Dr. Owens: I should use emetics and evacuate the stomach, 
but consider belladonna the only safe treatment after absorp- 
tion of the poison has taken place. 



■• ♦ 



PnmtLS Spinosa ; Its Acticn on the Eye. Clinical Besnlts. By 

Geo. S. Norton, M. D., Resident Surgeon, N. Y. Oph- 
thalmic Hospital. 

Dr. O'Connor of this city, formerly of Washington, was, I 
believe, the first to bring this remedy into notice in the treat- 
ment of eye troubles, charadlerized by severe pains, (N. Y. 
Journal Horn., Nos. 8 and 9, Vol I.) He says he has used it 
in the following cases. Two cases of chrorio-retinitis in 
myopic patients with scleredtasia posterior and fluidity of the 
vitreous with floating opacities in it (hsemorrhagic.) One 
oase of irido-choroiditis, no fluidity of the vitreous and no 
floating opacities. Another case of irido-cyclitis with an- 
terior synechia and also once, in an old lady, act. 76, who had 
paralysis of the right side, and cornea nearly opaque with ex- 
cessive congestion of the superficial and deep vessels of the 
conjudliva and sclerotic. '^In all these cases the indication was 
the pain which was of a crushing or wrenching or 'pain as if 



Theory and Ptdctice. 809 

pressed asunder.' I would illustrate it by enclosing an apple 
between the two hands, and holding fast with each, turning 
the hands in opposite directions on the same plane, and the 
apple is literally 'pressed asunder.' Apply this proceeding 
In ifnagination to the eye ball and any pain that will con - 
vey the above idea to the do<5lor's mind will be the indication 
for prunus. I didn't get it exa<5lly in all the cases but nearly 
like it, was 'wrenching' or *as if turned inside out' (the eye 
ball itself) or simply 'crushing pain' etc." 

All these cases were in the right eye only. The do6tor 
used the 2" Finck, which in our case adled better than the 
the 30th or 200th but equally well with the tin<5lure. 

Dr. Plimpton showed me the following case, occurring in 
Dr. Hill's clinic in this hospital. A man about 50 years old, 
came to the hospital about two months ago for treatment of 
his eyes. 

Upon examination with the ophthalmoscope, a well marked 
disscminate-choroiditis was found especially marked at the 
macula lutea, deposits of pigment were discernible on the 
retina and the vitreous was hazy. L. V.= 10-100, R. V.= 10-40. 
This condition continued for three or four weeks when he 
was attacked with severe sharp pains in the head above the 
eyes, extending down into the eyes, also a sharp pain going 
back into the head; vitreous quite hazy; mist and spots before 
the eyes "past counting." Prunus 30th was given, and in a few 
days he returned saying the pains were entirely relieved in 
the right eye and much better in the left, also that the spots 
had diminished until only three remained. Ophthalmo. 
scope showed the fundus of the right eye clearer. L. V.= 
lo-ioo but clearer than before. R. V.= 10-20 the patient still 
under prunus and improving. 

I have used this drug for the past year in several cases 
with marked success and believe it to be a very valuable 
remedy in diseases of the eye (especially when involving the 
internal stni6ture,) when accompanied by the characteristic 
ciliary neuralgia, etc. 

Will only mention nine cases where its effe6t was very 
marked. 



310 Cincinnati Medicai Advance. 

Case I. Girl, aet. i6, had superficial keratitis of the right 
eye, caused by a deposit of lead in the cornea. After treating 
her some little time, was attaked with sharp darting pains in 
the eye going back into the head. Worse in the evening. 
Prunus 30th was given with immediate relief which lasted for 
two weeks when it returned. The lead was then taken out 
and soon after the patient ceased her visits. 

Case II. Woman aet. 26, eyes very myopic, requiring a 
concave 4 glass; marked posterior staphyloma with atrophy 
of the optic nerve and choroid. For some time has been 
troubled with great pain in left eye as if the ball was pressed 
or squeezed, also sharp pains through the eye ball back into 
the head, worse on motion, and relieved in the open air. 
These pains seem to be paroxysmal, coming on at any 
time during the day. Prunus 30th immediately relieved the 
above symptoms, and three months afterward, she had had 
no return of them, though of course, the condition of the eyes 
remained unchanged except that they felt stronger. 

Case III. Girl, aet. 19, has pustular keratitis producing 
sharp darting pains through the eyes, followed by lachryma- 
tion and worse the forepart of the night, accompanied by 
ciliary neuralgia. Prunus relieved the above pains, but did 
not improve the condition of the eye. (Arsenicum relieved 
the disease.) 

Case IV Woman, aet. 21, has scleredlasia with M.=:i-i2. 
Ophthalmoscope reveals some hyperemia of the fundus with 
thinning of the choroid in addition to the crescent around the 
optic disk; troubled with "blacks" be£ore the eyes, and sharp 
pain through the left eye, darting through every half hour or 
so. Prunus 30th relieved permanently the above symptoms 
so far as known. 

Case V. Woman, aet. 25, posterior staphyloma with 
M. = i-i6. Had been affedled for some time with pain across 
both eyes and up into the temples; worse in the afternoon 
and on motion and better from lying down and resting the 
eyes. Pain often going back into the eyes and sometimes has 
pain shooting up from behind the ears on both sides. Prunus 



TTieort/ and Practice, 311 

has relieved the above two or three times, temporarily, and 
the attacks are growing less frequent 

- Case VI. Woman, aet. 21, is hypermetropic and has been 
troubled for a long time with ciliary neuralgia. The pains 
are sharp, darting from the outer can thus, going above, below 
and around the eye and are paroxysmal coming on several 
times a day and extending from one eye to the other. Pru« 
nus 30th was given, after which she had no return of the 
attack. 

Case VII. Woman, aet 32, chorio-retinitis, is subje6t to 
neuralgia and for years has been troubled at times with numb- 
ness, and congestion of blood to the head with vertigo. Four 
weeks before coming for treatment she had noticed black 
spQts floating before the eyes on moving them. Ophthal- 
moscope shows the retina hazy and inflamed as well as the 
choroid, retinal vessels very tortuous, disk hyperaemic, opaci- 
ties in the vitreous, etc., R. V.= 20-70. L. V.= 20-30. Bell, 
was first administered with some improvement so that R. V. 
=20-50, L. V.=:.20-30. But soon she again grew worse; the 
sight became more blurred and the opacities in the vitreous 
more marked, and appeared to her as large spots of various 
shapes. Was now attacked with sharp pains in the temples 
restlessness at night, etc. 

Prunus 30th was given with entire relief of the pain and 
disappearance of the opacities in the vitreous within three 
weeks at which time R. V.= 20-40, L. V.= 20-30, and one or 
two letters of No. 20 could be distinguished. 

Case VIII. Man, aet. 26, paresis nervous abduceus. Over 
nine months ago had intermittent fever for which he took 
large doses of quinine. This was immediatel}' followed by 
severe neuralgic pains on the right side of the head coming 
over from the back of the neck, also similar pains in the right 
breast; these continued until nine weeks ago when his eyes 
began to trouble him with double vision. Examination show- 
ed partial paralysis of the right external re6tus muscle. Now 
has severe sharp pains commencing in the inner canthus of 
the eye and shooting from there up into the right side of the 
head, are much worse at night and slightly ameliorated by 



312 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

pressure. I used the constant current on the aflfeded eye and 
gave prunus tin6t. This gave him the first relief he had had 
from pain for months and continued for two v^eeks, VNrhen the 
pains returned this time prunus, in neither high nor low po- 
tencies, would relieve him. The patient was now lost sight of. 

Case IX. Woman, aet 29, neuralgia ciliary. . Five years 
previous to my seeing her, had received an injury on right 
side of the head by being pushed against an iron railing, after 
which she suflercd with much pain for two months, when it 
ceased and did not trouble her for two years, except occas- 
ionally; but for nine months has not been free from pain in 
the right eye at any time. When the pains are very severe, 
the eye becomes inflamed, which is the condition in which it 
has been in for the past two weeks. Considerable injedtion 
of both the sclerotic and conjunctival vessels in the lower part 
of the eye is now present. The pains are sharp and shooting 
and seem to run around the head and down back of the right 
ear, also sharp pain around and in the eye balls which feel 
sore; the pains are relieved by warmth. Prunus tindt. was 
given and, after using for three days, the pains had entirely 
ceased, and the redness disappeared. This continued for over 
two months, when she had a slight return of the pain which 
prunus again relieved. 

From these cases it will be seen that this drug is a very im- 
portant remedial agent in ciliary neuralgia, when character- 
ized by sharp shooting pains through the eye ball or around 
the eye and up into the head, as well as the '^pain as if pressed 
asunder" described by Dr. O'Connor. I have given it in sev- 
eral cases where it has proved of temporary benefit, but has 
produced no permanent improvement, which has led me to 
suspedl that its adlion is soon exhautsed. Whether this is so 
or not remains for future experience to show. 



ITieory and Practice, ^13 

Oerebro-Spinal llenin^tas. By A. P. Macomber, M. D., 

Hackensack, N. J. 

In February, 1873, F. H., act. 9 years, had been sick 48 
hours. When called to him had been semi-unconscious for 12 
hours. He was lying on right side, head thrown back at an 
angle of 45 degrees; pulse 90; pupils dilated; mouth wide 
open; carpologia. Gave hyos. tindl. ten drops in four ounces 
of water, teaspoonful every fifteen minutes, and dire<5ted spray 
of sul. ether to be constantly applied to back of the head and 
neck. After 12 hours began to return slowly to conscious- 
ness; continued the same medicine every two hours, also the 
spray of ether. In 3 days, he had improved so much that he 
was anxious to sit up in bed. Five minutes of trying to hold 
his head ere<5t satisfied him, and was followed by a relapse. 
Six hours after this, when I saw him, the only sign of con- 
sciousness was, that on touching him anywhere, he would 
cringe as if it hurt him. Gave arnica 6th dilution. In six 
hours he asked for food, and improvement continued for two 
weeks before he was allowed to raise his head from the pil- 
low. In four weeks he was well and has remained so since. 
Gave arnica at 6th for three days, then at 30th until well. 
Sul. ether spray was used night and day for two days, then at 
intervals for eight days. 



■^-♦- 



ProfbfiSional Honor. By A. B. Duncanson, M. D., Chicago. 

There has been a time in the history of medicine when 
this conservative of gentlemanly feeling and action existed, 
but it Boems to have died out. The competition in busi- 
ness, which necessarily arises when the demand is small and 
the supply large has began to be felt in the department of 



314 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

medicine. The time has been when doctors were scarce and 
the demand for their services considerable, when profes- 
sional men did not jostle each other as they seem to do now. 
Even in such times a gentlemanly man will be a gentleman in 
spirit, feeling and in action. No demand in business will 
bring him down from what he feels is due to his manhood 
and station in life. These principles are born in him — he is 
one of nature's noblemen. There is a class of men (to call 
them gentlemen would be a misnomer) in the practice of 
medicine whose instincts are low and whose practices are ac' 
cordingly; water will rise to its level ; so do these men, but the 
level is very low — it is "bred in the bone and difficult to 
come out of the flesh." The practice of medicine, although 
elevating in all its bearings, never seems to elevate these 
men a hair's breadth They enter it with low tendencies, 
pursue it with low practices, and end where they began. A 
hog will be a hog, feed him on what food you please and 
place him where you think proper. If you were to take 
him into your parlor, he would live and die the samel 
He is in esse a hog and in posse all his actions correspond 
There is a comity that unites all well-bred men together ; it 
forms the bond of polite and gentlemanly society. We oc- 
casionly find men whose conduct gives the lie to this fact, 
and who seem to bo possessed with such stark-naked selfish- 
ness that staggers one's belief in the continued advancement 
of man towards a higher civilization, and starts the idea 
that wo may be retrograding while we plume ourselves on 
our advancement. We have lately had an instance of this 
in a professional brother which started our pen to indite a 
few words on the general topic. We lately attended upon a 
child under atrophia The child had been sick from the hour 
it was born, small puny, voice gone to a feeble whine. After 
careful attention and the utmost watchfulness, the child paid 
the debt not of nature, for it is a libel on nature to charge her 
with it, but of a previous ill-asserted marriage and diseased 
parentage. When the child came to be buried,our medical com- 
peer, professional brother and titled follower of ^sculapius 
went to the funeral, a thing which we have never done, and 



T%eory and Prcuitice. 315 

stated that ^'had he been called he could have saved the child." 
The declaration was made in the presence of the mother and 
several neighbor ladies. We consider such actions dishonora- 
ble; beneath the dignity of a gentleman, and certainly uncour- 
teous on the part of one physician toward another, and espe- 
cially so when he happens to be of the same school and living 
in the same neighborhood. It was viewed as dishonorable 
by the mother of the child and resented it as an insult to 
herself and her physician; to herself that she could not choose 
who should attend to her child, and to her physician that he 
had failed to do what his neighbor professionalist could have 
done. The reward of such conduct is always the same, it 
gains nothing for the physician who tries it, but exposes 
his ill-breeding and general baseness of character. 

It is to present a few of those dishonorable actions physi- 
cians show towards each other in their practice, that is the 
object of the present billet. It is our own fault as a profes- 
sion that such actions have not been rendered impossible 
long ago. Our code of morals is not close enough. For a man 
to act such a base part toward his medical brothers ought to 
exclude him from the pale of professional courtesy and 
all connection with county or state society; a sincere repent- 
ance and abjuration of such conduct being the only ground 
of re-instatement. 

First. Putting up friends of the parties to intercede with 
them to take the patient out of the physician's hands and 
give the case to themselves. Is this not dishonorable? It may 
be said without hesitation that there are very few men who 
practice medicine to whom this has not been done. 

There may bo cases where a man may have mistaken 
his profession, and where driving a team, a plane or a 
plow would have accorded better with the developments 
of nature. In such cases to advise a change of physicians may 
be an act of wisdom, but such are not the cases we mean. 
The cases we refer to are those where everything is go- 
ing on well under a legitimate practice, but your neighbor 
with a selfish desire to possess a dollar or two undermines 
your professional statue and seeks to ingratiatp himself. He 



816 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

can not do it openly, but he does it covertly through the 
friends or relatives of the patient, cares not what may be the 
loss to you provided it is gain to himself. Such a man is a 
hog it matters not what may be his style of living or repu- 
tation — we judge him by his faults — and he ought to be un- 
mercifully dealt with by every state, county or city society 
of which he may be a member and excluded. 

Secondly. Bepresenting other physicians as ignorant. This 
is often done! It is generally conceded that the public have a 
right to choose whom they please to attend as physicians 
— they then, I suppose, are the parties to judge who are en- 
lightened and who are ignorant. If they are not to judge, 
they have at least the paying to do — it has alway been 
thought that those that paid the fiddle had a prescriptive 
right to dance, so have the public to judge. It is a mark of 
self-ignorant egotism for any man to say that another id igno- 
rant, it takes for granted that he himself is intelligent, which 
is by no means proven by his charging another with igno- 
rance. It may possibly, among non-discerning people, gain 
some advantage and secure an occasional patient, but 
with the intelligent it will stand against the man who ut- 
tered it, and be an obstacle to his professional employment. 
You say this is surely not done I Why, it is of common oc- 
curence, and by men who are sticklers for professional dig- 
nity — to go deliberately and slander their neighbor and de- 
stroy his business is a daily employment. Such men should 
be publicly tattooed and their names placed before the facul- 
ty with an interrogation point behind them ! 

Thirdly. Deputing their wives as a special committee of one 
to visit the patients of another physician and advising them 
to send for her husband in preference to the family physician 
as he will be sure to cure. This is alike contemptible and 
hoggish — it is a piece of medical Jesuitism — of inquisitorial 
Paul Pryism, beneath the dignity of any well educated man. 
It is a painful fact that no amount of education will make 
some men gentlemen, and they are hogs positively, compara- 
tively and superlatively! How mean, how despicably mean! 
What a dastardly piece of conduct to have your wife priva- 



Theory and Practice. 817 

teering and buccaneering on the intereBts and patients of 
others. She insinuates herself with all the craflb and cun- 
ning seven times dyed . " How do you do Mrs. so and 
BO?*' "Do not speak, my dear, I see you are very sick; 
how pale you look ; this is a serious attack ; have you sent for 
your mother? what does your husband think? he must think 
he is going to lose his wife;*' "what docter have you got?" 
This was the point, but artfully covered up, that all the 
mission was undertaken for. "I have Dr. iBsculapius." "The 
doctor is a very fine man," says the cunning female, "but you 
know he has no reputation as a doctor." This is the fatal 
stab. "Why, you know he attended on Mrs. Blank and she 
died, and the Browns and Mrs. Grundy, and poor woman 
she lived two days after the Doctor saw her ; I would not ad- 
vise you to retain him longer. "Who will I get?" This is the 
sought for opportunity — what a pity that some people did not 
live in the days of the inquisition, they could have obtained 
employment at remunerating rates — "well, my husband is a 
physician of great experience ; we have all the best practice 
in our neighborhood ; you would be perfectly safe in his 
hands. "I do not wish to part with my present physician." 
"You do not wish to lose your life, do you." "No! then I ad- 
vise you to change physicians whether you employ my hus- 
husband or not (this to smooth down suspicion) but if he at- 
tends upon you, you are safe, he will bring you out all well." 
How miserably low must the man have sunk that sends his 
wife out on such an errand — it is practiced all around. The 
man who docs this should be pillored. Here is a chance 
for some county or state society to make a few martyrs out 
of men who employ their wives in this way. They ought to 
bo unmercifully cut off from all professional rank and med- 
ical association connection. You say "such men cut them- 
selves off," there are men who do this that stand high! Do 
you say cut bono. They are profited, they fill their purse by 
robbery from their brother. Such is the miserable ignorance 
of the public that a designing, artful, Jesuitical woman of 
this kind can do and does do groat damage. How do you 
account for the practice of some "sap-heads" in the profes- 



d 1 8 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

eion, who never had the individual personalised power to se* 
euro a single patient Bueeeed so well, here is the secret, look 
at his female partner and yoa can see canning and deceit 
sticking out of her face. Avaunt! such meanness and con- 
temptible conduct. If a medical man has not the mental 
power to arise and stand on his feet, let him remain forever 
fallen! Who would have the smallness of mind to stand on 
the shoulders of his wife! Such men shame any position, 
but they are sadly out of place among doctors, among whom 
stand the wisest and best men of any age! These may be 
times of women's rights, but this is woman's felony on the 
rights of her neighbor. 

Fourthly. Using the influence of the clergy to increase 
their practice. This is another example of consummate mean- 
ness. We once knew a case where not only was the prac- 
tice encouraged, but the fees collected by the priest. If 
A failed to pay the doctor, or B did not toe the mark, they 
were publicly denounced from the altar and compelled to go 
up to the captain's office and pay. This may be handy to the 
man who is mean enough to employ it, but it is a contemp- 
tible exhibition of humanity. When religion and the pulpit 
are prostituted for such purposes the church is in a bad fix- 
and yet the whole agency of the church is sometimes wielded 
just in this manner, in favor of one doctor to the prejudice 
and injury of another. It is not done in public, out it is done 
by the sly insinuations of the preacher in private. There is 
a great deal of power that can be used in this way. A cun- 
ning, crafty woman, obtaining the ear ot a clergyman, can, by 
positive declaration, perhaps a slight tinge of falsehood, do 
much to advance the interest of her husband, and by nega- 
tive statements destroy the business of his neighbor; but 
generally these chickens come home to roost. Clergymen 
should confine themselves to their legitimate duties, which 
do not seem to us in any sense the recommending of one 
physician to the prejudice of another. The people are com- 
petent to judge and should be left to do so. 

Fifthly. Dinner and tea parties to advance private pradtice. 
Tea is a great institution, it has been made the potent agency 



ITieofy and Practice. 819 

in a great deal of mean work. It is one of woman's most 
facile powers in accomplishing her hidden and deepest 
schemes of female Jesuitry. Has she an objcdt to gain, or a 
purpose to serve, or a character to destroy, it can all he done 
through tea. By it she can concentrate all the talk in the neigh- 
borhood and focalize the scandal of the village, town or par- 
ish. Is there a dodtor to raise or one to sink, it can be 
done secundum artem ; the machinery is already and a cun- 
ning woman can do it, and do more to sink a man's reputation 
in one hour than he can do to raise it in ten years. You say 
is it possible? Have you ever lived in a neighborhood where 
it has been tried? The objedt to be gained is decided on, and 
now for the instrumentalities. Every place has its gossip, 
women who are eternally talking, whose meat and drink 
seems to be scandal — these are collected to tea, and when 
well soaked with the fragrant herb the subjedt is introduced, 
not directly, but as it were by accident on the part of 
the presiding spirit. "Is there much disease in your neigh- 
borhood?" "Yes, considerable, Mrs. Blank's children have 
scarlet fever and the Browns and the Whites" — "I hope they 
will employ Dr. Phillpot, Dr. Moustache is a young man 
you know, and we like a doctor of experience, and Dr. Scal- 
pel is a stranger to us all, but dear me what a beautiful woman 
is Mrs. Phillpot! I do hope they will employ the doctor. The 
gossips have got the cue, and Dr. Phillpot is cracked up, while 
Moustache and Scalpel have to run the gauntlet and suffer the 
results. This is certainly done, and he is no gentleman who 
will employ such means to increase his practice to the pre- 
judice of others. The only way to face up to tell this, when the 
proof is clear, is to exclude the party from the medical soci- 
ety of which he is member, or if not a member to publish the 
charge and the opinion of the neighboring faculty upon it in 
the village, town or county paper, or all of them. Let us 
have an end to this china plant influence. 

Sixthly. Another dishonorable means to extend pradtice at 
the expense of other physicians is to give medical attendance 
and medicines free to certain women and families as special 
trumpeters in the doctor's behalf. This teHs with considera- 



820 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

ble powen I knew of one medical?gentleman(?) who gave a 
receipt to a lady of $6i oo besides much other practice that 
he had done for the same family to engage her as special 
trumpeter, which duty she performed with singular honesty 
and great perseverance, but after all the produ<^ did not 
amount to much. We have had the offer from influential 
parties in country towns that if all medicines and attendance 
was given free they would do something for me. In this way 
or something of a similar kind can all those cases of special 
anxiety to trump up the fame of a special doctor be accounted 
for. When you see a woman very anxious to herald the fac- 
ulties of a dodtor, please ask her *^if she gets her medicine 
free.'* There are men of noble capabilities whose fame 
spreads as the simple result of what they accomplish — it is 
not of those we speak; but the fungous who spreads himself 
put by the suspicious and condemnable methods spoken of. If a 
man is a man, he will raise himself up by his success. It may 
take a little time and be up hill, but it will come; you can not 
possibly hold him down t he will rise to the top in opposition 
to all hindrances. It has always been a proof to me that there 
is a "snake in the grass," "a nigger in the woodpile" when 
women are seen busily engaged puffing up the ability of some 
do6tor at the expense of others. She either gets her medi- 
cines free or she has got a present of a dress, or perchance a 
silk parasol. In what innumerable ways do thees females 
operate; they have more shapes than Proteus and more colors 
than the chameleon. 

Seventhly. Another mean dodge frequently tried, by 
which one physician seeks to injure another, is by stating and 
getting the report circulated that the disease while simple is 
a very serious one and the patient is sure to die unless they 
get the very best help that can be got. Nervous women and 
nervous men of light moustache who part their hair in the 
middle are played upon in this way, and the do<5tor while 
managing the case in the most skillful manner possible, has 
it by this rascally means taken out of his hands. What should 
be the portion of the contemptible creature who does such a 
thing? Is there any medical hell hot enough to hold such a 



TTheort/ and Practice. 321 

scoundrel? If the women of our day were educated enough, 
and had their wisdom teeth cut to see through these rascals 
we might risk all without difficulty, but education is gener- 
ally so scant that these cunning villians play this dodge with 
success and great pecuniary advantage. They know where 
the weak spot is and they take advantage of it. When ed- 
ucation is a little more advanced the race of this class is run. 
They will not go to the male portion and discuss the case 
with them; if they did their little game would be up; they 
could not succeed; but it is always done through the women, 
as they can more easily dupe and deceive them. In this way 
we have lost repeated cases, and the rascal by his lying and 
villiany has. reaped what we have sown. How smooth and 
oily is it all done. "How do you do madam ; I hear that baby 
is very sick and likely to die; from what I know I fear the 
worst" "When did you see it?" "This morning, it seemed 
sleeping very sound" "Yes, madam too sound! it will soon 
sleep without awaking.*' "Do you think so Doctor?" Ah, 
the rascal, he knew better, but he was plying the Jesuit oil to 
a plastic subjedt and he gained his point. The dodlor in 
charge calls in the afternoon to see his patient only to learn 
that it has passed into oily's hands. How are we to punish 
these rascals. This will be done again and again in families 
where you are not well known, and where they have not 
learned to place implicit confidence in your skill: when this 
is the case these rascals have no chance. Our code of 
medical morals or ethics must be so altered as to take in all 
these cases and immolate the man who practice them. It is 
a painful fadt that a dodtor's manners often does more for him 
than his brains. A splendid carriage and team, and a darkey 
to drive, even if his wages are not paid, which is frequently 
the case, will do a great deal and obtain the entree into fami- 
lies where his mental capabilities couldn ever raise him; but it 
is the oily man, par excellence, who can speak meaningless 
twaddle by the cubic yard, in bulk, or by the hour, which in 
time takes down the ladies and obtains that which men of 
nobler mien, good parts and educational ability can not touch. 
We knew a brother who pra<5ticed medicine in Cleveland 
N0V-3 



322 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

whose portly abdominal cavity, white neck-cloth and black 
suit were the only patent of therapeutical power which he 
possessed, and yet managed with the unthinking part of so- 
ciety to get up a paying and extensive practice. We know 
now a gentleman in Chicago, a "regular," whose practice is 
chiefly among the shoddy aristocracy, whose title to brains is 
very faulty, and who, in the ordinary walks of life, would be 
reckoned second or third rate, who has a large pradlice, his 
marriage and carriage doing for him what his brains could 
never have done, he being very scanty in the last particular. 
Oh medicine, how abused and traduced and betrayed by its 
own professed friends and practitioners ! 




\l^t^ 



Cases of Intestinal Obstruction, Simtilating Intussusception and 
Strangulated Hernia— Eecovery, By Wm. Owens, M. D. 

Case IV. Mr. D. of Fort Smith, Ark., age 67, had been 
suflFering from abdominal pains of a colicky nature for ten 
days, the last fourteen hours they had been of a most dis* 
tressing character, attended with vomiting of stercoraceous 
matters. He was of constipated habit, and had for many 
years been afflicted with a reducible inguinal hernia, usually 
wearing a truss; but just previous to this attack had taken a 
long walk without it. After supper on that day he felt ab- 
dominal pains and attempted to force a stool, but without 
success; on going to bed he discovered that his hernia was 
down, he attempted but failed to reduce by the usual manipu- 
lations. After repeated attempts by raising the hips to a con- 



Surgery. 323 

Biderable elevation the tumor disappeared in the abdomen, bat 
the pain and vomiting continued. The next day he took a 
dose of cathartic pills which only tended to increase the vom- 
iting. Exploration of the inguinal canal failed to detect any 
tenderness or other evidence of unreduced hernia. The pains 
in the bowels was referred to the epigastric and umbilical re- 
gions, and there was no pain anywhere of a circum- 
seribed character to indicate a tumor of any kind ; and yet it 
was very evident that there was an obstruction of the intes- 
tine somewhere. The history of the case would naturally 
suggest hernia constricted at the internal ring; but as said be- 
fore a careful examination revealed nothing, impaction of fas- 
ces, intussusception or twisting of the bowels, either was pos- 
sible and might have produced all these sufferings. 

The physicians in charge acting upon the idea that it was 
impaction treated the case accordingly with poultices, injec- 
tions to the extent of a gallon and a half at one time, several 
times repeated as he says. Opiates were administered to re- 
lieve suffering until the third day when a healthy natural dis- 
charge took place, and recovery was speedy and without in- 
terruption. 

The points of interest, according to our view in the forego- 
ing cases, consists in the complication of symptoms and ob- 
scurity that attended a diagnosis, in some as well as the happy 
result in all of them; and the further fact that a fifth case oc- 
curred in our city, a few weeks since, in all its important fea- 
tures resembling the cases here mentioned and in which the 
patient died. A hernia of many years standing had become 
strangulated, and it was thought successfully reduced, having 
been passed out of the inguinal canal and beyond the reach of 
the finger, and it was found constricted at the internal ring, 
which had been forced an inch and a half from its proper posi- 
tion, and that the constricted portion of the bowel five inches 
in length was found resting behind the peritoneum fascia trans- 
versalis and upon the external iliac artery. The gentleman 
lived twenty days after strangulation had taken place. The wri- 
ter was invited to see the patient, in consultation on the fifth 
day, and after a careful examination of the inguinal canal could 



824 Cincinnati Medical Advance* 

detect nothing like a hernia, though the finger was pnshed to 
the pointj where the internal rin/2^ shonid have been found, 
the entire canal seemed clear. A solid and somewhat doughy 
mass was felt to the left and over the umbilicas, a great de- 
gree of tympanitis, very little tenderness anywhere over the 
abdomen or inguina, no tumefaction anywhere; eructation of 
intestinal gas abundant, and stercoraceous vomiting; injections 
had been given freely, they were continued, white of eggs in 
sweetened water and beef tea were given instead of brandy. 
The vomiting ceased and less gas was thrown off. A diagno- 
sis of impaction or obstruction was made, and, upon the whole, 
the patient seemed better for the next twelve days, and it 
was thought a favorable prognosis was indicated and by all 
hoped for. At this time an unfavorable change occurred 
which resulted fatally in forty-eight houi*s. 

After death and before post mortem was commenced, four 
medical gentlemen and surgeons re-examined the inguinal 
canal for hernia, but nothing could be detected to indicate 
such a condition. Sections of the parts, however, disclosed a 
portion of the ilium six inches from its lower extremity, and 
about five inches in length, resting behind the peritoneum and 
fascia transversalis and upon the external iliac artery. This 
portion had passed through the internal ring and through the 
the canal, but in returning, or forcing it back, the fascia and 
peritoneum were carried with it into the abdomen. These 
membranes having been dissected from the walls of the abdo- 
men and pelvis, the gut was now permitted to drop down be- 
tween the fascia and the wall of the pelvis, then rest upon 
the iliac artery lying behind the peritoneum and fascia, thus 
constituting a tumor of cone shape, the base of which rested 
upon the wall, pelvis and against the posterior surface of 
the pectineal line; "the apex of the cone pointing upward, 
outward and backward. The constriction was very imperf ect, 
and consisted of a few fibers of the fascia transversalis as it 
forms the internal ring. The strangulated portion was 
of dark color, greatly softened or gangrenous, and contained 
a small quantity of excrementitious matter. If these condi- 
tions could have been determined on the living subject, there 



Surgery. 326 

is no doubt that an attempt to operate for strangulation would 
have been advisable; but from the peculiar character of the 
case, and the remote point to which the internal ring had 
been pushed, in the attempt at reduction, it is extremely doubt- 
ful if any surgeon would have felt justified in pushing the 
knife into the abdomen so far as to have reached the point of 
stricture; failing in which, the chances for a favorable termi- 
nation would have been greatly dimiiushed, and in all proba- 
bility, we should have had another case like the third men- 
tioned, in which the operation failed, but nature proved suf- 
ficient, with this difference, that our case would probably have 
died and that one recovered. The hernia in that case was evi- 
dent, the operation was imperatively demanded atid performed, 
and as we have reasons to believe with reasonable amount of 
skill, but without success. The fourth case was more obscure, 
an operation of doubtful propriety as no definite point could 
be indicated; extremly hazardous, and, as the result proved, 
wholly unnecessary. In the last case the symptoms and con- 
dition were much like the others, only of a much milder type 
than either of them until the eighteenth day, with a good and 
vigorous constitution to rely upon, and after passing the third 
day it was deemed advisable not to operate, and yet it is an 
open question whether an operation would have relieved the 
party, or if it might not prove fatal in any event. 

If an objective point could have been detected, it would 
have been within all the rules of surgery to have operated 
within forty-eight hours. After that time surgeons lay it down 
as a rule that the lapse of time proportionately diminishes the 
necessity and advisability of such means; claiming that if the 
patient survives three days in fair condition, the chances for 
recovery increase relatively with the lapse of time. 

Such being the case, the counsel to refrain from operative 
interference was in conformity with the views of our most ad- 
vanced surgeons; though the result should be the same as in 
this case, unless a clearly defined case for operative interfer- 
ence should arise thereafter. 

The only operation that was deemed advisable by the sur- 
geons in consultation to perform, was that of gastrotomy, un- 



326 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance, 

der the impreBsion that intassasception or twisting of the in- 
testines had occurred when the reduction of the hernia took 
place. This was opposed on the ground that no point could 
be indicated at which such a condition existed; and further- 
more there had not been sufficient suffering and constitutional 
disturbance to maintain such a diagnosis. It was urged that 
there had been a general peritoneal inflammation, and that the 
abdomen was nearly full of serum, and that for that reason gas- 
trotomy should be performed; this was opposed on the ground 
that such an operation would not, even in that case, be neces- 
sary, and the further and more conclusive reason that there 
had not, at any time, been such symptoms as would produce this 
effusion; and finally, no effusion eould be detected in the ab- 
domen. And finally a post mortem disclosed a condition not 
suggested by either of the physicians or surgeons who had 
seen the patient, and such an unusual occurrence as can not 
be found reported in any of our works on surgery. 



••* ♦■ 



Trepanning in the Sonih Pacific. 

A very surprising operation is performed on the Island of 
Uvea, in the Loyalty group. A notion prevails there that head- 
ache, neuralgia, vertigo, and other cerebral affections proceed 
from a crack in the head or pressure of the skull on the brain. 
The remedy is to lay open the scalp with a cross orT-incision, 
then scrape the cranium carefully and gently with a piece of 
glass until a hole is made into the skull down to the dura 
mater, about the size of a crown-piece. Some times this 
scraping operation will be even to the pia mater by an unskil- 
ful surgeon, or from the impatience of the friends, and death 
is the consequence. In the best of hands about half of those 
who undergo the operation die from it; yet this barbarous 
custom, from superstition and fashion, has been so prevalent, 
that very few of the male adults are without this hole in the 



Surgery. 327 

craninm, or "have a shingle loose," to use an Australian phrase. 
I am informed that sometimes an attempt is made to cover the 
membranes of the cranium so exposed by placing a piece of 
cocoanut-shell under the scalp. For this purpose they select a 
very hard and durable piece of shell, from which they scrape 
the softer parts and grind quite smooth, and put this as a plate 
between the scalp and skull. Formerly, the trephine was 
simply a shark's tooth; now a piece of glass is found more suita- 
ble, or less objectionable (if we may even so qualify the act.) 
— London Medical Times. 



» ♦ 



Application of the Forceps, 

Dr. H. M. Sell, in the Physician and Pharmacist^ gives 
the following rules as obtained at Vienna in the use of the 
forceps: 

In the application of the forceps, the following three condi- 
tions are noticed as essential in the operation: 

1. The cervix must be fully dilated and the head through the 
OS and at' the floor of the pelvis. 

2. The forceps may be applied when the head is found in the 
vagina, not enveloped by the os uteri, whether it is rotated or 
not. 

In the latter condition the blades should often be opened a 
a little, so as to allow the head to rotate, though it frequently 
does so with the forceps. 

3. In all cases of application of the forceps, the bladder of 
the woman should first be emptied. Should this be rendered 
difficult, from the pressure of the head upon the bladder, di- 
viding it into two sacks, we will succeed by pushing the head 
a little up from the pubes. 

4. In cases of danger to the child, the forceps should be ap- 
plied, provided the conditions permit. 



328 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

There is always danger: (a) when meconeam appears; (b) 
when the mother is exhausted, or eclampsia threatens. When 
the cervix, however, is not dilated, we must allow the child to 
die, and then perform craniotomy, rather than ran the risk of 
rupturing the uterus. 

5. We would say dilate the cervix by artificial means rather 
than do either. 

When the head remains a long time in the vagina and does 
not advance without any apparent cause. 

In the latter part of the delivery the forceps are no trac- 
tion-instrument, but simply a controller of the biith, allowing 
the head to come out gradually; should it advance too fast* 
we must lower the handles, or a rupture of the perineum will 
be the consequence. Should a rupture be eminent, episiotomy 
is performed in preference. 

A rupture of the perineum is treated by the immediate ap- 
plication of seraphines, which are usually removed in about 
thirty-six hours. In case of the rupture extending through 
the sphincter-ani, a few simple sutures are applied. 

In abnormal rotation of the head, we apply the forceps as 
usual, with this difference, that we do not sink the handles so 
much, and continue our first traction in a horizontal direction 
till the chin comes under the pubes; when we commence ex- 
traction, we raise the handles at an early period to bring the 
occiput over the perineum, and then by depressinglthem the 
face is borne under the pubes. 

When there is a caput succedancum we must push the hands 
as well as the forceps high up, for the tumor may be large. 

APPLICATION OF THE FOECEPS TO A HIGH STANDING HEAD. 

In this condition the os uteri is not yet fully dilated, nor the 
cervix drawn fully back over the head of the child, which is 
freely movable, as it is not yet firmly fixed in the entrance of 
the pelvis. 

In this application of the forceps, which is done only in 
cases of very urgent necessity it is very easy for the head to 
move from side to side, causing the forceps to readily glide offf 
and may thus do great injury to the mother. 



MisceUaneoiM. 329 

. The woman should be thoroughly anaesthetized^ and the for- 
ceps applied laterally, guarding the blades with the hand in- 
stead of two fingers, thus avoiding doing injury to the os. 

In face presentation at the upper strait, the forceps are es- 
pecially dangerous, for one blade rests on the calvaria and the 
other on the chin and trachea. This presentation is often the 
forerunner of craniotomy. 

In forehead presentation at the upper strait, the face 
usually presents to one or the other acetabulum. In this presen- 
tation the forceps are only applied to satisfy the feelings of 
friends who may be standing by; while we appear to make con- 
siderable traction on them, we proceed to perform craniotomy. 

We would recommend a strong traction to be made, and 
would expect to be successful in some cases. 



» m 



&ihttUm$m%. 



Tho WoBtora Acadexny, OtC. From our own Correspondent 

St. Louis is a big place and its citizens are hypersemic. 
They are buildinpj a Merchant's Exchange, a Custom House, 
delight in "Shaw's Garden," and possess that triumph of civil 
engineering the great St. Louis Bridge. Of the latter, orators 
orate, preachers preach, bummers "bum" and dodlors "doc" 
— no, not exactly that, but brag even in an address of wel- 
come to their professional brethren. Nevertheless the city 
of the future is a "big thing" and it was fitting that it should 
be the birth-place of the new fledged Western Academy of 
HomoBopathy. 

The meeting for the organization of the new western 
society, as far as numbers was concerned, was respedtablcy 



330 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

and the proceedings were characterized by harmony and a sin- 
cere desire to advance the interests of our cause. It was sur- 
mised by many physicians throughout the west, that private 
interests were the foundation of the movement in its incip- 
iency; but a careful inquiry into the fadls, and the subsequent 
adtion of the suspected parties, soon entirely dispelled the 
idea. On the contrary, there was a disposition manifested 
on the part of all participating to sacrifice personal pre- 
ferences for the good of the whole. It was demonstrated 
that such an organization was needed for the good of the 
**Grange" element out here; and that too without conflicting 
with the American Institute. 

The instruction of the meeting to the Secretary to forward 
a synopsis of the proceedings to the various medical journals 
relieves your correspondent from complying with the request 
for a report. A few items, however, in regard the peraonelle 
of the convention may be of interest. 

It would have been a stroke of policy, on the part of those 
having the matter in charge, had the meeting been called 
elsewhere than in the building 1007 Locust St. It was like 
Dicken's Old Joe "dem'd rough" and although good enough, 
in its way, didn't correspond with the "Bridge." However, 
this in no way detraCts from the value of the teachings there- 
in, which I am satisfied are of a high order. By the way, 
there are two schools in St. Louis, of our faith, bitterly opposed 
to each other. Both claim to be the original college, and 
their attitude toward one another is not exactly saccharine. 
One is called the Homoeopathic Med. College of Missouri, 
and the other the Hahnemann Med. College of Missouri. 
Of this latter I had no good opinion, yet I am bound to say 
that one of their professors with whom I became acquainted. 
Dr. S. B. Parsons, is a gentleman of culture, a promising sur- 
geon, and an ornament to the profession. But 1 am digres- 
sing. 

Among the notable individuals present was Dr. Jas. Lillie, 
of Kansas city. Venerable in appearance, dignified in man- 
ner and a Hahnemannian in the stri<5test sense of the word, 
he commanded the universal respeCt of the members. Dr. 



Miscellaneous, 331 

Temple also took an active part in the procedings, and as one 
of the "fathers" was looked up to with respe<5t. He was ap- 
parently not in good health, and, if I might be allowed the 
privilege, I would suggest that his looks and health would be 
improved by allowing his beard to assume its natural color. Dr. 
Franklin, the good looking, the ubiquitous and the energetic, 
was here, there and everywhere, and in the discussions, as of 
old showed his propensity to "fight it out on that line." Dr. 
Marix, of Denver, I met for the first time. He impresses you 
at once as an individual of more than ordinary power. As a 
physician and a scholar of whom we may well be proud, he 
gave abundant evidence 

Dr. Parsons, of Atchison, is also a rising young man. He 
was formerly a surgeon in the army; and since his residence 
in Kansas, has built up an enormous pradtice and an enviable 
name. Dr. Everett, of St. Louis, is a young man of promise 
and participated a6tively in the discussions. I might mention 
Henderson, of Kentucky; Hill, of Iowa; and others and com- 
ment upon them, but have not the time or space. 

I attended a meeting of The Club at the residence of Dr. 
Walker, on Wednesday night. This association is limited to 
twelve members ("more's the pity") of the profession. Dr. 
Parsons read a paper on Naevus Materni both able and in- 
strudlive, after which the members participated in its discus- 
sion, and then discussed something more substantial in the 
way of edibles, etc. These social and intelledtual gatherings 
are productive of much benefit and enjoyment. 

But if ever you go to St. Louis, don't fail to make the ac- 
quaintance of Dr. Chas. Vastine. A gentleman every inch; 
talented, popular and agreeable, more than all (for selfish pur- 
poses) the possessor of one of the finest and fastest teams in 
the city. If he can't and won't "show you 'round' then my ex- 
perience goes for nothing. 

On the whole the meeting was a success and much good 
will grow out of it. The more societies we have the better it 
will be for us. At Davenport, next year, the place of meet- 
>"gi you n^ay look for a big gathering. Iowa alone can, "fill 
tlie bill." May you be there to see. B. 



332 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

In a Dissecting Boom. 

Of course our readers know all about this place. But here 
as a graphic pi<5ture of it, we find in one of our city dailies. 
It will serve to recall to many the memory of olden times. 

"A veiy ancient and fish-like smell." 

— Shake/ipear0. 

'* V\\ take you round the shambles this afternoon, if you want 
to come." We jumped at the offer, contrary to Joe's anticipa* 
tions. He had been coming up to the office for the last year 
with just such disgusting stories and ironical invitations to 
his dissedting-room. Once indeed, he coaxed us into a hor- 
rible smelling room on College street, and pointed triumph- 
antly to something long and abominable lying on a table; but 
we held our nostrils and departed instantaneously without ex- 
amining it. Since that day Joseph indulged himself to ex- 
haustion in satirizing the delicacy of our olfadtory organs and 
and the fastidiousness of our gastric sensibility. We finally 
resolved to visit his anthropophagical meat store, and expatiate 
to a spmpathetic public upon the attradtiveness of the sights 
therein to be encountered. Joseph donned his hat with an 
air of triumph; and we proceeded in the dire<5tion of the 
Medical College. 

"It's a pity you didn't come to this conclusion before," said 
Joe. " It's near the end of the spring course now, and the 
subjects are nearly all gone. But I'll take you round all the 
colleges, that you may have variety as well as novelty. 
You're a friend of mine, going to study medicine next fall, 
you know," — with a ferocious elbow-dig in the ribs. 

However, there was no one to dispute our entrance. It 
was three o'clock in the afternoon; and the guardian genius 
of the dreary building, the new janitor who knew not Joseph 
had gone in quest of some double distilled lightning to keep 
cerulean fiends away. He had taken the key of the dissect- 
ing room along with him; but the museum was open, and 
we went in. 

. There the gigantic skeleton of Cunny the Resurre<5lion- 
ist eternally sitteth in solemn state upon a mossy tombstone, 



MisceUaneaus, 333 

resting his fleshless hands upon a huge spade rusted by the 
the moldering damp of violated graves. Some cynic had 
given the finishing touch to this gibbering of life by fixing a 
blackened pipe between its grinning jaws. A slanting sun- 
beam fell upon the ghastly skull; and in its radiance the eye- 
less sockets seemed to emit a moony light, and the naked 
jaws smile a smile of hideous meaning. No skeleton figure 
in Holbein's ghostly Dance of Death wears so goblin-like a 
smile as that upon the yellow skull of Cunny. 

Joe called our attention away from Cunny, to a sjeries of 
frightful obstetric lithographs, the nature whereof we dare not 
rise to explain; a number of dried anatomies blacker and foul- 
er in aspedt than the bodies of murdered men mumified 
by the winds of Colorado wastes, until they had become leath- 
ery enough to make a buzzard or mountain vulture commit 
suicide; a hideous collection of skulls and bones honey-combed 
by diseases too horrible to name; and a bottled foetus, with a 
face but no head floating, about in brandy, and looking dis- 
gustingly like a monstrous yellow frog. These and other 
hideous curiosities too numerous to mention were declared by 
Joseph to be rare and beautiful anatomical specimens. 

"If I must sup of horrors, Joe, it were well that it be done 
quickly, for goodness take me somewhere else!" 

The janitor fumbled in his pantaloons, produced a rusty 
looking key, opened a queer little door that one would have 
expedted to open into a closet, and bade us look for ourselves. 
The door disclosed a flight of narrow stairs, down which 
there stole, like the Spedter of the chamel house, a sickly, 
nauseous, utterly indescribable odor, poisoning the warm 
spring air, and bringing with it foul visions of the Ashantee 
Golgotha to our imaginative minds. The smell might be 
termed an original smell. It is a smell that clings — clammy 
thick glutinous, like the dead flesh it rises from; a smell that 
sickens even the carion-loving flies and the yellow-footed birds 
that hover above armies embattled; a smell, that once smelt 
can never be forgotten; a smell beside which all other smells 
are innocent; a smell, not pungent, but faint, yet far-reaching; 
the smell of decaying human bone and brawn and brain. 

''Ah!" said Joe, raising his head joyfully and distending 



834 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

his nostrils like a steed that sniffs the battle from afar, "that's 
the Dissedting room, sure enough." 

We went upstairs. A large, bare room with whitewash- 
ed walls, unpleasantly suggestive of a butcher's shop; half 
a dozen long, heavy, black looking tables, with blacker 
outlines in crusted gore, showing where "subje6ts" had been 
laid; a tall stove so dust covered, that in the dim light it re- 
sembled a grey phantom; and a great pipe running down 
through the floor, with an opening at the side where shreds 
of flesh- and tendon, and masses of blood, and all the debris 
of disse6tion, are thrown, and carried of into— well, the sew- 
ers, we suppose. 

"Bah!** said Joe. "What kind of a disse<5ting room is this?" 
He walked over to a table in the corner, lifted up a filthy 
black cloth which covered something, and invited us to ap- 
proach. 

A pile of human bones, sinews, nerves and arteries, black 
with encrusted blood, and smelling indescribably abominable. 
The bones of the trunk still held together with rotting shreds 
of flesh; a few scraggy atoms dangled from the freshly 
scraped ribs; and the spinal column was streaked at intervals 
with green splotches of decay, looking like a huge and dis- 
gusting centipede of some pre-Adamite age. The legs, feet 
and thigh bones were heaped together in a festering and 
stinking mass: the skull and spinal vertebra; were gone and 
somebody had carelessly thrown the torn hands upon the 
breast of the skeleton in such a manner that the poor, bleed- 
ing fingers seemed to be joined in the mockery of piteous 
prayer. 

"Where do you get your bodies from, Joe?" 

"Lord! I don't know. Potters Field, I suppose. When 
the body comes — they bring them in sacks generally — five 
students draw lots for different parts of the body. One man 
gets the head and one each a leg or arm. We pay six dol- 
lars apiece for the Demonstrator's ticket, and ^\e for a share 
of the stiff." 

"How long will a body last?" 

"Well, if they are well worked they'll last about ten weeks. 
We first injedt arsenic into the artery of the neck; that^s to 



MisceUane(yu8. 335 

preserve them. Then we fill the veins and arteries with wax 
to make them stand out good and firm/' 

"What do you do with the bones, Joe?" 

"Draw lots for them, boil them and take them home to 
study from." 

"You remember that girl I was telling you about up in 
the office, don't you?" "Yes." 

"There she is now — at least all we've left of her. Tom Jel- 
licks took the head home with him last night, after boiling it 
Says its one of the best formed skulls he ever saw." 

It lay extended upon a table in the middle of the apart- 
ment — that ghastly, headless thing. It had once loved and 
been loved — that frightful mass of bleeding flesh and black- 
ened bone. It had once had a name. It had been anima- 
ted by all the passions and feelings possessed by those who 
had mangled and torn it limb from limb with jests and laugh- 
ter. A woman's heart — heart of a young and handsome wo- 
man — had but a few weeks since palpitated within that blood 
crusted framework of delicate bone. We asked ourselves 
what had become of that heart, how it had been torn from 
the cage where it had fluttered in lifetime, how inspected 
how cut asunder? She must have been tall and graceful, and 
supple of limb; for there was a slender symmetry in every bone 
of the skeleton, apparent even in its hideous semi-denudation. 
There must have been some romance in her life. We won- 
dered whether she had fallen through a foolish trust, 

"And you dont know anything about her?" 

"No. Guess she was a German girl, though. Looked like 
one before we cut her up; and then you see there is no com- 
pression of the bones due to wearing corsets. Let's take a 
look at this nigger over here." 

Nobody except the most expert of anatomists could have 
guessed at the nationality of the horrible thing referred to, 
but for the fa(5t that one leg was still encased in shrunken 
flesh, covered with black leathery skin. A row of medical 
students sat on either side of the corpse, poking and slashing 
it with knives, until we thought of a solemn conclave of vul- 
tures about a dead camel. Part of the trunk was covered 
with cloths perhaps to deaden the abominable smell; possibly 



336 Cincinnati Mediccd Advance. 

but not probably, because the hashed abdomen presented a 
spcdtacle sickening even to the eyes of the dead, and had al- 
most reduced the neck to a mass of bleeding fibers held to- 
gether by arteries and veins. The remaining leg was bound 
up in cloth to keep it from falling asunder. 

"Splendid subjedt that fellow was when he came here," 
said Joe; "weighed about three hundred pounds. But bodies 
shrink up to nothing in a few months; and you see his thigh's 
no thicker than a good broom stick. He's beginning to ro* 
too; for the weather's getting warm. Won't you come into 
the next room and look into the caldron.^ we're boiling a lot 
of bones there — going to make a specimen skeleton." 

We declined with thanks. We had still a faint hope of 
being able to eat some dinner. 



» »■ 



^Him'% %M$. 



Dr. H. F. Baker has changed his location to Ironton, O. 

Peter's Musical Monthly the sweetest thing out. Only 
three dollars a year and brim full of beautiful things. 

Dr. M. H. Phister, of Ripley, O., an alumnus of the 
Pulte Medical College, was married on the evening of Sep- 
tember 1st., to Miss Anna Cahill, of Mt. Auburn. We are 
certain of this because we looked on the fair face of the bride 
and gave the happy pair our congratulations. 

The Sixteenth semi-annual session of the Indiana Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy, will convene in Plymouth Church, In- 
dianapolis, Tuesday, November loth, 1874, at 2 p. m., and 
continue two days. A general invitation is extended to the 
profession. 

An Ohio State Directory of Homoeopathic Physicians 
is soon to be issued by Dr. Pettet, of Cleveland, under the au- 
spices of the State Society. The dodtor wants each one to 
send him, forthwith, their address, when and where gradu- 
ated, etc., ect, so that the list may be full and complete. Will 
our readers send him the list for their county? 



THE 



€ittdttttali M.thk^l ^hHntt. 




^W 




VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.— DECEMBER, 1874. [NO. 8. 

Jl^^Subscriptions to the Advance should be sent to Dr. T. C. Bradford, P. O 
Drawer 1284, Cincinnati, Ohio. 13.00 a year, in advanxe. 

All business communications, relating to the publication or to advertising;, should be 
addressed to Dr. T. P. Wilson, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Mound Sts., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Have you subscribed for "Sugar Pills" ? Do so by all 
means. 

Have you read our terms to new subscribers ? See our 
advertising columns. 

Dr. G. W. Barnes, of San Diego, Cal., sends us a valua- 
ble pamphlet containing information of all sorts concerning 
that part of Southern California, Those wishing to know 
something about the climatology of that section had better 
address the doctor and procure one of these pamphlets. 

Our Chicago contemporary flings out its banner with 
''No pent up Utica," etc., scorning even the limitations of 
its own title, deeming the "United States" quite too small a 
field, and promises to erect signal stations on all the conti- 
nents with special reporters on every island. We were our- 
Dec-1 337 



338 Cincinnati Medical Advaiice, 

self on the point of doing the same thing, but now gracefully 
give way. The Advance will confine itself to things medical 
in Europe and America, leaving "the uttermost parts of the 
earth" to the U. S. Medical Investigator, which, despite its 
name, is broadly catholic and emphatically cosmopolitan. 
But this could not be outside of Chicago. 

CoSMOLiNE, a product of coal oil distillation, has been 
well known to the Homoeopathic profession for two years, 
at least. More recently vaseline, which is the same sub- 
stance more perfectly refined, has been introduced, meeting 
with universal favor. We have on several occasions called 
attention to the peculiar value of this substance. Its uses 
are so numerous that we can not now enumerate them. But 
an allopathic journal just received informs us that a phar- 
maceutist of that school, who writes articles on recent im- 
provements and discoveries, has heard of but has never seen 
the cosmoline, and thinks "it will at once enter as one of the 
important remedies on our list of materia medica." Enter- 
prising fellows these who hang on to the rear skirts and still 
boast of advancement. 

Xhe trenchant editor of the Ohio Medical and Surgical 
Reporter, (there are two of them — we refer to the one who 
does the cutting — and he is as trenchant with his pen as 
with his scalpel), proposes to go to Europe "next year and 
hob-nob with Billroth, Rindfleisch, Barnes, T. Spencer 
Wells, Paget and Holmes.'^ Poor fellow ! he'll find he has 
raised "hob,'' about the time when, in ignorance of Euro- 
pean etiquette, he pulls the "knob" at the door of these 
worthies, and presents himself as the representative of the 
American medical profession. Especially so when they find 
that he hails originally from the obscure Dominion of 
Canada. He will doubtless have less to say of his experience 
when he returns from "Yurup you know" than his prede- 
cessors. Vide September number said Reporter. 



Editorial. 339 



Who Shall Decide? 



It IS not especially a part of our programme to please 
anybody. We arc after the truth, both to find it and dis- 
seminata) it. But our highest ambition is to stimulate others 
to search for themselves where the truth may be found. It 
is our aim to make the Advance par excellence inspirational^ 
so that when one reads it, he will be awakened to thought 
and action. Now it grieves us that our efforts are occasion- 
ally misdirected or misunderstood. An honored and influ- 
ential friend from the West, referring lo a recent article of 
ours, writes : "I can not refrain from begging you to shut 
down on your psychic hobbies. Pay more attention to the 
body and let the soul take care of itself. Your Anthropol- 
ogy is worse than Buchanan's. As a matter of policy, if 
nothing else, subside in this direction." We ventured to 
enter a disclaimer to the charge of riding hobbies ; avowing 
that we only fearlessly expressed our opinions and rode 
nothing. Our friend replies : "Tyndalism, Darwinism, Bi- 
ology, Psychology, et id omne deserve study, and, I believe, 
endorsement ; but don't give them to much prominence in 
your journal just yet, nor let it be understood that they gov- 
ern your teachings. The world is not quite ready for these 
things, and I repeat my warning go slow.'' 

Per contra, an equally valued friend from the North, one 
who is well known to the public by his writings, says : '^I 
have desired for some time to tell you how well pleased I 
am with your article in theOctober number of the Advance 
on 'Psychic Influence in Therapeutics,' and with the dis- 
cussion which followed it. You are working a rich vein of 
truth. If I can get time and can bring my mind to it, I 
may dip in and help to work it a little further." So as our 
oven is not on a pivot, and we haven't time nor inclination 
to take it down and put it up differently as often as some 
might wish us to, we are obliged to let it stand, and if it 



340 Cincinnati Mtdical Advance. 

smokes in the faces of some, it will give heat to others and 
help to bake some of the crude ideas that are troubling 
thoughtful minds. 



■♦-♦ 



The Twelve Tissue Bemedies. 

"Now, if ye be ready at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, 
harp, sackbut, psaltery and dulcimer and all kinds of music, ye fall down 
and worship the image which I have made, well — *' 

I tell you it wont do, Hering approves this thing and we 
should not oppose it. 

Indeed ! Hering must have a capacious pocket if he can 
carry in it all the Homoeopathic profession. He must have 
a capacious maw if he can swallow all this stuff of Schuss- 
ler's and call it "Homoeopathy," and he must have a bound- 
less egotism if he thinks we are all going to accept it on his 
dictum. 

This is not so large a book that it should occasion much 
of either hope or fear. But we arc told that it's the little 
foxes that spoil the vines. And indications point strongly 
in the direction of a pretty general acceptance of this new 
fangled mode of therapeutics. And the chief reasons for 
this are, (1) its novelty ; and, {2) it comes "recommended for 
investigation by C. Hering." A great many men are in the 
Homoeopathic profession to-day simply because of its nov- 
elty and they stand ready to seize hold of anything else that 
seems more novel than Homoeopathy. Dr. Hering has an 
almost absolute control of the opinion and practices of a 
large number of medical men. They are of the sort that 
worship the duality of Hahnemann and Hering. This is 
not Father Hering's fault. He does not ask the adulation 



Editorial 341 

that 18 offered him. And if we do not mistake he is in a fair 
way of putting a stop to it. A few more such endorsements 
as this will swamp his credit for sanity. When he says of 
Schussler's teachings "Is this Homceopathy ? of course it is/* 
we may well pause and ask what is Homoeopathy any how 
according to Hering ? 

Either the system can not be defined, or it takes on as 
many hues as the chameleon. If Schussler's doctrines are 
Homoeopathy, what then are Hahnemann's and Hempel's 
and GrauvogPs and Rau's and of many others who have 
amplified and philosophized upon this subject ? 

Let us look a moment at Schussler. Fortunatelv he is 
not elaborate or abstruse. I^t us give Allah praise 
that we have one writer who does not exhaust the language 
in verbosity and prolixity. This rare virtue of brevity will 
doubtless be abundantly abused. Lazy doctors will find it 
a short and easy by-way to knowledge. Only 88 pages of 
a 12-moand two-thirds of that is Hering's addition. There 
are in fact only 23 pages attributed to Schussler, and a good 
share of that is made up of confirmations by W. P. Wcssel- 
hoft. If Schussler has written much upon the subject, his 
editor has made but scanty selection and in either case has 
quite overslaughed him by way of copious explanatory notes. 

Says Schussler, "Twelve remedies constitute my whole 
materia medica. They are such inorganic substances as serve 
the animal organism, a sbuilding materials and physiological 
functional remedies. I found their indications as given be- 
fore by study and experiment.'* 

This is knowledge condensed. A whole volume in a half 
dozen lines. And now we are within eleven of an universal 
panacea. If Schussler can strike out all but twelve, how 
long must we wait for the man who can boldly strikeout all 
but one? And if the "study and experiments'* of Schussler 
— and mark you he gives no other data for his conclusions, 
are sufficient ground for accepting such a theory of cure, 



342 CincinncUi Medical Advance, 

it will be easy to furnish a like reason for any other vagary 
one may choose to put forth. Every patent medicine ven- 
der in the land is backed by the same assumptions. "Study 
and experiments'^ forsooth ! What has he studied ? Have 
his studies proven to him that the human body is composed 
of twelve tissues, no more nor less, and that those tissues are 
represented by the remedies he has selected ? Have his ex- 
periments shown that the said tissues, being affected by 
disease, are cured by the application of the corresponding 
remedy ? 

On page 40, we have this piece of precious information, 
"The beginning of a meningitis requires Ferr. Phos, as well 
as in panaritium or pneumonia, because in all these three 
cases we have to overcome a hypcrsemia which depends on a 
dilatation of blood vessels." We have been obliged to ital- 
icize the word "because" in order to give it additional 
strength, lest the undue strain put upon it in making such 
an illogical connection should break it in sunder. 

The whole system is built upon just such bare-faced as- 
sumptions ; and it is hard to sit still and hear them coolly 
uttered. Our mental equilibrium is well-nigh lost, when, 
after a long tutelage underthe writings of the Homoeopathic 
masters we come upon such absurd dogmatizing. 

Hering's copious annotations do not serve to help the mat- 
ter much. Chiefly they show the weakness of Schussler's 
doctrines. He makes objections that are valid and unan- 
swerable, and he might have added more. But he shuts his 
eyes to his own protests and recommends the remedies for 
investigation. He does more; he gives an implied adhesion 
to the fundamental doctrines of the system; and here they 
are; page 6, 

"All constituents of the human body act on such organs 
principally when they have a function. 

All fulfill their functions where they are the cause of 
symptoms." 



Theory and Practice, 343 

Any suggestions of obscurity would only serve to prejudice 
our own perceptive faculties, and so we forbear. The ap- 
plication of these doctrines has been made in this way. The 
ashes of the human body (date and place of cremation not 
mentioned) have been found to yield certain substances — 
Schussler does not say how many, but he has selected twelve 
and excluded all the rest. These twelve, given when the 
respective tissues are involved, will produce acure. 

Hering says this is Homoeopathy. We will have to take 
his word for it. There is no other proof. 

In all error there is some truth. There is some truth in 
Schussler. It will be found that he has made a substantial 
addition to our materia medica, and enlarged our clinical and 
pathogenetic knowledge of remedies. But his system, as a 
whole, is false, or being true, it is not Homoeopathy, C. Hg. 
to the contrary notwithstanding. Incidentally there is much 
of Homoeopathy in it, and he is wise who can detect the true 
from the spurious. 



®ii0Jjy anS 3tu%itt. 



VaccJTlftti o n, By J. J. Marvin, M. D. Read before the Ho- 
mceopathic Medical Society of Cincinnati. 

On the 14th day of May, 1796, Jenner vaccinated James 
Phillips, a healthy boy, eight years old, with lymph taken 
from th^ hand of a dairy maid, who had been infected by 
some disease by milking her master's cows. He was after- 
wards inoculated with small-pox matter without taking the 
disease. 



344 Cincinnati Mt dical A dvance. 

It had been long commonly believed by dairy people that 
a disease said to originate with the cow and which could be 
communicated to the hands of the milkers, afforded protec- 
tion against small-pox. Jenner had been for years aware of 
this belief, and his mind had dwelt upon it till he felt himself 
warranted in attempting the artificial introdudtion of the dis- 
ease known as cow-pox, believing it to be a complete sub- 
stitute and preventive of small-pox. 

In June, 1768, he published a quarto pamphlet of about 
seventy pages, giving to the profession and the public his ex- 
periments and observations upon them. In this pamphlet he 
reported twenty-three cases, sixteen of which were infedted 
by milking and seven by vaccination and, at the close, made 
the assertion that the cases cited fully proved that he had dis- 
covered a protedlion against small-pox. 

In England the discovery was at first generally well re- 
ceived by the profession, not as substantiated by the cases 
cited, but as a most interesting subje<5t for further investiga- 
tion. Many in their zeal, but without knowledge of the con- 
ditions to be observed, commenced experimenting, and 
through the use of impcrfcv5l lymph and without regard to his 
instrudions were without uniform success. There was great 
danger that the practice would be brought into disrepute 
through the ignorance and ill-advised zeal of those inclined to 
be friendly to it, and it was only when these would-be friends 
became its decided enemies that the pra(5lice was fixed upon 
a durable basis. 

It was accused of transforming men into beasts; of entailing 
upon mankind the diseases of the brute creation. One divine 
asserted that Job's affliction arose from his having been vacci- 
nated by the devil; another that vaccination was the Anti- 
Christ. This opposition was more pronounced and violent 
in England than elsewhere. While foreign kings and princes 
and senates and learned societies hastened to bestow upon its 
author their medals and diplomas, and even more substantial 
evidences of their appreciation, there was much abuse and 
obloquy from his own countrymen. 



Theory and Practice. 346 

Many years before Jenner's experiments with the cow-pox 
virus, the pra6lice of variolus inocuhition had been introduced 
into England from Constantinople. This was in 1722. This 
was simply an artificial introdu<5tion of the genuine small-pox, 
The pra(5tice slowly, but gradually, extended over Europe. It 
was, however, attended by a very large per centage of fatal 
cases. Its advantages were that the system could be infedled 
when it was in the best possible condition to contend against 
the poison, that other members of the family being infe(5ted 
at the same time, no future danger need be apprehended; that 
artificial introduction modifies the severity of the disease; that 
where it was necessary patients undergoing treatment might 
be isolated. Its disadvantages were, that only wealthy peo- 
ple could avail themselves of its privileges, and it was con- 
stantly forming new centers for the spread of the disease. 
It was undoubtedly valuable to the individual, but highly det- 
rimental to the community. Governments interfered and 
the pra(5tice was abolished. 

It is acknowledged that no disease, to which the human 
family is now or ever has been subje<5t, has been so fatal and 
produ(5tive of so much disaster as the small-pox. Its history 
has been summed up in the following words: To know that 
it is fatal to a very large proportion of those whom it attacks; 
that it is eminently infedlious from person to person, and 
that it seizes, w^th very few exceptions, upon all who, for the 
first time, come within its range, is its history. 

In Mexico in 1779, of 39,000 attacks, there were 9000 deaths, 
in 1797, of 24,000 attacks there were 4400 deaths. In Iceland 
in 1797, there were 18,000 deaths out of a population of 50,000 
persons. Out of 1500 of the Mandan tribe of Indians only 
thirty escaped death. In Prussia, before the introdudtion of 
vaccination, the deaths from this disease averaged 40,000 an- 
nually. Authentic data make the mortality from this disease, 
including all ages, one out of six of the whole population. 
And taking the mortality from all diseases, the deaths from 
small-pox alone were seventy-two out of every 1000, and 
when we take into consideration that a great many of those 
who did not die at once, were so weakened and disfigured 



846 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

that they became objects of pity and burdens to their friends, 
we begin to realize the terror inspired by the approach of this 
disease. It was the signal for an almost complete dissolution 
of society. It inspired every one with terror. They realized 
that they held their lives subjedl to an unknown and inde- 
terminate susceptibility, and they fled from it with despair. 
It swept over continents like the hurricane or flood, leaving 
wreck and desolation behind. 

In Europe, where the intercommunication between coun- 
tries was regular, it never prevailed in such fatal epidemics 
as elsewhere, because it was a constant fadtor in their tables 
of mortality and there would always be found many who 
from previous infection, under, perhaps, favorable circum- 
stances (a mild type of the disease, or superior care and sur- 
roundings) had become impenetrable to its attacks. Instead 
of depopulating countries at one blow, and exhausting itself 
from lack of more victims, it kept even the balance of repro- 
du6lion and death. 

From this meager glance at the ravages and results of this 
disease let us turn to the reputed preventive. It never has 
been claimed that vaccination is an absolute protedlion against 
small-pox. Jenner, himself, did not assert this immunity. But 
he did claim that it was as great a protedlion as a previous at- 
tack of small-pox, and this was no doubt an under valuation 
of its protedling power; 

Louis XV'I. of France fell a victim of this disease at the age 
of 64, although he had had an attack in his youth. There seems 
to be certain constitutions that nothing will protedt. A case 
is reported of a child that was vaccinated in India with 
apparant success, on his returning to England, he was re- vacci- 
nated, after this he was successfully inoculated with the small- 
pox, and after all this took the small-pox on exposure. An- 
other case is on record, showing that the same individual had 
five separate attacks of small-pox. We are, therefore, fully 
justified in the assertion, that for certain peculiar susceptible 
constitutions there is no protedlion. 

It is well known that during epidemics of small-pox, many 
persons thought to be fully prote<5led have slight attacks of 



Theory and Prentice. 347 

varioloid. Shall we, therefore, condemn vaccination because its 
protection is not always complete? I repeat the statement 
that we are warrantecl by fadls in asserting that it is a fuller 
prote(5tion than small-pox itself, whether induced by conta- 
gion or inoculation, and, moreover, that when the prote6lion 
is not absolutely complete, subsequent attacks are robbed of 
nearly all their severity and danger. And when we remem- 
ber the ease and certainty with which the artificial disease is 
produced, the fadl that it scarcely interrupts the patient's daily 
labor, its almost perfedt prote(5tion and the little trouble or 
uncertainty there is in obtaining healthy lymph, we are jus- 
tified in regarding its discovery as one of the greatest achie- 
vements of medical investigation. 

The following table gives the results of observations made 
in Sweden, just previous to and after its introdu(5tion into 
that country: 

In 1779 the deaths from small-pox were 15.000 
1784 " " " " " 12,000 






1800 " ** " " " 12,000 

1 80 1 •* " " " " 6,000 

1822 " " " " " II 

1823 " " " " " 7 



In Denmark, from 1752 to 1792 the deaths were 9778, or an 
average of 244 per annum; from 1802 to 1819 they were 158, 
or an average of a little over nine per annum. 

Perhaps the most positive and conclusive demonstration of 
the efficacy of vaccination as compared with the protection 
of previous small-pox, is to be obtained from the records of the 
Royal Military Asylum for children, located at Chelsea, Eng- 
land. It covers a period of thjrty years, from 1803 to 1833. 
There were admitted to this institution those who were re- 
puted to have had previous small-pox, boys 1887; girls 645; 
total 2532. 

Of these, there were attacked, boys 15; girls 11; total 26. 

Of those reputed to have been previously vaccinated there 
were admitted, boys 2498; girls 562 ; total 3060. Of these there 
were attacked, boys 19; girls 5; total 24. That is over 12 
out of 1000 were attacked after reputed small-pox, while 8 



348 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

out of icxx) were attacked after reputed vaccination. There 
were admitted, besides, boys 460; girls 168; total 628, who 
had not been vaccinated previous to their admission. They 
were operated on at once. Of this number, two boys and 
one girl were subsequently attacked. The nuniber that died 
in this institution of this disease was, boys 4; girls i, and 
three of these had had previous small -pox. 

I extract from a report of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons to the House of Commons the following statement: 

The security derived from vaccination against the small- 
pox, if not absolutely perfect, is as nearly so as can, perhaps, 
be expedted from any human discovery; for, among several 
hundred. thousand cases with the results of which the college 
has been made acquainted, the number of alleged failures has 
been surprisingly small, so much so as to form certainly no 
reasonable objection to the general adoption of vaccination, 
for it appears that there are not nearly so many failures in a 
given number of vaccinated persons as in an equal number 
inoculated for the small-pox. 

They close their report thus: From the whole of the above 
considerations, the college feels it their duty to strongly 
recommend the pra(5lice of vaccination. They have been led 
* to this conclusion by no preconceived opinions, but by the 
most unbiased judgment, formed from an irresistible weight of 
evidence which has been laid before them. The college con- 
ceives that the public may reasonably look forward to the 
time when there will be an end to the ravages of small-pox, 
if not to the disease itself. 

It may be well right here to devote a little time to the sub- 
je6l of revaccination. It may be asked, do successful revac- 
cinations prove the imperfect prote(5lion afforded by the first 
inoculation? I answer. No. And the reason is, that the in- 
oculation of lymph, either vaccine or variolus is a much finer 
and more delicate test of susceptibility than is the breathing 
of an infedlious atmosphere, so that most persons, when the 
lymph of either cow-pox or small-pox inserted under the 
skin will give, locally, at least, evidences of susceptibility 
which no atmospheric exposure would have elicited from 



TTieory and Practice. 545 

them. There can probably be no more ready and complete 
illustration of this than that persons, who bear marks of 
previous small-pox, are, in at least equal ratio with those 
previously vaccinated, capable of producing vaccine vesicles, 
so that it is impossible to argue that all who on revaccination 
yield perfe(5t vesicles -would on exposure to the small-pox in- 
fection be liable to take the disease. 

In the Prussian army in 1833, about 33 per cent of the re- 
vaccinated took with perfedt success; about 18 per cent in 
the Russian army, and it was shown at the same time, that 
about an equal per cent of persons showing marks of pre- 
vious small-pox yielded the charadleristic pustule after revac- 
cination. These results were substantially confirmed in 
the Danish army from 1844 to 1848, and in the armies of 
Brunswick and Baden of about the same period. I am not 
aware of any satisfadlory evidence going to show that the 
protection aflbfded by a successful vaccination deteriorates, 
after the lapse of years, and, therefore, I can not see the ne- 
cessity for revaccination if the first attempt was successful 
and was made when the system was in a healthy condition, 
ready to receive the artificial disease. On the other hand, 
there can be no objedtion made to revaccinations, if the 
whims of the patient demand a fancied greater security. To 
those who know the influence of the imagination over the 
body, it will not be hard to account for many cases of sec- 
ondary small-pox. 

Upon the question whether persons can be infeCted with 
skin or other constitutional diseases at the time they are in- 
fedted with the vaccinal disease, there is a division of opin- 
ion, and I should like to hear the experience of those who 
have made observations upon this point. 

It may be well to inquire concerning the source or sources 
from which we obtain crusts or lymph. As bearing upon this 
point, I wish to relate that some years ago, during an 
epidemic of small-pox in our city, and whilst I was conne<5tcd 
with our public schools, that school was visited by the Ward 
Physician, and all children who could not show satisfactory 
marks of previous vaccination or small-pox were vaccinated, 



850 Cincinnati Medical Advance* 

unless their parents made objedlion. In about a fortnight he 
returned and gathered quite a harvest of crusts without tak- 
ing special notice of whether the children were troubled 
with skin disease or not. 

It is necessary, in order to make the vaccination successful, 
that the system should be in a healthy condition; that the 
vesicles should be allowed to mature, and that it be not de- 
layed too long after exposure. Jenner says that one herpetic 
vesicle will destroy the value of the vaccination; that a ves- 
icle robbed of its lymph is not protedive, and that vaccina- 
tion as late as five days after exposure have been prote(5tive. 
He recommends that two vesicles be produced, one for lymph, 
and that the other be allowed to mature, and that vaccina- 
tion should never be delayed after exposure. 

When Philip of Spain was anxious to confer its blessings 
upon his American subjedls he appointed a committee of 
physicians to carry the boon, and to make sure of a supply of 
fresh lymph, he dispatched with the fleet a sufl!icient number of 
young boys, which were vaccinated in succession until their 
arrival at their final destination. 

Humanized lymph is probably as efficient in its prote<5tion 
as that derived dire6tly from the cow, nor does its value 
seem to deteriorate by passing through a large number of 
persons. In one case Jenner traced its use through 1500 dif- 
ferent individuals without any appreciable loss of value. It 
may be kept for months, even years, if kept from light and 
air. In England, where public vaccinators are appointed by 
the government, they are instrudled not to use lymph after it 
is twelve days old in warm weather, or eighteen days in cold 
weather; to take the lymph from only healthy children and 
normal vesicles, and never to use lymph from a revaccination. 

I believe it has been claimed by Homoeopaths in England, 
and perhaps, in this country, that the internal use of vaccin- 
ium, will produce the chara<5leristic pustule, and afford as 
complete prote6lion as the hypodermic use of the lymph. 

What investigations have been made in this direction I am 
ignorant of, but hope some discussion may bring them out. 
Its administration would be about as tempting to a sensitive 



Uieory and Practice. 351 

stomach as poison; triturated bed bugs and spiders; the pecu- 
liar secretion of the skunk; the saliva of a mad-dog, or other 
remedies that sometimes find a place in our materia medica. 

Inoculations with chancroidal pus, with a view to pro- 
tection against syphilitic diseases have been pra(5ticed quite 
extensively, in one case 2700 times upon the same subjedt. 
The result in each case is a chancroid without constitutional 
results, and without anything more than a temporary dimin- 
ution of susceptibility. 

When pus from a chancre is used, constitutional syphilis 
invariably follows, although the local chancre that would 
result may be prevented from manifesting itself by extirpa- 
tion of wounds by the knife or cautery. A cancerous con- 
dition of the system, however, seems to destroy the syphilitic 
poison, so that persons with fully developed cancers can not 
be inoculated with syphilis. .If vaccine virus be taken from 
a syphilitic patient, before there is any local secretion of pus, 
vaccinia only follows. 



» ♦■ 



PisCUSSion on Dr. Uarvin's Paper. Reported by C. E. Fish- 
er, M. D. 

Dr. Owens: The conclusions reached by Dr, Marvin are in 
complete harmony with general observations on this subjedt. 
The usefulness and success of revaccination is not a disputed 
point; the crusts generally adting quite as well in the second 
operation as in the 6rst. 

It is my opinion that humanized virus adls better in a ma- 
jority of cases than does that from kine, and is a more certain 
preventive of small-pox. In all instances, the physician can 
not look too well to the virus he is using; the safety of the 
patient, and to a great extent the reputation of the physician 



352 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

may depend upon the quality of the virus, especially if the 
latter is not reliable and pure. In one instance, the City 
Health Officer gave me a crust of which he had used a 
part, and upon inquiry as to its action, I found the patient who 
had been vaccinated from this crust suffering from an enlarged 
and inflamed condition of the left breast, attended with lame- 
ness of the left arm, arising as she declared from the vaccin- 
ation. I have seen syphilitic eruptions from vaccination, al- 
though they are not common. We should guard closely 
against disease of any form, and too much care can not be 
taken in using humanized virus. 

For the benefit of the younger men present, I will say that 
the crust should be hard and brittle and of an amber color. 
Do not use a crust that will flake and scale off; they are to be 
avoided as unfit for use and dangerous. 

Dr. Marvin: Van Buren and Keyer, in a' late work on this 
subjedl, say that vaccination vesicle may occur on syphilitic 
chancres, and if the lymph alone, without pus or blood be 
taken from the chancre and used, syphilis will not follow, but 
vaccination will. 

Dr. Wilson: I think the subject being discussed an eminently 
pradlical one. Young men especially want to be put on their 
guard, concerning such dangerous pra6lices as some physi- 
cians are guilty of. I have known physicians to carry a crust 
in their pocket for weeks and months, until the crust has 
undergone decomposition from the heat of the physician's 
person. Others never think of thoroughly cleaning their lance 
after use, and dreaded results frequently follow a lack oi 
cleanliness. Vaccination is the cause of more disease than are 
houses of prostitution and assignation. We can not be too 
careful then in the use of this means to prevent a dreaded 
disease. 

Look well to your crust. The ulcer, after the crust is re- 
moved, should heal over rapidly. The crust should be round 
and a compadt homogeneous mass; thick at the center, taper- 
ing off towards the edges; it should be hard and brittle, and 
not flaky. In color it should resemble a mass of blood cells; 
almost arterial in color and translucent. 



Theory and Practice. 353 

Dr. Slosson: I do not agree with Dr. Wilson about this vast 
array of troubles and bad efledls following or arising from 
vaccination. Where you have acute psora or scrofula there 
can be no successful vaccination. Where there is a conflidt 
of diseases, the one possessing superior power will occupy 
the system, and no inferior force can take possession. It is 
to this force that vaccination owes its value, and if the germ 
of virus be inserted before variola commences in it, vaccination 
is the result. 

When the crust is scaly or pliable, it is of no value and 
should not be used. I like to see the brittle condition spoken 
of, and they are the only scabs that should be used. 

Vaccination produces a fermentation in the blood, causing 
a disease siniilar to small-pox. If another disease be preva- 
lent in the patient from whom the crust was taken, transmis- 
sion of the disease may take place; and we have as a result, 
syphilis, scrofula, erysipelas, tinea capitis and even other dis- 
eases attributed to vaccination, Never use a crust from a 
child who has had croup, tinea capitis or any disease, as the 
germ may lie latent in the system and be aroused by the op- 
eration. An excellent feature of vaccination is that it a<5ts as 
a prophylactic to other diseases, as the typhoid, and remittent 
forms of fever, and this is particularly the case in analagous 
forms of disease. Use due care in choice of crusts and no evil 
consequences need be feared. 

Dr. Owens: Physicians in the East are using tartar emetic 
instead>Df the vaccine virus, and report it to be as valuable in 
the prevention of small-pox as the virus itself. It causes the 
chara<5teristic lymph and crust, and if carried to a poisonous 
extent produces an exa(5t counterpart of the smail-pox pustule. 

Dr. Wilson: Psychic influence in disease exists to a great 
extent, but the most marked instance which I heard is vac- 
cination by tartar emetic. 

Dr. Owens: This influence is not psychic or mental, but 
physical purely, and I shall try vaccination by tartar emetic 
the first chance I have. 

Dr. Slosson: Mental conditions superinduce certain diseases 
Dec-2 



354 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

either through physical or mental influences or both combined. 
Through the latter probably in this case. 



■♦ ♦ 



The Sphygmograpli:* Its Physiological and Pathological In- 
dications. By Edgar Holden, A.M., M.D. 

A Sphygmograph is an instrument which can automatically 
record the peculiarities of the arterial pulse. According to 
Vierordt, to whom we are probably indebted for its sugges- 
tion, it was simply "an instrument which, when applied over 
an artery, indicated its chara(5ter as to force and extent of un- 
dulation," and, as originally constructed, could accomplish this 
only with difficulty and uncertainty. More recently the in- 
genious device known as Professor Marey's, showed a wider 
significance in the sphygmographic tracing, and gave promise 
of great pra<5lical usefulness. It is no disparagement of the 
invention to say, that the sangnine hopes entertained with 
regard to it have not been fully gratified, and that to no in- 
considerable extent the disappointment has been due to certain 
imperfedions in the instrument itself. These, however, have 
arisen mainly from a want of ready applicability, and a tend- 
ency to fall out of repair, from the very pcrfe(5tion and refine- 
ment of its own mechanism. 

As the word Sphygmograph is, to most of those who know 
of the device, intimately connedted with the name of Professor 
Marey, it is but proper, before presenting results obtained by 

•The Sphygmograph: Its Physiological and Pathological IndicatioDs. 
The Essay to which was awarded the Stevens Triennial Prize, by the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, April, 1873. Two handred 
and ninety illustrations. Edgar Holden, A.M., M.D. Philadelphia, Lind- 
say and Blakiston, 1874. 



Theory and Practice. 



355 



other means, to allude to the principles, merits and defeats of 
his invention. 

This may perhaps be more briefly done by presenting a 
skeleton diagram of the instrument, or rather endeavoring by 
an outline dravsring to illustrate its action. 

A simple lever, attached at one extremity, rests at the other 
upon the artery to be examined, and compresses it, therefore, 
in a vertical diredtion; a second lever, bent at a right angle 
and lying dirc(5tly above this communicates its motion by a 
knife edge to a third, and this latter, vsrhich is at the same time a 
tracer, and has upon its free extremity a peculiar pen, amplifies 
or magnifies the motion communicated. This amplification is 
simply due to the fa(5t that, as will be seen by the drawing, 
the motion is directed against the tracer very near its attached 




ArUry, 
F — Points of attachment of levers. p — Pen. S — Screw, 

extremity. A screw, near the same point, traverses the tracer 
and regulates the pressure. Theother parts of the instrument, 
being simply accessories, with perhaps the exception of a con- 
cealed watch movement, designed to move the paper to re- 
ceive the writing, need not be described. 

This instrument is strapped to the wrist to insure immobility; 
and in the hand of its inventor has developed features in the 
arterial pulse never before discerned. Inasmuch, however, 
as disappointment has resulted from its subsequent use, and 
its delicacy and cost have limited the observations which 
should be manifold, within a narrow scope, it is a fair inquiry 
whether this disappointment may not after all be due, not to 
a meager pathological or physiological value of the pulse- 
wave, but to some defe<5ts in the instrument employed. 

A glance at these may both answer inquiry and suggest a 
change. 



356 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

In the first place, the end of the lever, which may be called 
the pulse-string, rests upon the artery and compresses it, as 
already remarked, in a vertical direction. Thus, as may be 
seen in the following drawing, any increase of pressure _ ^ 
flattens the vessels, and, as will be shown in speaking \Jp 
of amplitude of tracings and arterial tension, a deceptive ^^^ 
result is obtained. 

The movements of the springs are, as observed by Sander- 
son, not therefore those of the arterial wall in the fullest 
sense, and extent of motion is inaccurately measured. 

As an artery is distended laterally as well as vertically, 
some of the peculiarities of the contained wave are of neces- 
sity lost; especially when the current of blood is small, and 
the flaccidity of the vessels considerable. 

The second defe(5l, as will be conceded by all observers, lies 
in the method necessary to secure the instrument to the wrist, 
This is done by straps or ratlier a bandage, which hooks in 
alternate loops over wire pegs on the sides of the instrument, 
or may be a continuous and single band with straps and 
buckles. The difficulty of adjustment to the artery, even 
under favorable circumstances, is considerable; and when 
the patient is nervous and excited or frenzied by delirium, 
the tracing obtained after a prolonged trial can not be accepted 
as the corre<5t index of the pulsating wave. Indeed, so great 
is the liability to obtain an inadequate or erroneous tracing, 
that many observers have cast the instrument aside, as un- 
worthy the expenditure of time and patience. 

Much has, however, been accomplished in the way of rem- 
edying this defe6l by the patient efforts of one to whom 
much reference must be made in this essay — as having more 
than any other, endeavored to render the Sphygmograph of 
Marey of pra6lical benefit — Professor Burdon Sanderson. 
Yet after all his devices did not perfedly obviate the defe^ 
last referred to; and only modified it in so far that the in vol- 
untary muscular movements in the wrist of the patient would 
not impair the tracing. 

He adjusted slips of brass to the instrument in such a way 
that the body rested more firmly upon a surface of bone; but 



Theory and Practice. 357 

an elastic band was made necessary for the retention of this 
and this added to what was a much underrated and additional 
defedt, viz., obstru6lion to superficial venous circulation by 
the retaining straps. To be sure, this obstru6lion would of 
necessity be slight, but, in obtaining a record, the nicety of 
whose indications depends upon such minute particulars, even 
so slight an obstruction might vitiate our results. 

To what extent this is adlually the case, will be seen by ref- 
erence to the dire6l experiments made in this direction, and 
recorded in this essay. 

The third, and, as will be shown by a multitude of observa- 
tions, vital defedt, is the inability to accurately and quickly 
determine the compressibility of the artery. 

By the adjustment of the brass slips referred to, some im-' 
provements resulted, inasmuch as, after a series of experi- 
ments with various weights, an approximate relation could 
be arrived at between the distance from the surface of the 
lever to the spring, and the actual pressure at the time upon 
the artery. 

Other workers adopted various devices to remedy this de- 
fe6t, one only, however, seeming to be a real improvement, 
viz., that of graduating the screw according to a pre-arranged 
scale, and thus having at hand an index upon the screw it- 
self. By reference to the drawing, it will, I think, be mani- 
fest, that the defedt consists in the screw itself, since it bears 
like an inflexible brake upon the levers with which it is in 
contact, and when we shall consider this compressibility as 
one of the most important elements in the arterial current, it 
will be seen that its ready and accurate record are essential to 
any real pradlical usefulness of the instrument. 

Recognizing, then, the importance of having as few de- 
fe<5ts as possible in the device we employ to record the pecu- 
liarities of the pulse, and feeling indeed that the question of 
real moment does not relate to the pra<5tical utility of any giv- 
en Sphygmograph, nor yet of the Sphygmograph in its best 
known signification, but to whether there is any deep mean- 
ing in the blood current of the accessible arteries, of value in 



358 > Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Physiology, Pathology or Therapeutics, which can be accu- 
rately ascertained and recorded, I have endeavored to reme- 
dy the defe<5ls enumerated, as the best method of answering 
the question in hand. 

Despairing of any success in the direction taken by the 
eminent observers of England and the Continent, after their 
but partial success, it occurred to me that a new principle of 
construdtion might accomplish better results. In all instru- 
ments thus far adopted the attempt has been made to employ 
the lifting power of the current of blood to obtain a tracing, 
the difficulties of fri6lion and amplification being the problems 
to be solved. 

The arrangement of the levers and the shape and position 
of the tracing point, already considered, are probably the 
most perfedt adaptation of mechanism in this diredtion. 
But instead of attempting to utilize the lifting why not em- 
ploy the displacing power of the artery? Instead of having 
the spring press down upon the artery, 
let it partially surround it, thus: Then 
with each pulsation a force is transmitted >^ 
not only upward, but in an oblique direc- 
tion as shown by the dotted lines, the pre- 
ponderance being toward the side upon which the spring 
may be inclined. Prolong the pulse string, and shorten the 
distance between the point of attachment (the fulcrum) and 
the point of pressure, and this upward and oblique movement 
is evident to the eye. To amplify this, allow the free and dis- 
tal end to be bent as an inclined plane or the curve of a circle; 
polish it to obviate fridlion; magnetize it, if desired, to add a 
repellant power to the power already evident, and allow it to 
impinge against another lever quite near its attached extrem- 
ity, (a lever of the third order); make this last flexible, and 
its distal end will move with regular, accurate sweep under 
the distensile power transmitted. 

The skeleton drawing above will illustrate more perfedtly 
the principle involved. 




Theory and Practice. 



350 




Artery. 
B — ^Plaoe for Pen. p — Pulae String. F — ^Attachment of Flexible Lever, 
L e. Tracer. 

The movement obtained by this means is from side to side 
and not, as in Marey's instrument, in a vertical direction; and 
in consequence the paper to receive the tracing may lie as in 
ordinary writing. The accessories necessary to the applica- 
tion of this principle need not be described in detail; they are 
simply a framework of brass; a sliding post for the attach- 
ment of the tracing-lever by which it may be brought in ap- 
position to the inclined plane described; a watch movement 
for moving the paper to receive the writing; and a means for 
holding the instrument in the thumb and finger over the arte- 
ry. Two points, however, of importance, are worthy of a 
moment's notice, viz., the pen and the means of determining 
and recording the compressibility of the artery. 

As already stated, the motion obtained is from side to side, 
and although ample, it is yet so delicate that a hair upon it 
stops it at once. After many disheartening attempts to util- 
ize chemical re-agents, and the suggestions of various per- 
sons of ingenuity, the simple plan of pivoting the writing- 
point — in fa<^l an ordinary pen — and thus making the paper 
and not the delicate lever carry the weight, solved the prob- 
lem — thus: 




To ascertain with precision the pressure necessary to ob- 
tain an ample tracing, it was evident that no power should 
be brought to bear upon the pulse, except that of the pulse- 
spring itself, since relative compressibility could only be ac- 



360 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

curately determined by variations of the intensity of a 
common force. The increase or diminution of pressure 
should therefore be ratios of the ability of the spring itself; in 
other words, the spring should have within itself the power 
to press lightly or heavily upon the artery. Its attachment to 
the body of the instrument was therefore made by the coil of 
watch-spring, whose tension could be controlled and measured 
on a dial, at will an amount of pressure being possible beyond 
any requirements, and reaching four, five or six pounds. 
The drawing illustrates both the coil and the recording dial. 




It will be at once evident, that coiling the spring from its 
center A, will bring a pressure just in the very dirc<5lion 
most desired, viz., downward and backward against and 
upon the vessel as indicated by the dotted line. A curved 
wire B, a<5ls both as a brake to prevent the uncoiling of the 
spring and maintaining it at any desired point, and also as an 
index for the dial. 

As the best and only test for utility of any invention, is the 
amount and character of the work it will accomplish, more 
minute description may perhaps be dispensed with, and ref- 
erence made to the charts presented in a subsequent part of 
this essay. 

A few words of comment on the extent of pressure some- 
times necessary, appears, however, in place at this point. 

Most obervers, especially Drs. Anstie and J. Burdon San- 
derson, have found that a pressure of lOO grammes is the 
average minimum, and that by the devices of the latter a va- 
riation of 300 grammes is easily attainable; this is equivalent 
to about 3000 grains. It will be observed on the charts ap- 
pended that 700 grammes were often necessary; and it may 



Theory and Practice. 361 

be added, that in some cases I have found it possible to obtain 
a tracing under a pressure of i loo, or about i7,ocx) grains. 

The dial already described is, as will be seen in the draw- 
ing, marked in degrees, the equivalent of each in grains be- 
ing easily determined by the equipoise of weights upon a bal- 
ance. The following exhibits the amount of pressure exerted 
when the spring is coiled sufficiently to bring the index op- 
posite each degree: 

o ° — about ICO grammes, or 1,560 grains. 
3i° " 186 " 2,880 " 

5 ° " 590 " 10,620 " 

Somewhat singularly, the application of this different prin- 
ciple gives results similar and therefore readily comparable 
with those of Professor Marey, and although the celerity and 
certainty by which the compressibility can be ascertained 
has often developed features of a pulse-wave that would have 
been concealed without this, yet the tracings are so nearly 
akin that they may be explained and treated under the same 
rules as his own. 

Whether the defc6ls that have so nearly wrecked the sci- 
ence of Sphygmography, ere it has well begun its career, 
have been fully corrected by the means described or not, the 
reader, who will patiently review the result obtained, will be 
able to judge. 

Two elements, at least, toward the success of the instrument 
as an aid to science, will, I think, be conceded to the change 
in its construction, viz., a rcdu(5lion in cost down to a reason- 
able and available point, and a more ready applicability. 

The instrument used for this work has not become disar- 
ranged or out of order after a thousand tracings, and could be 
duplicated by the maker at a cost of about one-third that of 
the imported instrument. 

Most of the tracings delineated on the charts were taken 
during an ordinary visit, and occupied only from thirty sec- 
onds to two minutes; no fastenings were employed, and no 
preparations necessary, not even in most instances the prelim- 
inary rolling up of the sleeve, save barely to uncover the radial 
pulse. The instrument was held by the finger and thumb of 



362 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

the left hand, the paper, introduced, the ink applied, and the 
watch-work started by the other. To a great extent, there- 
fore, nervous excitement due to the simple a6t of examination 
has not vitiated the tracing, and it is believed that so far as 
Sphygmographic observations can be the true record of the 
pulse-waves these are reliable. 

Of the many other devices for ascertaining and recording 
the peculiarities of the pulse, from the simple column of mer- 
cury and the semaphoric registration by the aid of photog- 
raphy, to the attempts to utilize the galvanometer, it is un- 
necessary to speak; since their failure hitherto to develop 
better results than their predecessors, has not yet brought 
them a measurable success. The subjedt of chief interest is> 
after all, outside of any particular method of observation, and 
relates to the observations themselves. 

We may, perhaps, the better define the true physiological 
and pathological indications as, first, t?ie actual value of a 
knowledge of the minute peculiarities of the circulatory current^ 
and, then, the power of an instrument to develop them. 



♦ ♦ 



Beflez Symptoms of the Utero-ovaiian System, By Dr. Elmira 

Y. Howard. 

There is nothing special in the mode of studying the diseas- 
es of women. Just as the oplithahnic surgeon is led to examine 
the eye, because the patient complains of loss or disturbance 
of its functions, or because he feels pain in it, or has some 
subjective symptom referred to that organ ; so by disturbance 
of function or some other subjective sign, are we led to the 
discovery of diseased conditions of the sexual organs. When 
the function of an organ is disturbed, the prima facie infer- 
ence is, that the organ itself, which constitutes the mechanism 



Iheory and Practice. 363 

by which that function is performed is out of order. No 
specialist, treating the '^diseases peculiar to women," but has 
constantly his attention called to symptoms and conditions 
so remote from the utero-ovarian system, that were he not on 
the alert his diagnosis would be at fault. Many times he 
would never attribute markedly reflex conditions to a utero- 
ovarian origin, these conditions being so localized and defi- 
nite, as to seem primary instead of secondary or reflex condi- 
tions. Every intelligent gynoBCologist should question closely 
such patients as present obscure etiological conditions, even 
then the subjective indications being so in abeyance, he may 
fail in arriving at the cause of the trouble, though apprized of 
the obscure possibility. But it is needless to say that every 
woman who is ill and seeks advice, does not suffer from 
disorder of the sexual system. But these general or lo- 
cal disorders may in their course react upon and induce 
diseased condition of the sexual system, as there are disorders 
in this special sphere, commencing in it and in turn reacting 
upon and inducing disorder in distant organs, or in the gen- 
eral system. These inter-reactions are exceedingly frequent, 
and it may be affirmed that no severe constitutional disorder 
can long continue in a woman during the predominance of the 
ovarian function without entailing disturbance in this function ; 
and the converse is as true, that disorders of the sexual organs 
can not long continue without entailing constitutional disorder 
or injuriously affecting the condition of other organs. These 
facts point to the necessity of guarding against the error of 
fixing our attention too specially upon one particular class of 
symptoms or organs, and while localizing the part which is es- 
pecially the seat of diseased action, we must not neglect to 
observe the mutual reactions. Disorders of the pelvic organs 
seldom continue long without entailing anosmia, disordered di- 
gestion, cephalalgia, hypersosthesia, neuralgia or other manifes- 
tations of nervous derangements, or prostration, and so pro- 
found are these lesions or reflex conditions, that we are led 
to question closely the anatomical and physiological relations 
of the utero-ovarian system with the general organism as the 



364 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

only rational analysis and explanation of the profound and re- 
mote disturbances, that so often arises with and obscures a di- 
rect diagnosis in serious local lesions of the sexual organs. 

Dr. Barnes in his new work upon ^^Discases of Women," 
Chapter XII, on "The Significance of Pain," says: 

"It may be stated as a general law, that pain referred to a 
particular part or organ is presumptive evidence of disorder, 
structural or functional, of that part or organ. Of course in 
some cases the disorder is only secondary, or consequent upon 
disorder in some other part. Thus one form of headache is the 
consequence of disordered stomach, and is cured by correcting 
the condition of the digestive organs. Pain in one part may 
be the reflex response to distress in another part. Of this, we 
see repeated examples in the history of ovarian and uterine dis- 
eases. Pain in the sacral, dorsal and lumbar parts of the spine 
is a frequent phenomenon in connection with uterine disease, 
it is often the predominant symptom. The spinal pain may 
be severe and enduring, and unless the rule of interrogating 
all the functions be carefully followed, it is easy to fall into 
the snare of regarding the case as one of spinal irritation, ver- 
tebral disease, or simple hysteria. If this error be committed, 
the patient will probably be doomed to a long course of me- 
chanical or medicinal treatment, under which the general 
health may break down, while the original disease is pursuing its 
course all the while. Attempts, well deserving consideration, 
have been made by observing the seat of the pain com- 
plained of, and interpreting, by the knowledge of the source 
and distribution of the nerves supplying the pelvic organs, to 
diagnose with something like precision the nature and seat of 
the pelvic disease.'* 

The question of the supply of nerves to the uterus and ovar- 
ies has been the subject of keen and protracted controversy, 
and the best and mQ3t important summary of this most im- 
portant matter, and which may be taken to be the latest, and 
most authentic expression of anatomical science, is the account 
by M. Boulard, adopted by Cruvielhier. 

A brief resume of the nerves, cranial, spinal and sympa- 
thetic, will comprehensively place before you the nervous con- 



Theory and Practice. 365 

nection and sympathetic relation of the utero-ovarian or sex- 
ual system. ****** 

Tlie cranial nerves entering into relation more or less remote 
with the utero-ovarian system are: The pneumogastric, spinal ac- 
cessory and petrous ganglion; and springing from the pneu- 
mogastric are, the auricular, pharyngeal, superior laryngeal 
recurrent laryngeal, cervical cardiac, thoracic cardiac, anterior 
pulmonary, posterior pulmonary, oesophageal and gastric nerves. 

Of the spinal nerves we have the phrenic nerves and the an- 
terior branches of the sacral nerves. From the great sympa- 
thetic we have by far the largest contribution, but this always 
having its nervous communication with the cranial and spinal 
system. 

The renal plexus, hypogastric plexus, solar plexus, aortic 
plexus, ovarian plexas, phrenic plexus, cceliac plexus, gastric 
plexus, hepatic plexus, splenic plexus, supra-renal plexus, su. 
perior mesenteric plexus, inferior mesenteric plexus, pyloric 
plexus, gastro-duodenal plexus, gastro-epiploic plexus, cystic 
plexus, left coeliac plexus, sigmoid plexus, superior ha^morrhoidal 
plexus, lumbar ganglia, semilunar ganglia, great splanchnic 
nerve, lesser splanchnic nerve, smallest splanchnic nerve, tho- 
racic ganglia, inferior mesenteric nerve and from it the fol- 
lowing branches, the prancreatic, intestinal, right coeliac and 
middle coeliac branches. 

Thus, as briefly as possible, have I given the nervous sys- 
tem, its origin as connected with the sexual system; and 
have already so entrenched upon your time that to take up its 
physiological relation is out of the question, nor is it necessary 
for the anatomical relations, are so obvious that diseased condi. 
tions arising in the sexual organs, and through connection more 
or less remote, an aberrant molecular nerve motion once being 
established, it is manifest how the reflex diseased conditions 
successively arise and are propagated. 



366 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Two Cases of Narcotic Poisoning. By E. S. Stuard, M. D., 

Covington, Ky. Read before the Homoeopathic Aied- 
ical Society of Cincinnati. 

J. J. (colored), aged 30 years, a strong and healthy man, by 
occupation a farmer, in consequence of the troubled condition 
of his love affairs, sought death, by taking 1-2 oz of tindl. of 
opium. At 4 o'clock p. m., one hour after the poison had 
been taken, was called in. Found the man dressed, in bed, 
and asleep, skin of a normal temperature, pulse full, slow and 
laboring, breathing slow and labored; separating eye lids, 
found pupils of both eyes greatly contra<5led and in a meas- 
ure insensible to light. His only response to a vigorous sha- 
king, was a few grunts, and low muttered words. My gentle 
handling not having the desired effedt, with both hands I 
grasped him by the collar of his coat, and by a strong pull, 
landed him upon the floor, then, with the assistance of two 
colored men, my patient was placed in a sitting posture upon 
a chair, his head wet, neck and shoulders sponged with cold 
water. I then gave him 10 grs. of sulphate of zinc, followed 
it up with copious draughts of warm mustard water. I then 
had my patient walked briskly up and down the room, by 
my two colored allies. I would frequently order a halt, and 
pass a feather as far as it would reach down the oesophagus 
of the would-be suicide. 

Fifteen minutes had elapsed, and as yet no vomiting. 
Gave ID grs. more of sulphate of zinc, and ordered my man to 
be taken into the yard. The subtle poison was now work- 
ing energetically; the patient's chin dropped upon his chest, 
his legs bent under him, and my assistants were obliged, in 
order to keep him awake, to drag him from one end of the 
yard to the other, I occasionally stopping the two to give the 
middle man a tincupful of mustard water. 

Upon my first entrance into the house, I had sent for a 
stomach-pump, by this time the messenger had returned with 
the information that none could be obtained in the city; some- 
thing must be done, so I procured a piece of gum tubing of 
almost twice the diameter of the rubber tubing attached to a 



• 

Theory and Practice. 367 

No. I Davidson syringe; passing one end into the patient's 
mouth I carefully pushed it backwards and downwards un- 
til it had reached the stomach. It was too much; for the last 
half hour, the sick man was afraid he was going to die; and 
now he was afraid he wasn't. Stomach versus Dodtor, — af- 
ter a well contested struggle, stomach threw up, not the 
sponge, but its contents. I encouraged the vomiting by ad- 
ministering large and repeated drinks of warm water, now 
and then resorting to the rubber tube. I continued the treat- 
ment until I had thoroughly washed out the stomach, then 
ordered strong coffee without sugar or milk. I then left with 
instru<5lions to keep the man awake until lo o'clock p. m. 
My patient was able to be about next day. 

Case II. At 7 1-2 o'clock p. m, on the 15th day of last July, 
was called in haste to see an infant aged 11 mos., to whom 
had been given by mistake 1-4 of a grain of sulphate of mor- 
phia. The mother had discovered the error some twenty 
minutes or so after the poison had been administered. I 
reached the house as soon as possible, and found the child 
somewhat drowsy, pupils of eyes contradled, pulse strong 
and full; gave as soon as could be procured, 5 grs. of 
powdered ipecac followed it with half a cupful of warm 
water, waited 10 minutes, the child had not vomited, 
repeated the dose of ipecac and gave a teacupful of warm 
water, without the desired effe6l. My little patient by this 
time was very heavily narcotized, its respiration being very 
slow and labored. I ordered a tub full of cold water, to 
be brought into the room, stripped the child of all clothing, 
stood it upright in the tub and dashed water plentifully upon 
its head and chest. No vomiting as yet. The stomach pump 
was my only resort. Not expedling a case of narcotic poi- 
soning so soon after treating Case I., above mentioned, I had 
neglected getting a stomach pump, but having read of a sim- 
ilar case in which a common Davidson syringe had been 
used with success, in evacuating the stomach of its contents 
I determined to use one in this case. I used a No. i David- 
son. Detaching from the ends of tube the metallic appara- 
tus with which they are provided, and having well oiled one 



368 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

length of the tube, I passed it down the child's throat until it 
reached the stomach. I placed the other end of the syringe, 
in a bowl of luke warm water, and slowly pumped into the 
stomach about half a pint; I then reversed the ends of the 
syringe, and pumped the contents of the stomach into an 
empty vessel, then reversing the syringe I refilled the stom- 
ach and withdrew its contents as before. 

I repeated the operation four or five times. After thor- 
oughly washing out the stomach, I administered about fif- 
teen drops of tindlure of belladonna. I left about 9 o'clock p. 
m., instructing the parents not to allow the child to sleep until 
I returned, at 12 o'clock, three hours afterward, I saw the 
child again. My litttle patient was still strongly under the 
influence of the poison; ordered strong cofi'ec and told the 
parents, that if the child's breathing became irregular or 
stertorous to plunge it bodily into the tub of cold water. The 
little one was not permitted to sleep more than twenty min- 
utes at a time until 4 o'clock a. m. of the next morning. The 
child slept most of the next day and night, the third day baby 
appeared as well as usual. 



"» ♦ 



A Case from Fractice—Eemia from Ii^tiry-— Subsequent Abdom- 
inal Complications. By H. R. Arndt, M,D., Ionia, Mich. 

Mrs. S., aet. 63, nervous temperament; health has generally 
been good with the exception of an occasional bilious at- 
tack, occurring, perhaps, once in two to six months, and last- 
ing, with more or less severity, two to four or five days. She 
had of late considerable pain in the ovarian region. Been 
under medical care for some time. She fell out of a buggy 
some five years ago. Husband soon after discovered a slight 
inguinal hernia, used hot fomentations, and about two weeks 
after the accident made a successful attempt to reduce it; 
no signs of it since then. 



>: 



V • \ 



TTieory and Practice. 369 

Oct. 22d, 1873, found patient in bed; pulse 84 and regu- 
lar; pain in the region of the kidneys; frequent and dif- 
ficult urinations, of a dark, strong smelling urine, with severe 
burning before and after; appetite good; tongue slightly fur- 
red; little thirst; tenderness of abdomen upon slight pressure, 
much aggravated by increased'pressure; no particular tender- 
ness in the ovarian region; abdomen large and flabby, w^ith a 
peculiar feeling of the parietes, as of "a thousand little 
wrinkles under the skin," and again as if she had born a 
large number of children, although she never had been preg- 
nant. Bell. 1 2th, cantharides 12th, one dose every two hours. 

Nov. 2d, have seen the patient a number of times. The urin- 
ary symptoms have wholly disappeared. Find her suffering 
greatly with colicky pains, especially below the umbilicus, 
accompanied with a desire for and utter inability to pass 
wind; abdomen rather hard to touch, although but slightly 
bloated; frequent rumbling of the bowels, and with it*a feeling 
to the hand of something knotting up immediately below. 
Colocynth third, nux vomica third, once in one to two 
hours. 

Nov. lotb, have seen the patient once a day. Have given 
her colocynth, bryonia, carb. veg., mercury, ars., alb., nux., 
etc. The first only seems to give any relief. Found patient 
to-day suffering intensely with pain all through the bowels; 
diarrhcBa; stools light colored and very offensive; cold ex- 
tremities; cold sweat; belching up of foul gas; stomach much 
distended; tongue a dirty brown; pulse no and regular; abdo- 
men hard with a feeling as if hard solid belts, immediately 
under the hand; very thirsty; appetite fitful; no rest, caused 
by pain and wakefulness; mind perfedtly clear. Similar 
treatment continued, with addition of hot fomentations, and 
a weak solution of pure nitric acid in water as an occasional 
drink. 

Nov 20th, have seen patient once or twice per day. Same 
feeling; tongue dry and covered with a uniform brown 
coating; occasional passing of wind, with very severe strain- 
ing, affording much relief; pain in the bowels excessive; 
Dec-3 



370 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

pulse 130 and regular; abdomen increased in hardness and 
badly distended; stools still frequent; chills, followed by flash- 
es of heat; thirst intense; inability to retain food or drink on 
the stomach. Ars., alb. 3d, colocynth 3d, hot fomentations, 
occasional doses of hvdro-chloral. 

Nov. aid, patient continues* to fail. During the night had 
a long copious discharge from the bowels; nurse claims there 
were fully two quarts of bright yellow water; discharge ex- 
ceedingly offensive, filling the whole house; patient felt re- 
lieved after the passage and slept several hours. 

Nov. 23d, patient has just died. Vomiting ceased about 
2 o'clock, p. m.; passages became involuntary; died without 
a struggle at 5 o'clock, a. m. 

Held a post mortem sixteen hours after death; assisted by 
Dr. T. R. Allen. Appearance of the body: Found the adi- 
pose tissue of the abdominal parietes exceedingly thick, with 
an almost complete atrophy of the muscular tissue; complete 
rupture of the peritoneum, the latter presenting the appear- 
ance of a band of the width of two inches, and a thickness 
of from ^ to f of an inch, extending from a point of attach- 
ment to the middle of the greater curvature of the stomach 
to the symphisis pubis, thus wholy exposing the intestines. 
The texture of the band was fibrous, and at points almost 
cartilaginous, most natural in its appearance at its attachment 
to the stomach. Its color was grayish. The intestines were 
gangrenous, especially the large intestines. There existed 
strong adhesion of the intestines to each other, and a solid 
union of the colon at the sigmoid flexure to the inner pelvis. 
The appearance of other organs was perfe<5tly normal, 
with the exception of a slightly congested appearance of the 
ovaries, and a slight enlargement of the liver. 

What was the cause of the peculiar condition here? A 
sudden rupture of such magnitude would hardly occur with- 
out fatal and perhaps immediate consequences, and much less 
without the patient knowing any thing about it. 

Must we not look for the primary cause in a pathological 
change of the texture of the peritoneum? I find no Ught 



ITieary and Pr€u:tiee. 371 

thrown upon it from authorities. There had been at no time 
any disease of the abdominal viscera, except the attack of 
colic spoken of. Who will explain? 



Bequests etc., to Medigal Charities. — Mr. Thomas Bant- 
ing has bequeathed £1800 each to the Royal Hospital for 
Incurables, the British Home for Incurables, the Earlswood 
Asylum for Idiots, the Worthing Infirmary, the Sussex County 
Hospital, St. Mary's Hospital, the Westminster Hospital, 
King's College Hospital, the Middlesex Hospital, the Charing- 
cross Hospital, the Lock Hospital, Harrow road, the West 
London Hospital, the Brompton Hospital for Consumption, 
the Cancer Hospital, the London Hospital, the Hospital for 
Sick Children, Great Ormond-street, and the Great Northern 
Hospital; £900 each to the National Hospital for the Paralysed 
and Epileptic, the Royal Westminster Opthalmic Hospital, the 
Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, and University College Hospital; 
and £450 to the City of London Truss Society, the residue to 
be applied in establishing a charity to help convalescent per- 
sons needing the beneficial climate of Worthing, and to be 
called "Thomas Banting^s Memorial.^ 

Could^nt we stir up some American Banting to help our 
Free Dispensary and the Homosopathic benevolent institutions 
throughout the country ? It seems to us that physicians might 
educate the people for such work as this. A man or woman 
of wealth whose life had been prolonged by the agency of 
Homoeopathy might show proper gratitude by such a bequest. 

To the Editor of the Advance: 

Dear Sir, in the September number of the Advance appears 
a report of a case of -^hereditary syphilis," cured by Sulphur 
aooth and 55". Of course, the case redounds the praise of 
the Dr., but the report does not To say that a patient has 
"syphilitic disease" is as indefinite as to say he has kidney or 
liver complaint, and if the profession is to learn any thing 
from reports, they should not be made in that loose and un- 
satisfadtory manner. Can not the Dr. be persuaded to let us 



372 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

have a dilTcrential diagnosis of the eruption, and also the 
symptoms which lead to the administration of sulphur, and 
oblige more than yours truly, F. H. Schbll. 

Cin'ti., Aug, 24th, 1874. 




huUm$m%. 



Alcohol not a Poison. By Lewis Barnes M. D., Delaware, O. 

On the 20th of March last the well known chemist, Gerhard 
Saal, M. D., delivered a lecture in Pike's Opera House, Cincin- 
nati, on "What We Eat and Drink." 

We are concerned only with the portion which pertains "to 
Buoh articles of sustenance as are wine, brandy and beer, in all 
of which alcohol is the active principle; in the last named wc 
find, besides, lupuline, the extract of hops; furthermore [tea 
coffee, tobacco, opium and hashish." The language of this is 
peculiar: "In the last named" of the trio (wine, brandy and 
beer) we find lupuline. This is well enough but how shall we 
understand that which immediately follows in connection, to 
wit: tea, coffee etc.? Do these belong in the class of which 
alcohol is the active principle? It would seem so, for the lec- 
turer goes on inthe same paragraph to condense his ideas again. 
Thus: "The question to be discussed with regard to these ar- 
ticles, (wine, brandy, tea and coffee) is. Have they nutritive 
qualities? if not, are they injurious? or to state in other words 
are they poisonous?" 

Now the peculiarity is, that a man who is reputed to be 
strictly scientific should so shift the point of his classification, 
or confuse its items. Does he mean as he in effect says, that 



Miscellaneous, 378 

all these articles belong to the sam^ class and should be con- 
sidered together? Are tea and coffee for example intoxica- 
ting? Have they any tendency to produce delirium tremens? 
Do they ever lead to violence and crime? Do they ever in- 
duce a man to strike his wife and kill his children? Now this 
great man whose logical statements are so loose or disjointed 
goes on immediately to expatiate upon the rigid and exact 
ways of science, proclaiming fundamentaal truth ^'regardless 
of superstition and prejudice/' And yet it seems necessary 
for him, stem disciple of science, to seek relief from difficulty 
in such a classification! He (with a great many men of great 
reputation for exact science) puts the fiery spirit of alcohol 
side by side with the comparatively mild influences tea, coffee 
etc., as if they were all birds of the same brood, being found 
in the same nest, and then draws conclusions from the nature 
of the milder things which make no disturbance in a commu- 
nity. And this is glorified as logic. But "the question wheth- 
er alcohol is a nutritive element or not," recieves no further 
light from this man. He gives authorities on one side, and on 
the other, and then proceeds to the most remarkable part of 
his address, which we must quote at length. 

"On one point however, all authorities agree, viz. : We do 
not use alcohol because it is nutritious, for if taken in large 
quantities it causes derangement of the processes going on in 
the body, but on account of its effects as a stimulant and as a 
means of enjoyment. 

From this stand-point let us consider the different modes of 
enjoyment and discuss them in order. 

They possess like many other forms of religious worship, the 
power of satisfying the mind, to exalt the imagination, and 
render life more enjoyable without however improving it. 

From this yearning after truth with an inclination to self- 
deception which is a part of human nature, has sprung the ne- 
cessity in man of finding means to change his manner of think- 
ing, to deaden to a degree his sensibilities. These means are 
now theine, caffeine, morphine, nicotine, strychnine and alco- 
hol. 



874 Cincinnati Medical Advance,] 

They permeate the blood and pass through the entire body 
and leave it without being decomposed (except alchol), they 
do not therefore act in the capacity of nutritive substances, 
and can act as life-giving stimulants only in small quantities; 
in large quantities they act as decomposers, like the poisons. 
Wine is by religion and custom the honorable representative 
of the means of enjoyment, just as bread* is the holy symbol of 
nutrition. 

Wine contains, besides alcohol, certain volatile oils, which 
gives it its peculiar aroma and furthermore various salts es- 
pecially potash, which rapidly becomes part of the blood, fa- 
cilitating the taking up of oxygen and the throwing off of car- 
bonic acid, exciting the heart to contractile power and favoring 
the entire process of bodily reorganization, just as meat ex- 
tracts act, and thus creating bodily and mental comfort. 

As a banisher of care and a strengthener of the heart it was 
from time immemorial the subject of song by the most gifted 
poets: the *ecce bibendum* of Horace, as also his *aqua pota^ 
ierribuSy^ will last long. 

Again and again we are compelled to exert muscular force 
when it is already almost exhausted, the brain must frequent- 
ly be stimulated to action when rest would perhaps be more 
desirable. The uncultivated man may indulge himself, but the 
cultivated man must be able to control himself at all times in 
peace or war. Nothing is so efficient in bringing about, ef- 
fecting this result as alcohol; nothing so lasting in its effects; 
it is both nutritious, preservative and a poison; it is a sine 
qua non, daily to be used and on every occasion, in every 
clime and every occupation in life." 

Here we find pretty nearly a surrender of the chief point at 
issue : "We do not use alcohol because it is nutritious, * ♦ 
but on account of its effects as a stimulant and as a means of 
enjoymenV^ And we are told that upon this one point all au- 
thorities agree. The idea of nutriment therefore is abandoned 
by this man of rigid science. Alcoholic drinks are useful only 
as a means of gratification, happiness or pleasure. But his 
language becomes more and more remarkable as he proceeds. 
Thus:— 



* MisceUaneouM. 875 

"They possess, like many other forms of religious worship 
the power to satisfy the mind, to exalt the imagination and ren- 
der life more enjoyable, without, however, improving it." And 
80 these forms of alcohol are forms of religion? This is what 
it says. They make life enjoyable. But (remarkable admis- 
sion) they do not improve it. 

Do they make it worse? Yes; look at the next paragraph: 
"From this yearning after truth [what! is the appetite for 
these things a yearning after truth?], with an inclination to 
self-deception which is a part of human nature [what, again ! 
yearning after truth an inate desire for deception?], has sprung 
the necessity in man of finding means to change his manner of 
thinking, to deaden to a degree his sensibilities." What logic! 
Because a man yearns for truth, he inwardly wishes to be de- 
ceived, and from this comes the need of changing his way of 
thinking, and deadening his sensibilities! And the means for 
doing all this "are now theine (tea), caffeine (coffee), morph- 
ine, nicotine (tobacco), strychnine and alcohol." Such is the 
remarkable power of these forms of religion! And such is the 
argument of this man of science! Let the reader turn back 
and re-examine his own language, and see whether we have 
misrepresented him. 

Another statement needs attention. It is this: "Wine is by 
religion and custom the honorable representative of the means 
of enjoyment, just as bread is the holy symbol of nutrition." 
This brilliant sentiment leaves its glittering height in the air 
and runs into the gi'ound, through the statement that bread is 
a mere "symbol" of nutrition. It is not such in reality; we 
could not live on it; it only represents something nutritious. 

We are now prepared for a wonderful conclusion; "Nothing 
is so efficient * * as alcohol; nothing so lasting in its ef- 
fects; it is both nutritious, preservative and a poison; it is a 
sine g[ua non^ daily to be used and on every occasion, in every 
clime and every occupation of life." True, he has just said: 
"We do not use alcohol because it is nutritious," and that all 
authorities agree on this point. But why should such a dis 
crepancy between the premises and the final conclusion, stan d 



376 Cincinnati Medical Adva7ice. • 

in the way? A great scientific reasoner is before us. Why 
should he be fettered by the ordinary rules of logic? 

He proceeds immediately to expand this point a little: 
"With a soldier on the field, the canteen of coffee or whisky 
[note the grouping again] can under circumstances compen- 
sate for erbsenwurst and bean soup." Although not to be used 
as a nutriment, as all authorities agree, yet it will answer well 
for bean soup! 

Let the reader take notice that such are the positions and 
arguments of a celebrated man, and also that he and his friends 
have thought them worthy of re-publication in medical jour- 
nals. Does their cause demand such reasoning? 



■♦-•- 



Occasional Lectures— Sore Eyes. 

Gentlemen: — ^The days of sore eyes are passed. This am- 
biguous term has slipped out of our vocabulary. A friend 
of mine, many years ago, a professor in one of the med- 
ical colleges of this city, drew upon himself no small 
amount of laughter by an article he contributed to a medical 
journal. . The title of the article was "Old sore legs." But 
the term is quite as corre<5l in its way as the one we have 
now discarded. No well informed medical man should seri- 
ously talk of "sore eyes". It don't correspond with our mod- 
ern pathology. We might as well talk of "sore heads," mean- 
ing thereby the various diseases of the brain. And then 
think of grouping the various affections of the chest and 
abdomen under the euphonious title of "sores." This would 
simplify our pathological nomenclature, but it would not help 
to specialize our knowledge of disease. 

Ophthalmia is a generic term, under which is included the 
various forms of inflammation of the eye, and in case of doubt 



Miscellaneous. 377 

as to the identity of the afledlion, we may with propriety 
give it this very general designation. But of you who have 
given this subjedt some special attention, something more will 
be required. It is curious how differently we look at things 
as we may happen to be more or less acquainted with them. 
I can well remember how I once thought there was a deal of 
nonsense about the pretended revelations of the ophthalmo- 
scope. It didn't seem to me credible that so much could be 
made out of the examinations. But matters wear a different 
face now. I feel as though I could swear by, rather than at, 
the precious little instrument. I find medical men have con- 
fidence in that which they understand. You venture upon 
certain topics, and they say, O you draw needless distin<5lion8; 
you are over nice in your discriminations. Now the fadt is 
they don't understand the subje<5l, and they naturally conclude 
there is nothing in it. Take for instance skin diseases. We 
carry our differential diagnosis to very considerable length. 
And when you master this department of pathology, you will 
see real beauty and excellence in it, and not rest content in 
the belief that "tetter" and "salt-rheum" are the alpha and 
omega of dermatology or that names are of no account so 
long as you know what will cure. 

Now, to come back to our starting point; when you examine 
a case of ophthalmia you should know the precise nature of 
the inflammation. If the eye ball and lids are reddened, with 
alteration in the secretions and modifications of sight — and 
these by the way are very common conditions in acute in- 
flammations — ^you should know if it be the conjunctiva that is 
affected, or if it be the cornea or the iris. This can not be learn- 
ed without some clinical experience. But no amount of 
experience will avail, without the power of observation. 
You must learn to discriminate. The distinctions are valid 
and must be recognized. When a medical man sneers at 
them he is merely trying to hide his ignorance. The evolu- 
tion of complexity is a necessary law of progress. We can 
easily and definitely measure our knowledge by our power 
to minutely classify. If, in pathology, we can readily trace 
fine shades of distinctions, we may rest assured that we are 



378 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

not pretenders in the science. And on the other hand if 
"sore eyes" and kindred terms constitute our nomenclature 
we may justly suspeft the quality of our knowledge. 

T. P. W. 



•* ♦■ 



Frauds Edmund Anstie, 

Not quite forty-one years old and yet dead, leaving a rep- 
utation almost world wide. Such men should not drop out 
of sight unnoticed. They can not, for the human race that 
has been made so much better by their living, is sensibly 
shocked at their loss. And yet they are not lost for they will 
live on through many years to come in the results of their la- 
bor. For the principal fadts of Dr. Anstie's life, we are in- 
debted to the Medical Record and London Lancet. 

"Dr. Anstie was born at Devizes, on the nth of December, 
1833. He was the second son of a manufacturer in easy cir- 
cumstances; and his family had been established in the local- 
ity for several generations. * * * Francis, after being 
educated at a private school at Devizes, which he left in 1849, 
was articledlnjthe 3'ear after to his cousin, Mr. Thomas An- 
stie, a medical practitioner of the town. According to the 
custom of those days he remained with his cousin three years; 
and entered at King's College in 1853. He passed through 
the ordinary medical curriculum with credit, and gained the 
Gill prize for general proficiency at the end of his first win- 
ter session. He was a steady worker both at the college and 
in the hospital, where he was an enthusiastic disciple of Dr. 
Todd, under whom he served as a clinical clerk, and whose 
teaching gave a manifest color to his whole professional life. 
In 1857, being as yet undecided with regard to his future line 
of practice, he took the post of resident physician-accou- 
cher's assistant in the hospital. In the autumn of the tame 



year he took his M. D. degree at the University of London, 
and was for some time occupied in administering chloroform 
for Sir \V. Ferguson. After this he lived for a short time in 
Stamford street: but in 1859 he moved to Onslow square, 
and was appointed physician to the Chelsea Dispensary. By 
this time he had determined to pra<5tice medicine: and hav- 
ing been appointed pathologist to Westminster Hospital, he 
was ele<5ted assistant physician and co-leCturer on Forensic 
Medicine in i860, in the vacancy caused by the transference 
of Dr. Russell Reynolds to University College. He subse- 
cjuently exchanged his lectureship for that on Materia Medica, 
which he held for many years, his course being devoted rather 
to the therapeutic action of drugs than to matters of mere de- 
tail, in 1862 he married, and trom thence devoted himself 
far more closely to the practical business of his calling, dis- 
playing a power of steady and sustained work that had pre- 
viously Iain in abeyance, and that rapidly brought him into 
tlie tirst rank of his contemporaries. In 1863 he removed to 
the h<ujsc in W'inipole street, in which the rest of his life was 
'«])enl; and in the following year published his well known 
work on Stiniuliints and Narcotics, chielly the result of ex- 
perimental research conducted at the Westminster Hospital. 
His tenure of office as assistant physician was prolonged for 
tlijrteen years, during which he applied himself to the work 
of the out-patient departnu-n; with an energy and solicitude 
that never flagged. About a year ago he succeeded to the 
post ol physician, and was enabled to give full scope in the 
wanU to those powers ofclinical teacii.ng which his long •. ork 
among out-patients had cultivated to the utmost. F'or a short 
time he shared the lectin eship on medicine with Dr. Hasham, 
but had lately tjiven the full course, in a manner that elicited 
the warm admiratit>n of those who heard him. Besides his 
ap]>ointment at the Westminster Hospital, he was plusician 
to the Helgrave Hospital for Children, and consulting plus- 
ician to the Royal South London Ophthalmic Hospital. It 
need no longer be a secret that the most flattering o\ertures 
were ma<le to him from New York, to settle there as a hos- 
pital phv^ician and consultant, and a lecturer on the principles 



:^80 (Ji'iiHnnati Mt^diriil A^hfO/tce, 

and practice of physic; but family reasons, and the feeling of 
growing success in England, prevented him from assenting 
to a proposal that was none the less gratifying that it came 
from those who knew him only by his professional reputation. 
His last work, and that on which his future fame will chieflv 
rest was his admirable treatise on Neuralgia, on a second ed- 
ition of which he was engaged at the time of his decease. 

The circumstances of his death will form part of the history 
of the profession. The schools of the Patriotic Fund at 
Wadsworth had been visited by a somewhat stranore succes- 
sion of illnesses, and at last some of the children were attacked 
by a rapidly fatal form of peritonitis. Dr. Anstie was called 
in to the assistance of the medical officer, and he made a care- 
ful examination both of the premises and of the patients. lie 
was at the time suffering from over- work and want of rest, 
and was hardly in a state to undertake the oftentimes danger- 
ous duty of a medico-sanitary inspe6tion; but after accom- 
plishing it, he made, on Sunday the 6th, a post mortem exam- 
ination of one of the children who had died from peritoniti**. 

Whilst thus engaged, the middle finger of his right hand 
was accidentally punt!:tured with a needle. He sucked and 
washed the wound immediately, and on Tuesday mentioned 
the occurrence to some of his friends, but expressed a hope 
that no harm would result from it. On Wednesday he felt 
ill, and complained of pain in his right arm-pit. During the 
afternoon he was so chilly that he sat before a tire wearinjr an 
overcoat. Dining with a friend in the evening, he spoke of 
having poisoned his hand, and said that he had much pain in 
the arm-pit, that he feared he would have an al)scess there. 
On Thursday he was confined to his bed, and Dr. Brudenell 
Carter found him with a dry tongue, a dry, hot skin, com- 
plaining of distressing headache, and of much pain over the 
right pectt>ral region. After a restless night the patient was 
worse on Friday, and the assistance ol" Dr. (leorge Johnson 
was obtained. At three p. m. on Friday he was delirious, his 
tongue dry, and his temperature lo^^^. There was an er\sip- 
elatous blush about the size of the palm of the hand over the 
right pectoral muscle; there was excessive tenderness on pre^- 



Miscellaneous, 381 

sure in the right axilla and over the front of the chest, on the 
right side. His condition at half* past nine the same evening 
remained unchanged. At half-past nine Saturday morning 
the breathing was very rapid; there was a distinct friction 
sound over the middle and lower lobe of the right lung, and 
dulness on percussion over the same space, the erysipelatous 
redness and tenderness remained the same. The urine was 
highly albuminous, and contained numerous epithelial casts. 
About the middle of the day symptoms of a blood-clot at the 
right side of the heart came on; the features were livid; the 
breathing rapid and shallow; consciousness was rapidly lost, 
and death occurred at half- past two p. m." 



• ♦ 



According to Prof. Andrews, ozone is rarely found in 
large towns, unless a suburb when wind is blowing from the 
country. It is rarely absent in fine weather from the air of the 
country and is more abundant in the air of the mountains 
than of the plain. The permanent absence of ozone from 
the air of a locality may be regarded as a proof that we are 
breathing adulterated air. Its absence from the air of large 
rooms, even in the country, is probably the chief cause of the 
difference which every one feels when he breathes the air of 
a town or of an apartment, however spacious, and afterwards 
inhales the fresh or ozone-containing air of the open country. 



■• ♦■ 



Prof. Beiz has an article in The Journal of Anatomy and 
Physiology on some effc<5ls of alcohol on warm blooded ani- 
mals. He states that the impression of heat felt after taking 
alcohol is only subjective and is not perceptible by the ther- 
mometer. Moderate doses cause lowering of the tempera- 
ture of the blood amounting to 3°. 4° or 5° Fahr. Alcohol 
diminishes the metamorphosis of tissue and subsequently de- 
creases the urea and the carbonic acid. The answer to the 
question whether alcohol is a food depends on circumstances. 
It is not required to sustain life under ordinary circumstan- 
ces, but is usfcful when through any cause, such as cold air 
or feverish excitement, an increase of our tissue metamorpho- 
sis arises. 



882 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

Lorain County Homoopatliio Uedical Society, 

The sixth annual meeting was held in the Mayor's office, in 
Elyria, on Thursday, Oct. 8th, 1874. Meeting called to order at 
10 o'clock, a. m., by the President, Dr. M. P. Hayward. 
Members present, Drs. M. P. Hayward, of Oberlin; O. F. 
Cushiug, C. F. Park, Mrs. U. L. His^gins, and G. F. Peckbam 
of Elyria; D. W. Starkey and Cath. Arndt, of North 
Amherst, and visiting member Dr. F. Bond, of Vermillion, 
Minutes of last meeting read and approved with the follow- 
ing corrections: Dr. Samuel Ackerson and S. Reamor should 
read of Oberlin instead of Elyria; omissions, Dr. Park report- 
ed in writing a case of hepatisation of left lung in a girl 
six years of age, cured by lycopodium. Dr. Wolcott thought 
lyco. acted better in troubles of right lung than left lung. 
Election of officers for the ensuing year resulted as follows: 
For President, Dr. M. P. Hayward; for Vice-President, Dr. 
U. L. Higgins; for Secretary and Treasurer, Dr. G. F. Peck- 
ham; for censors, Drs. Starkey, Park and Higgins. A vote be- 
ing taken on the proposed amendment to the Constitution, 
empowering the society to punish a member for immoral con- 
duct, was carried. Adjourned to meet at 1:30, p. m. 

Convened at 1:30, p. m. Mrs. Dr. Arndt presented a writ- 
ten report of a case of hysteria, rather peculiar in character, 
in a young lady twelve years of age. Dr Cushing presented 
a written report of a post mortem of a Mr. G. — hepatization 
of lower portion of lungs. Tubercles in different portions of 
the lungs, and a plugging of bronchial tubes with stone grit. 
Mr. G. had not worked in stone for eighteen years. Dr. 
Starkey presented a written report of the action of ergot in 
labor. Dr. Park presented a written report of a peculiar case 
of labor; the foetus hydrocephalous and still bom. Dr. Hay- 
ward presented a written report of alcohol as a remedial 
agent, he claimed it never admissible, under any circumstan- 
ces. A synopsis of the proceedings ordered forwarded to the 
Cincinnati Medical Advance for publication. Adjourned to 
meet in Oberlin in June, 1875. 

G. F» Pbckham, Secretary. 



Editor's Table. 883 

Dr. N. B. Wilson has removed his office from Detroit street 
to 184 Lorain street, Cleveland, West Side. 

Dr. H. E. Beebe, of Sidney, Ohio, was married to Miss 
Ophelia McDowell, Oct. 8th. 

Dr. A. C. Kecker, of Dayton, O., one of the Pulte boys, 
was married to Miss Bell Rensford, of Cincinnati, Oct., 21st. 

Dr. A. K. Frain has settled in Laporte, Ind., forming a co- 
partnership with Dr. C. S, Fahnestock. 

A MISUNDERSTANDING on the part of the Cincinnati post 
master led to the detention of the November number. This 
may have made our issue seem late, but our readers can be as- 
sured that we were as usual on time. 

Michigan Hom(eopathic College. — The next regular term 
of this college will commence, December 1st, 1874. "An- 
nouncements," or any information regarding the same may 
be had by addressing £. D. Burr, M. D., Lansing Michigan. 

Dr J. B. McSwANE, has removed from Burnt Prairie, to 
Olney, III., in remitting for the Advance, he says, "I have be- 
come so much attached to the Advance that I cannot well get 
along without it. It fills a space in medical literature that 
stood much in need of being filled." 

You KNOW we are going to have a Fair in Cincinnati. It 
will be for the benefit of our Free Dispensary. The inestim- 
able value of this growing Institution is attracting the atten- 
tion of the public. Its friends are determined it shall not 
lack support. The Fair commences December 7th. Will our 
friends lend us a hand? 

The San Francisco News Letter, evidently a very 
able journal, has opened a vigorous warfare on the quacks of 
that city. These gentlemen of doubtful reputation are boldly 
placarded in the pages of the News Letter, and are ordered **to 
step down and out." This is all right, only the editor assumes 
that a man is above suspicion if he has a diploma, and all 
wrong if ho lacks that important endorsement. Prima facie 
this is so — practically it often fails to work. A regular quack 
and a regular diploma are often seen in companny. A man 
without a diploma may be nevertheless an educated. \\i^%vcA.vEi^ 
though appearances are always against Yiim. ^o^^f^^*^ %\xQC«tM^ 
to the Nowa Letter, and may it wisely diacniniTiaXA ^\id. V^Eivck 
penhtcDtljr give battle to the base preteudeT«. 



SPECIAL TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS TO THE 

iseimati isM Idvanes. 

FOR 1875. 

:-o-: 

I — Sixteen months for $3.00. 
2 — Special rates to Medical Students. 

3 — ^To any (gew Subscriber who will send us $3.c» on or before 
January 15th, 1875, we will send the Advance for sixteen 
months, beginning January, 1875. 
4 — ^To any Medical Student, not a graduate before 1875, ^^ ^^^^ 
send the Advance one year for $2.00. This offer will remain 
good throughout the year. 
5 — Subscriptions may begin with any number. 
6— Twelve numbers, for $3 00 in advance. 

7 — One dollar may be saved, by subscribing for the Advance in 
connection with any medical journal (homoeopathic, allo- 
pathic, or eclectic,) or with any of the leading magazines or 
newspapers of the country, viz: Harper8\ Eclectic^ Scribners\ 
Am, Agriculturalist^ Independent^ Advance^ dbc, dbc, dtc. 
8 — A full Emerson Binder given to every cash subscriber paying 

within 30 days from the commencement of the volume. 
The Emerson Binder enables each subscriber to bind his journals 
permanently as fast as each number comes in. They are thus 
kept together and in tidy condition. 

The full Emerson Binder costs; 40 cts. 

The Library Binder " 20 cts. 

Orders received at the Advance office. 

The Advance seeks to occupy a high place in medical jour- 
nalism. Knowing that all science — of physics, of life, of thera- 
peutics — is a common fountain from which all truths are to be 
discovered and established, the Advance has been given a 
broader field to cultivate than is often undertaken by Medical 
Journals. It endeavors to be in the advance with the Modem 
Sciences. Its contributors may, and do, advocate that which 
appears to them to be truth, with boldness and with freedom. 

No one can hope to equal the demands of the profession, upon 
their thoughts and energies, without taking at least one scientific 
journal Let us hear from yovi. 



THE 








VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.— JANUARY, 1875. [NO. 9. 



'Subscriptions to the Advance should be sent to Dr. T. C. Bradford, P. O 
Drawer 1284, Cincinnati, Ohio. 13.00 a year, in advance. 

All business communications, relating to the publication or to advertising*, should be 
addressed to Dr. T. P. Wilson, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Mound Sts., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Scribner's Monthly and St Nicholas for 1875. The first 
for the old folks, and the second for the young folks, makes 
the household complete. Holding the front rank among the 
journals of the country, they possess unecjualcd advantages 
in supplying instruction and amusement for the home circle. 

If the Ohio Medical and Surgical Rejwrter and the 
United States Investigator will take our article on "Psychic 
Force in Therapeutics" and logically answer the points it 
distinctly affirms, they will show their smartness to a better 
advantage than by selecting and detaching certain sentences 
therefrom, and ridiculing them. Efforts of this latter sort 
are more amusing than argumentative or convincing. Apro- 
pos, a distinguished writer at the South^ referring to this, 
Jan- 1 985 



386 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

says : 'Tes doctor, since the forces of nature are correlative, 
«ommutable and indestructible, there is no telling how soon 
we may reach the unification of all the healing forces, now ap- 
par^ftt3y so numerous, and for one I am ready to welcome 
the day. WJben we can trace remedial influences back to 
their sources, we will find them wonderfully simplified ; but 
not in the form of a dozen tissiie remedies. That is a base 
imitation of science/' 

''Honorable Medicine" ! And so having worn thread 
bare the self-assumed title of "Regular" and through their 
manifold irregularities having demonstrated its absurd ap- 
plication to them, our dear Allopathic brethren have been 
obliged to coin a new term. Here it is. Honorable Med- 
icine ! Now, if they could only copy right it so as to mo- 
nopolize its use, what a patent of nobility they would have 
to be sure. It seems cruel to deprive them of such a nec- 
essary certificate of good character. But Dr. Thos. E. Enloe 
of Nashville, Tenn., has scotched the thing before it was 
fairly born. He spoils all the romance that might have 
clung to this newly created title. His little pamphlet de- 
molishes all their hopes to the name of "regular" or "hon- 
orable." And if not these, what then are they ? When 
the Medical Department of the University of Nashville un- 
dertook to educate Dr. Enloe they builded better than they 
knew. In fact the faculty of that institution now find that 
in more instances than this they have been entertaining an- 
geLs unawares. Several of their alumni have gone boldly 
over to the enemy. Dr. Enloe was not a Homoeopath ed- 
ucated in an Allopathic school, but a genuine case of con- 
version. Hence, he may, with honor, claim to have taken 
advanced steps in medicine unknown to his teachers. A 
Homoeopathic student getting his education in an Allopathic 
college would only disgrace himself in railing at his Alma 
Mater. His mouth is pretty effectually sealed. And he 
never exhibits much enthusiasm over Homoeopathy. But 



McRtorial 887 

the man ^lie goes through the follies of such teaching and 
then gets his eyes open^ generally strikes out with all the 
boldness and zest shown by Dr. Enloe. 



-•^»- 



Occasioual Lscttires. — A Question as to Progress. 

Gentlemen .•—There are many well informed persons who 
doubt if the world be progressing or retrograding. And 
notwithstanding we loudly boast of our progress, there are 
many facts in history which show that in many things we 
have thus far failed to reach the high point of development 
attained by the ancients. If we go to the cradle of civilization 
'—the valley of the Nile— ^we find that not the mighty pyr- 
amids alon^, but a multitude of other facts attest the glory 
of a nation whose light gone out, long lefl the world in 
Egyptian darkness. You have doubtless heard of "the lost 
arts." But when Egypt perished something more than the 
arts were lost. We talk of "the Modern Sciences." We 
have in them scarcely reached what was quite familiar to 
the Egyptian scholar. As there was science in Egypt, so 
subsequently there was philosophy in Greece. And to-day 
our scholars go to this exhaustlcss fountain head for instruc- 
tion. Will the wise men whose names have made Greece 
immortal — will their wisdom be ever eclipsed ? Now as a 
citizen of the American republic, I am justly proud of my 
country. I know her power, and I share in the pride of 
her glory as she spans this great continent and stretches out 
from sea to sea. But when I look at the people and take 
some measure of their wisdom, when I look at the young 
men and women who are crowding to take the reins of gov- 



388 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

eminent and to rule society, who are in fact to make the 
future history of this nation, I am staggered at the prospect. 
Who among th«m is to become world renowned ? And if 
any, will it be by sheer accident or will they climb to emi- 
nence through genuine merit ? Must we still go back to 
the past for our true representative men and women in the 
higher walks of science and philosophy ? If we, as Amer- 
icans, fail of future advancement, it will be because we are, 
First, SuperfidaL How to make the most money in the 
shortest time is the fundamental law of our national exist- 
ence. "Candidates for the medical profession feel its pressure. 
They seek to skim the science, but they miss the cream, and 
with the most rudimentary knowledge they enter upon their 
duties and remain forever satisfied if they can get business 
and make money. If one ventures to come before them 
with an investigation into the deeper meaning of things ; 
to give them a taste of logic or philosophy, or to take a 
wider view of the relations of the universe, he is taunted 
with being "visionary, theoretical, non-practical." The 
value of anything not seen in dollars and cents has to them 
no value. Why should they cultivate science and philosophy? 
There is no money in them. Perhaps our medical schools 
are not more cursed with this tendency to superficiality than 
other schools, but I fear they are, and I do not see after 
nearly a score of years of intimate acquaintance with medi- 
cal classes any improvement in the thoroughness and breadth 
of information students arc seeking to obtain. Exceptionally 
we find students who find no height too high or depth too 
deep where they may not go searching for ultimate causes 
and effects. Possibly our own school may yet develop men 
who, in natural endowments and varied acquirements, may 
yet shed a lasting lustre on the profession of medicine, and 
redeem it from the disgrace of a mere commercial art. But 
our future advancement is imperilled by our 



Editorial. 880 

Ward of Toleration, We are a nation having fixed opin- 
ions. Most of these opinions we have inherited. They come 
to us as heirlooms from our parents and grand parents. And 
the longer the line of descent the more sacredly we cherish, 
protect and defend them. The anciente grew in wisdom 
because the wise men met for converse in the gates of the 
city, and with their eager students walked amid the shades 
of classic groves while engaged in controversy. But our 
American with his opinions crystalized does not take kindly 
to opposition. He wraps himself in the mantel of self-com- 
placency and is satisfied that nothing can be better than 
what he now possesses. Medical men are especially noted 
for their want of toleration. This is often the fiiult of their 
education. Their Alma Haters foster in them a spirit of 
bigotry. But independently of this, most young men start 
out with certain well defined ideas ; and they desire only 
to be confirmed in their opinion. You break«to them never 
so gently a new truth, a new system of philosophy and if it 
overturns their preconceived notions, it is not for a moment 
to be tolerated. There are pleasing exceptions to this rule, 
but so universally are we intolerant, that we may well won- 
der if after all the world of thought does indeed progress * 
rather than recede. 

" Has the Pulte Medical College closed up ?" So writes 
an anxious Michigan subscriber. Of course it has. Hav- 
ing a much larger class than ever before, having over one 
hundred and twenty-five clinics already presented and lec- 
tured upon, besides two hours of clinics daily at the City 
Hospital and, in all, seven lectures a day, it has no earthly 
reason for its continuance. If it still Uvea it must take the 
responsibility. 



8 00 Cineinnati Medical Advance. 



ThO Philosophy of Onre. Aa Introdudlory Ledlurc by Wim 
H. Holcombey M. D. 

Therapeutics, or the art oi cure, is the chief aim of medi- 
cal science. To its development and perfe6tion all the labors 
and studies of the profession conspire. The questions are 
exceedingly complex and intricate. To cure disease, you 
must understand the human system in general and the indi- 
vidual patient before you in particular ; you must understand 
diseases in general and the special form of the peculiar dis- 
ease for which you are to prescribe ; you must understand 
remedies in general, and you must be able to specialize and to 
individualize before you select the one right remedy, for tke 
one case under your consideration. To do all this scientifi- 
cally, surely and promptly is the business and the glory of 
the physician. 

How are diseases cured? In the first place, how. or by 
what process*have we acquired any knowledge of the appli- 
cation of remedies to the cure of disease? 

Our knowledge has been acquired in two ways : 
Firstly — By experimenting upon the sick, generally accord- 
ing to some preconceived theory of the disease, aiming to op- 
pose or countera<5t it, and with the expe6lation that similar 
results would always be obtained in similar cases with the 
same remedies. The Allopathic healing art is the accumulated 
experience of ages according to this method. 

Secondl}' — By experimenting on the healthy system and by 
observing the effects of accidental poisonings in men and ani- 
mals, so as to learn the disease-producing power of drugs, in 
order to apply them to similar naturally-occurring morbid 
states. This is the Homoeopathic method. 

The idea, or principle, or law of cure which chiefly dom- 
inates in the Allopathic school has been thus formulated: 

" Contraria contrariis curantur,^'* 
The corresponding antithetical law of the Homoeopathic 
school is thus expressed : 

** JSimilia similibua curantur.^^ 



Dr. JBJolcombe^a Addru$. 391 

It strikes us forcibly that statements so entirely opposite 
can not be both true, and yet Hippocrates, the father of medi- 
cine, affirmed, 400 years before Christ, that diseases could be 
cured upon either principle. 

His words are remarkable. 

"A patient is restored to health by taking the remedies 
which produce a similar disease." 

"That which produces strangury artificially will cure it 
when it occurs spontaneously." 

"^ Cough is produced and cured by the same things." 

" Fever is extinguished by that which produces it and vice 



versa." 



" Thus health may be restored by two'contrary methods, 
and one may prescribe according to the law of contraries or 
according to the law of similars, determined by the nature 
and origin of the malady." 

These Homceopathic ideas of Hippocrates were not the in- 
vention of his imagination. They must have been founded 
on fa<5ts, on observations and experiments enough to have 
made them the common property of the profession of his 
times. He does not oiTer to explain or defend them. He 
takes it for granted that they were familiar to his readers. 
How interesting it would be to us to penetrate the darkness 
of that ancient time, and to see how and when some prime- 
val Hahnemann extorted from nature her most wonderful 
secret of cure. ^ 

Why is it that this great scientific law of cure, so early dis- 
covered, so clearly taught, laid for more than 2,000 years 

unobserved, unauthenticated, unutilized and unknown? — al- 
though endorsed by so great an authority as the father of 

medicine? 

The sagacious Hippocrates himself has answered the ques- 
tion — "The law ^contraria contrariis curantur^'' is the most 
conformable to nature" — by which he means, conformable to 
the experience of the senses, or to the common sense of man 
kind. 

How natural and easy it is to think that disease is cured b 
its opposites; that too great heat is relieved by cold, too great 



392 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

cold by heat, excess by depletion, weakness by stimulation, 
wakefulness by sleep, fatigue by repose, etc. 

And how unnatural and even absurd it seems at first sight, 
that what produces a disease will cure it. Common sense 
would say, that it must aggravate it Common sense, or the 
report of the senses uncorrected by the rational faculty, would 
say the Homoeopathic law implied, that poisoning by arsenic 
would be, cured by a little more arsenic, and that sin would be 
eradicated by committing a little more sin. 

Behold, in a nut shell, the secret of the powerful hold which 
Allopathy haB exerted over the human mind, and of the diffi- 
culty which Homoeopathy has experienced and still exper- 
iences in ascending the throne of science to which she is the 
rightful heir! 

In face of the evidence of the senses, in face of the super- 
ficial reasonings of minds unemancipated from the thral- 
dom of ancient error, 1 affirm that the law of contraries is 
fallacious, and that the law of similars is profoundly true. 

Analyze the matter thoroughly and see what is the bans of 
the belief of the law of contraries. It is this: that in the 
physical world a force or current, or momentum of any 
kind can only be neutralized or overcome by an opposite force 
of equal or greater intensity. And this law, true of the phya* 
teal world and of material things, has been illogically trans- 
lated or elevated into the sphere of vitality, into the domain 
^of animal and spiritual life, which is governed by laws entirely 
different. 

This prime fallacy, that a law which prevails in the physi- 
cial or inorganic realm of nature, must also prevail with more 
or less modification in the different and more complex phe- 
nomena of organic life, is the starting-point of all the numer- 
ous Allopathic theories of disease and its cure. The fountain 
is impure and the streams are vitiated. The premise is false 
and the conclusions are unreliable. 

Opposites are cured by opposites! Opposites to what? 
To the causes of the disease? What is the opposite to a cold 
draft of air, to a drizzling rain, to the loss of a night's rest, to 
an indigestible dinner? What is the opposite of a malarial 



Dr. HolcomMa Address. 893 

poison, of the syphilitic virus, of a scrofulous taint? We can 
conceive of these causes as existing or not existing, we can 
even conceive of them in the relation of more or less^ but what 
imagination can depidl their oppositesf 

If we are to produce a' state opposite to the disease, we 
would ask, what is the opposite of a fever, of a dysentery, of 
a tubercle? They have no opposites, but only degrees of 
manifestation. Heat is not the opposite of cold, nor light of 
darkness. Cold and heat, light and darkness are relative 
terms, implying more or less even to comparative nega- 
tion, but never opposition. The coldest substance of nature 
has still heat of its own, and a substance, hot from one stand- 
point, is cold from another. We really apply heat to a frozen 
limb when we rub it with snow. 

If drugs applied on the Allopathic principle do not cure 
by producing opposite conditions to those of the disease, how 
is their a<5tion to be explained? They do not, can not diredlly 
produce healthy or physiological symptoms, but they always 
produce morbid states which are curative in proportion to 
their resemblance to the existing disease. No medicine pro- 
duces health. Every medicine produces a morbid state. It 
never can be a question of opposition, but only one of more 
or less likeness or resemblance. The Allopathic medication 
produces a widely different but not an opposite disease — the 
Homoeopathic a disease resembling the natural one as closely 
as possible. The Homoeopathic principle lies somewhere at 
the bottom of all therapeutics. 

The Allopathic philosophy can not stand the test of either 
reason or science. It is founded entirely on the fallacious 
evidence of the senses and the illogical introdu<5tion of that 
evidence into higher and wholly different spheres. Its strong- 
est argument with the populace is that it seems to be true. 
The sun seems to rise in the east and to set in the west; the 
earth seems to be a flat surface bounded by the horizon; the 
sky seems to be a blue dome or vault bending down and meet- 
ing the earth; but all these appearances, so overwhelming to 
the senses of a child or a savage, are explained and corre<5ted 
by the superior observing and rational faculties of civilized 



894 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

man. So will it be with the delusions upon which Allopathy 
is founded. They will fade away before the light of intelli- 
gent construction of the laws of nature, until men shall won- 
der how they were ever entertained. 

On the other hand this Homoeopathic law " similia simili' 
5ti^," seems at first sight strange and unintelligible. But so 
does that grammatical axiom, when we first hear it, " two 
negatives make a positive." So does the mathematical para- 
dox, that " minus multiplied by minus makes plus." So does 
the scientific formula, that "like eledlricities repel each other,** 
or the fadl in natural philosophy, that two waves of light 
may produce darkness and two waves of sound may pro- 
duce silence. In the moral world how strange it is at first 
that the law of kindness is far more powerful than our fa- 
vorite law of force; and that when God revealed himself to 
Moses, He was not in the whirlwind or the fire, but in the 
"still small voice." All these things are as strange as Homoe- 
opathy. 

The Homoeopathic law will grow less and less paradoxical 
as it becomes familiar to mankind. It is a genuine law of na- 
ture, vast in its range, and so fruitful in result that its applica- 
tion in the right diredlion has already constructed a new ma- 
teria medica and changed the whole face of medical pra6tice. 
It is not our task in this j)lace to prove its existence and its 
truth, but to review what has been done to explain its opera- 
tion. 

How do Homoeopathic medicines a6l? Let us premise that 
Homoeopathic medicines will continue to cure whether we un- 
derstand the rationale or not. The discovery of a truth very 
often precedes the explanation of it. The needle pointed to 
the pole, and the mariner used it as a sure guide upon the 
high seas hundreds of years before our discoveries in terres- 
trial magnetism gave a satisfactory solution of the strange 
phenomenon. So it may be with Homoeopathy. We may not 
yet be able to satisfy the scientific mind as to how we cure, 
but our guiding law to the cure remains fixed and clear. 

We can not repress the instinCtive cravings of the soul for 
information about the causes of things, the plan of the uni- 



jDt. Soleambe^s Addr^n, 895 

, verse, the operation of laws, and the mysteries of life. How? 
when? where? why? are the little queries continually pro- 
pounded by our children, and they will not be satisfied with- 
out some kind of an answer. And we, who are but children 
of a larger growth, put the same interrogations day after day 
to man, to nature and to God. Sometimes the powers we 
question are as silent as the stars, giving no answer; some- 
times our hearts are rejoiced by a partial glimpse or an im- 
perfedl explanation. 

Hahnemann's own theory of the cure was this: 

"A weaker dynamic affec^lion is permanently extinguished 
in the living organism by a stronger one, if the latter (whilst 
differing in kind) is similar to the former in its manifesta- 
tions." 

This theory is untenable and has long been abandoned. 
There is no proof that the medicinal disease is stronger than 
the natural disease, especially when the latter is given in the 
Homoeopathic dose, and the arguments adduced by Hahne- 
mann were all unsatisfactory. 

Trousseau and Pidoux, Allopathic writers, explained the ac- 
tion of Homoeopathic medicines on the principle of substitu- 
tion, the artificial disease being supposed to take the place of 
the natural disease. They do not however state why or how 
one gives way to the other, and the theory is simply the old 
one of Hahnemann. With Hahnemann the drug-disease 
overpowers the morbid state; with the French gentlemen it 
is substituted for it. 

Hufeland and others taught that Homoeopathic medicines 
excite the reactive powers of nature against the existing dis- 
ease. The medicine is supposed in reality to increase the dis- 
ease, but in that very a<5t it rouses the reactive forces of na- 
ture more and more against it. 

Many others contend that all the symptoms of disease are 
signs of nature's effort to throw off the interior morbid influ- 
ence; that nature is frequently incompetent to the task, and 
that Homoeopathic drugs a<5ling in the same line with nature's 
efforts, facilitate and hasten her cure. 



396 CindnncUi Medical Advance^ 

Attomyr even contends that diseases are analogous to , 
plants, springing from seed or by equivocal generation, and 
have their period of growth, flowering, fru<5tification, decay 
and death; and that our remedies are food for this process, 
stimulating the rapid growth and hastening the death of the 
morbid influence. He originated the paradox that "the cure 
of disease depends upon the promotion or continuation of 
diseases." 

I refer you to Dudgeon's Lectures on Homoeopathy for an 
account of these and several other curious and transcendental 
Germ^ theories of the Homoeopathic cure. And if you ever 
study the works of Emanuel Swedenborg, and understand 
his philosophy of the union of the spiritual and natural 
worlds, you will catch a glimpse of a far more wonderful the- 
ory of Homoeopathy than any which has ever yet been pre- 
sented. 

I confess that I have been always dissatisfied with these 
vague and almost unintelligible speculations, and have longed 
for some purely material or even mechanical solution of the 
question. I distrust metaphysics; I revere science. I think 
our hope for the future elucidation of our cures depends upon 
our increasing knowledge of two great orders of physiologi- 
cal fa<5ls, viz: the electro-chemical phenomena of nutrition, 
and the undulatory movements of the nerve-force. 

I am convinced that we shall never get any satisfadlory 
theory of disease or its cure, so long as we look for it in the 
great complex organs and tissues; so long as we think of 
medicines as acting on the liver, or the skin, or the heart, or 
the brain. We must go deeper than that. We must pass 
from the periphery to the center, from the compound to the 
unit, from the gross and crude to the microscopic, from the 
various secretions to the electro-chemical a6tion which under- 
lies all secretion, from the solids and fluids of the body to the 
ethereal sphere of the nerve-force which from its interior 
throne dominates over everything beneath and around it 

All the grand movements of vitality are transadled in the 
ultimate cell or organic molecule, invisible to the eye, and be- 



Dr. Holcombe's Addras. 39 

yond the reach of chemical analysis. The chemical nature 
of the cell and its nucleus, and their chemical reactions with 
the adjacent blood brought to them through the minutest cap- 
illaries, determine all the vital manifestations at that point, 
determine the secretions, the excretions, the motions, the sen- 
sibilities, the health or the disease of the individual. 

Disease is perverted nutrition. It begins always in the ul- 
timate cell or organic molecule. An infinitesimal change in 
its chemical constitution, an atom more or less of oxygen or 
carbon may be a departure from the normal type, involving 
by successive degrees a vast train of organic disturbances. 
The root and fountain-head of all the morbid symptoms in 
the body is to be found in the infinitesimal eleftro-chemical 
rcadlions of the ultimate cell or organic molecule with the 
blood. I say eleftro-chemical, for all chemical changes are 
accompanied by, and frequently dependent on, simultaneous 
changes of heat and eledlricity. The eledlrical condition and 
the chemical condition are inextricably associated and inter- 
dependent. 

Now whatever this ele<ftro-chemical state of perverted nu- 
trition may be, which constitutes disease, we are certain that 
in drugs chosen on the Homoeopathic principle, we have the 
means of producing similar ele<5tro-chemical states in precise- 
ly the same parts. What must be the effedk of a drug applied 
under such circumstances? The only guide we have at pres- 
ent is the physical law that similar ele<$lricities repel each 
other. How are they to repel each, other in this case? The 
organic molecule and the medicinal molecule do not fly apart 
'and recede from each other, but the ele<$lro- chemical action 
going on in the molecule is suspended or changed to its op- 
posite — or as the philosophers say, the poles are reversed — 
and so a disease is cured by infinitesimals on the Homoe- 
pathic principle. 

This theory has been slowly elaborating from the time of 
Hahnemann to that of Grauvogl, and I am sure that succeed- 
ing discoveries in the higher departments of physiology and 
physics will throw a more perfeA light upon what is still 
vague and obscure in the brilliant and beautiful speculation. 



898 Cincfimcvtft Medical Advanm.] 

Closely allied to this elei^ro-chemical theory and partly dc* 
pendent upon it, is the undulatory theory of cure — first pro- 
pounded by myself in 1852 in a little book entitled "The Sci* 
entific Basis of Homoeopathy," and published in this city. I 
will give you an outline of its contents: 

The grey globules in the brain, spinal cord and sympathetic 
system are the generators of nerve-force. It is generated by 
the ele<5lro- chemical nutritive reactions going on between th« 
arterial blood and the nerve-cell. The nerve fluid or aura is 
conducted down the afferent tubes to all parts of the body 
and returns by the efTerent tubes to the nerve centers. 

I compare the nerve force to the great solar forces of na- 
ture, heat, light and eledtricity. I extend to that force the 
undulatory theories so successfully appHed to the physical 
forces. The nerve fluid moves through its medium with ex- 
ceeding velocity and in waves of infinitesimal minuteness. 
It governs all the sensations, motions, secretions, etc., and its 
own charader as to rate, form, peculiarities and eifei^ls is de- 
termined by the eledtro- chemical nutritive changes produced 
in the generating nerve-cells by the blood. 

Disease is an abnormal undulation, a motion of the nerve 
fluid deviating from the normal type, ' This abnormal wave- 
movement or undulation of the wave-fluid is the prime cause 
of all the morbid phenomena which make up our symptom- 
atology. Our drugs produce similar peripheral phenomena, 
and it may be inferred from that fact that they disturb the 
nerve centers in a similar manner, and produce similar nerve 
undulations. 

Now, similar but not identical undulations of light produce 
darkness; similar undulations of air produce silence instead 
of sound; similar undulations in water antagonize each other 
and produce rest — and as heat, ele6tricity and actinism, (or 
the chemical force of the sun) are interchangeable powers, 
and various forms of but one great solar force, it is more than 
probable that the same laws of wave interference apply to 
them all. 

The a<5lion of Homoeopathic medicines is npw clear. Give a 
medicine which produces symptoms in all the or^ns and tii- 



i)r. Holcombt^z Addrets. 809 

suessimiiar to those of the disease existing, and its minute atoms 
are carried in the blood to the microscopic gray nerve-cellS) 
where by their cle<Sro-chemical adlion they produce a simi- 
lar nerve unduladon, which antagonizes, neutralizes or arrests 
the abnormal one already in force. Thus a profuse secretion 
of bile, a pain in the heart, a cough, a headache, a skin dis- 
ease, anything, everything, can be promptly cured by reme- 
dies which may never go to the apparent seat of the disease, 
but which strike at the very root and center and starting 
point of the morbid movement. The nearer to the nerve 
center the smaller the dose which will be requisite to produce 
a given result. A nickel, invisible at a little distance, held 
close to the eye will hide the sun. 

When this theory was first promulgated, although amply ^ 
sustained by fadl and argument, it was pronounced by the 
Homoeopathic press to be too far up in the cloud-land of hy- 
pothesis to receive any serious attention. The Allopathic 
press, adting upon its adopted strategy of silence, gave it no 
notice whatever. One Allopathic professor indeed stole a 
dozen pages of it and published it in the American Journal 
of Medical Sciences as an original contribution to the phys- 
iology of the nervous system. Many developments ^nce 
that time; in physiology, physics, and microscopy tend to ex- 
plain and confirm my theory. It will come up again for 
hearing. I lay my little gift on the altar of science and leave 
the vepdi(5l to future times. Such is a brief resume of what 
has been offered to explain the Homoeopathic cure. We con- 
cede that it is insufficient and unsatisfadlory. It is a begin - 
ning but nothing more. We wait additional light. It will 
come. In relation to this and to many other mysterious 
things, nature, our good and wise mother, secretive and reti- 
cent, seems to look coldly upon us at present and to say to us, 
as Christ said to his disciples, " I have many things to tell you 
but you can not hear them now." 

The formula " similia similibus curantur,^^ is the only one, 
which, by its vast range of application and by the multipli- 
city of its cures has attained the height and dignity of law. 
Yet while a great deal of Allopathic pradice is curative by 



400 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

the leaven of Homoeopathy which it contains, it is undoubted- 
ly true that there are methods or processes by which nature 
is aided and cures effedled, which are not fairly explicable by 
our philosophy. 

Thus, it is always proper, whenever we can, to remove the 
causes of disease when they are still a<5ling upon the body. 
To extract a carious tooth for neuralgia, to give an emetic to 
rid the stomach of an indigestible burden, and to destroy and 
expel worms are examples of cures of this class. 

Again, it is sometimes necessary to use mechanical and 
chemical measures in the course of our treatment, and these 
are to be determined and used according to the laws of na- ' 
tural philosophy and chemistry. 

It is sometimes requisite to give remedies, such as iron and 
lime, which are natural constituents of the human body and 
which may be deficient on account of disease. 

It may sometimes become imperatively necessary to restore 
the physiological equilibrium of the system, and in such cases, 
a diuretic, a tonic, or a purgative may be of decided value. 

It sometimes is a mercy and a duty to relieve pain by ano- 
dynes, when it is excessive and uncontrollable. 

There are many remedies unclassifiable either as "5»7ni7/a" 
or " contraria^'^ which are known by empirical experience 
as serviceable in certain cases. 

Lastly, when we look at eledlricity and galvanism, at Hy- 
dropathy, at Kinesipathy, or the movement cure, at animal 
and terrestrial magnetism, or at the great mineral springs of 
nature, we see how much there is for us to study and to use 
outside of pure Homoeopathy. 

Homoeopathy is the key-stone of the arch, the crowning 
glory of medical science, but Homoeopathy is not all. Let us 
be physicians indeed. Let us be healers of the sick. Let us 
learn of the greatest and the least. Let our eyes and ears be 
open to all sides. Let us be teacliable in spirit. For, after all, 
however wise we become, we shall be, as Sir Isaac Newton 
safd of himself, like little children playing with shells upon 
the shore, while the great ocean of truth lies undiscovered be- 
fore us. 



Sttrgtry. 



])ifferential Diagnods of STphiU^^ From 

" Surgical Diseases of Genito-Urinary Organs with Syphi- 
lis." By Van Buren and Keycs, 



Syphilitic Chancre. Always 
a constitutional disease. 

Caused by sexual intercourse 
with a patient suffering from 
syphilitic chancre or some sec- 
ondary lesion of or near the 
genital organs, vaccination, 
syphilitic blood, accidental or 
designed inoculation of any ve- 
hicle containing the syphilitic 
virus, upon an abrasion of any 
portion of the tegumentary 
expansion. 

Situated usually upon or near 
the genitals, not infrequently 
upon the hands, head or nipple 

Incubation constant, not less 
than ten days, usually three 
weeks. 



Chancroid, always a local 
disease. 

Caused by sexual intercourse 
with a patient suffering from 
chancroid on or near the geni- 
tals, accidental or designed in- 
oculation with the secretion of 
a chancroid or that of a viru- 
lent bubo. 



Situated almost exclusively 
on or around the genitals. 



Begins as an erosion or a 
papule and remains an erosion 
or ulcerates. 

Usually unique or simultan- 
eously multiple; never multi- 
ple by successive auto-inocula- 
tion; never confluent. 
401 



Incubation, none after ab- 
sorption of the poison. Ulcer 
usually formed on the second 
or third day, very rarely later 
than the seventh day. 

Begins as a pustule or ulcer 
and invariably remains as an 
ulcer. 

Usually multiple, both si- 
multaneously and by succes- 
sive auto-inoculation often con- 
fluent. 

Jan-2 



402 



CindnncUi Medical Advance. 



Shape, round, oval or sym- 
metrically irregular. 



Lesion is habitually flat, 
capped by erosion or superfi- 
cial ulceration or scooped out, 
or deep funnel shaped ulcer 
with sloping edges. Some- 
times the papule is dry and 

scaly. 

Edges sloping and adher- 
ent, sometimes prominently 
elevated. 

Bottom smooth, shining. 



Shape, round, oval or un- 
symmetrically irregular, with 
border described by segments 
of larger circles. 

Always a true ulcer, exca- 
vated, hollowed out. 



Color, somewhat darkish 
ried, gray or black, lesion some- 
' tiaies livid and scaly, occasion- 
ally scabbed. 

Secretion, slight, sero-san- 
guinolent, unless irritation pro- 
vokes inflammation and a sup- 
ply of pus^ 

Not found on patients who 
have had syphilis previously. 

Not auto-inoculable without 
great difficulty, unless irritated 
and secreting thick pus. 

Slowly progressive, cicatri- 
zation slow. 

Rarely painful. 

Induration: Constant, parch- 
ment-like, and very faint, oi 
cartilaginous and extensive, 
terminating abruptly, not sha- 
ding off* into the parts around, 



Edges fiharply cut, abrupt, 
often undermined. 

Bottom unevea, warty, ir- 
regular, without luster. 

Color, yellow, tawny, false- 
membraneous looking, some- 
times bright. 

Secretion, abundant and pu- 
rulent. 



Found indifferently upon 
all. 

Readily auto-inoculable, pro- 
ducing chara(5teri8tic ulcer by 
the third day. 

Rapidly progressive, cicatri- 
zation slow. 

Often painful. 

Induration: Absent in typi- 
cal cases. An induration may 
be caused by irritants or in- 
flammation. It is boggy, not 
elastic, sensitive to pressure, 
almost insensitive to pressure J shades off* into surrounding 



Surgery. 



403 



movable upon parts beneath 
the skin and not adherent to 
the latter. Induration may dis- 
appear in a few days, usually 
outlasts the sore, and may re 
main for years in the cicatrix. 

Not transmissible. 

Phagadena^ may occur rare- 

Syphilitic bubo constant. 



Prognosis, for local conse- 
quences, good, but syphilis 
follows. 

Local treatment but slightly 
effective. 



tissues, is adherent to parts 
around, disappears promptly 
on healing of the sore, or 
sooner. 



Transmissible with difficulty 

Phagadena, much more 
common. 

Bubo: In about two-thirds 
of the cases the glands are not 
affected; in the other third, 
inflammatory or virulent bubo 
occurs. 

Prognosis, for local conse- 
quences more serious, no after 
effects. 

Local treatment curative. 



As we have buboes folio wing chancroid in one case out of 
three, the authors present a number of points of agreement 
and diflerence between those following chancre and chan- 
croid, bdt we lack space for them. 



• • 



A2l806tllOtlliC6» By Geo. B. Harriman, D. D. S., M. D., Boston. 

The subject of aneestheBia now claiming the attention of 
the reader is replete with interest to every intelligent mind. 
The human body has always been subject to injury, caused 
either by accident or disease. In numerous cases, the methods 
of repair and relief have been attended by the most intense 
suffering, without any apparent means for its mitigation. 



404 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

The knife has cut tumors from the body, bone» have been 
sawn apart, limbs have been amputated, arteries and nerves 
dissected, teeth extracted, and all of the endless varietj of 
surgical operations performed without any mode of benumb- 
ing the susceptibility to pain be known or attempted. 

The anguish and suffering endured from surgical and den- 
tal operations in former times, when contemplated by a 
thoughtful mind, causes an involuntary shudder, which, 
however, quickly passes away before the light of the dis- 
coveries of the present day, and ho remembers that the same 
operations are now daily performed without the slightest 
degree of pain being felt by the patient. 

No wonder, therefore, that at the first achievements of 
ansBSthetics, the hearts of philanthropists beat with joy, and 
dental and other surgeons were greatly rejoiced. No won- 
der, when, after repeated experiments, it became a settled fact 
that pain was entirely unknown to the subject of capital 
operations, that Oliver Wendel Holmes, M. D., a favorite (as 
all will attest), of science and the muses, declared : " The 
knife is searching for disease, the pulleys are dragging back 
dislocated limbs — nature, herself, is working out the primal 
curse which doomed the tenderest of her creatures to the 
sharpest trials ; but the fierce extremity of suffering has been 
steeped in the waters of forgetfulness, and the deepest fur- 
row in the knotted brow of agony has been smoothed for- 
ever." No marvel, that the late John C. Warren, M. D., of 
Boston, a leading surgeon, who had long witnessed the terri- 
^^ suffering of his numerous patients while enduring surgi- 
and sffl^tions, when he was assured of the power of anaestho- 
Slowly'^®^ • " Who could have imagined that drawing 
zation slow, the delicate skin of the face might produce a 
Rarely painfuixed delight I That the turning and twist- 
Induration: Coi. 1^ the most sensitive bladder might be 
ment-like, and vefa^itiful dream." 

cartilaginous and e^ and surgeon of the days when patients 
terminating abruptly, r'^ reluctant step to the chair, might 
ding off into the parts a^*^ t^® profession can now perform 
almost insensitive to prf^^ions, whilst they, who are being 



Surgery. 405 

racked and torn, are entirely insensible.'' Bat so it is ! All 
honor to the great Creator who has given to us the great 
blessing, antesthetics. By the term, anaesthetic, is understood 
a substance the effect of which is to cause a partial or entire 
suspension of nervous power. Thereby, benumbing the 
sense of feeling or producing insensibility. To produce 
ansesthesia or effect this insusceptibility to pain, had long 
been the desideratum of surgical operators and their patients. 
Abovt two hundred years ago, a Frenchman named Papin, 
assured himself by repeated experiments that consciousness 
of pain, during any surgical operation, might be destroyed 
by the use of an anaesthetic, similar to what is denominated 
chloroform. But his associates and the literati of the medi- 
cal profession pronounced his ideas as chimerical and im- 
practicable, and he, therefore, for want of encouragement, 
abandoned the enterprise. 

Attempts had been made to benumb the nerves of sensa- 
tion, previous to the time of Papin, but, with the exception 
of certain traditions as regards the use in the East of the 
Mandrake, {Mdndragora) and of the Hashish, ( Cannabis sali- 
va) made from Indian Hemp, (^Indica) the tops and leaves 
of which are boiled in butter and water, until the water is 
evaporated and the remaining substance, after straining and 
being ready for use, we have no evidence that ansesthetic in- 
halations were ever known or ever practiced in surgery un- 
til within a few years. 

In 1795, Dr. R. Eichard Pearsons recommended the inha- 
lation of Sulphuric Ether as a remedy for Asthma and 
other diseases, and an instrument for its administration was 
accordingly invented by Dr. Nystem, in 1816. 

In 1800, in his researches respecting Nitrous Oxide Gas, 
Sir Humphrey Davy remarked, " Aft Nitrous Oxide in its 
extensive operation, seems capable of destroying physical 
pain, it will probably be used with advantage in surgical 
operations in which no great effusion of blood takes place.'* 

Aneosthesia is of two kinds, viz : general and local, general 
IB when the subject operated upon is rendered entirely un- 



/ 



400 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

conscious ; local, when some particular portion of the bodj 
tB made insensible to feeling. 

Local anaesthesia has been attempted by various methods, 
fiuch as long continued pressure on the trunk leading to the 
parts upon which the operation is to be performed, the ap- 
plication of various gases, (especially Chloroform and Sul- 
phuric ether), by a true freezing process, which may be per- 
formed by the application of pounded ice and salt, contained 
in a sack of linen or membrane and by either spray. These 
attempts have not generally been satisfactory, as it has been 
found impossible to reduce the temperature of the parts to 
fiuch a low degree as to prevent pain. 

As has been already stated, a substance which would pro- 
duce anesthesia had long been desired, yet the discovery and 
Appliance ot the great allayer of pain was reserved to mod- 
ern times. I have said that, for mitigating the pain attend- 
ing ordinary diseases. Sulphuric ether had more or less 
been administered for three-quarters of a century, but the 
putting of an individual into a state of unconsciousness, or 
transporting him to the land of beautiful dreams, was not 
done until the year 1846. 

This wonderful achievement was accomplished in Boston, 
by Dr. W. T. G. Morton, whose mind had long been exer- 
cised in ascertaining and determining the most expedient 
method whereby his patients might not know how or when 
their aching or decayed teeth lost their fast hold on the 
mouth and were hurled where they could neither torment 
or offend. 

Dr. Morton claimed to be the discoverer of the property 
which ether posses^s of causing insensibility to pain when 
administered to those undergoing surgical operations. 

This claim was contested by Dr. Charles T. Jackson and 
by Dr. Horace Wells, of Hartford, Conn., the latter being a 
dentist. The controversy was protracted and bitter, but one 
thing is certain, the discovery was made by one of the trio. 
Two of the three were dentists and thus, if our profession has 
accomplished nothing more for the benefit mankind, it will 



Surgery. 407 

always occupy a high and renowned position amongst the 
other professions, becaose of its connection with this 
great discovery. 

The discovery of Chloroform was made simultaneously 
in the year 1831, by Samuel Gurther of Sackett*s Harbor, 
N.Y., M. Somberani, of Prance, and Prof. Liebere of Germany. 

The discovery of the aneesthetic property of Nitrous Oxide 
Gas was made in 1844, by Dr. Horace Wells, of Hartford, a 
dentist, while witnessing a public exhibition of its exhilara- 
ting effects. Not being sufficiently familiar with its nature^ 
he did not succeed in his efforts to introduce it for the alle- 
viation of pain. Therefore, it was soon forgotten and very 
little more was heard of it until 1863, when the matter was 
again investigated and successful experiments made which 
resulted in its introduction as an ansssthetic which has at- 
tained the reputation of being the safest of any now in use. 

This gas is generated for ansBSthetic purposes from the 
nitrate of ammonia by the application of sufficient heat 
to volatilize it. Care should be taken, however, not to apply 
the heat in excess, for then will be found Nitric Oxide, which 
gas is a poison. Too great heat would also force the gas 
through the wash bottles at such a rate of speed as to pre- 
vent the complete absorption of the impurities it contains. 

Great care should be exercised in the preparation of this 
gas. It should never be intrusted to novices. My method 
of manufacture requires four jars — one containing a solution 
of protosulphate of iron ; another, a solution of caustic pot- 
ash, the other two water. As before observed, the nitrate of 
ammonia must be heated to a correct temperature, when will 
be obtained Nitrous Oxide in purity. It is important that 
the gas should bo allowed to remain over water from three 
to six hours, in order that the impurities, which may re- 
main in the gas after washing, may have sufficient time 
in which to be absorbed. Thus the gas will be more pleas- 
ant to the taste and more powerful as an anesthetic. 

Nitrous Oxide may be condensed into a liquid. 

It was first exhibited in this form at Paris; by Dr. Evans. 
It is usually contained in a strong metallic cylinder to which 



408 CincinncUi Medical Advance* 

• 

iB attached, by a tnbe, a rubber, sack or bag to which the gas 
is admitted by turning a stop-cock, and the gas is adminis- 
tered as in the times when first introduced. 

The present, and decidedly the best mode of administering 
the gas is to receive it through a tube to which is attached a 
mouth piece, constructed for the purpose, direct from the 
gas holder. 

Ansesthesia may be produced by a variety of substances* 
Among these may be mentioned acetic, nitric, and sulphuric 
ether, protoxide of nitrogen or laughing gas, (Nitrous Ox- 
ide) chloroform, common illuminating or coal gas, naptha, 
carburetted hydrogen, benzole or benzine, amelque, and Dutch 
liquid. Of these, preference has been given to Sulphuric 
ether. Chloroform, and Nitrous Oxide gas, both, as regards 
safety and efficiency. It is well to know which is the safest 
and at the same time the best for the purposes of the dentist. 
This knowledge can only be obtained by experiments. 

In the "Medical and Surgical Reports of February," 1866, 
Prof. Carnochan writes, " I have performed, within a time, 
four more capital operations on adults, one amputation of the 
thigh, one of the leg, the removal of a tumor from the side, 
and the extraction of a cataract, making in all, since last July, 
seven successful capital operations under the influence of 
anaesthesia produced by Nitrous Oxide gas, I have during the 
same time used chloroform an.l ether in my operations, and 
my opinion in regard to the superiority of Nitrous Oxide re- 
mains unchanged." 

Mr. W. H. Jackson, a dental student at Quebec, testifies 
that in the month of June, 186S, he witnessed a long and 
painful operation which lasted forty minutes. It was the 
amputation of a foot, gangrened from a very severe frost-bite. 
The operation was performed at the Marine Hospital, of 
Quebec, and was attended by the greatest success, the patient 
being under the influence of Nitrous Oxide and remaining 
unconscious until it was finished. 

The same gentleman also witnessed another operation in 
which the same anaesthetic agent was employed, and was as 
in the other, a success, the case being the amputation of the 
thigh of a woman. 



li 



Swrgery. 409 

Franklin R. Thomas, D. D. S., in a communication to the 

Dental Times," of Philadelphia, remarks, " Having practi* 
cally demonstrated with about eleven thousand persons under 
the influence of Nitrous Oxide, and those having been ad« 
ministered indiscriminately as they presented themselves, and 
not in a single instance, as far as known, has any one sus- 
tained any ill effect from its inhalation, though many of them 
were known to have been suffering from chronic and organic 
diseases of different kinds. 

In nearly 4000 cases where I have administered the gas, I 
have seen no bad effects, and I have taken pains to ascertain 
that it has been given more than 250,000 times with great 
success. 

There are in its use but two cases of death on record, (and 
it is not generally believed that either of these was caused by 
the inhalation of the gas, but from some attendant circum- 
stance), and I think enough has been said of the beneficial 
eflects of Nitrous Oxide to convince almost any one of the 
appropriateness and safety of its use as an anaesthetic. 

In cases of prolonged operations, the inhaler should every 
few moments be removed, in order that the lungs may be- 
come filled with atmospheric air, which being done, the gas 
may again be administered without the patient returning to 
consciousness. 

I am aware that many practitioners take exception here 
and consider any suspension of the inhalation of the gas for 
the purpose of respiration a decided injury to its anaesthetic 
effect 

And now, in conclusion, it may not be inappropriate to say 
something concerning the proper mode of feeling the pulse, 
while administering ansesthetics. 

During the administration of Ether and Chloroform, es- 
pecially, the pulse should be closely watched by yourself or 
competent assistant, and any deviation from its normal con- 
dition should be followed with the greatest care. 

No attempt should be made to examine the pulse until the 
patient becomes composed. The examination should be tho- 
roughly made, and any fluttering or abnormal indications 



410 CincinncUi Medical Advance. 

carefully noted. To do this, place three of the fingers upon 
the artery which passes along the inner side of the left wrist 
of the patient, having the thumb so applied to the back of 
the wrist that the pressure which is applied to the artery may 
be increased or modified to any extent, so that by the degree 
of pressure, may be ascertained the number of beats in each 
minute and the nature, also, of each beat The pulsations 
may be varied, as for instance, very distinct, sudden, abrupt, 
intermittent, convulsive, a rapid thrill, rather to be denom- 
inated a vibration than a pulsation, the bound so strong as 
apparently to force the fingers away, or a cessation of pulsa- 
tion. 

Slow pulse indicates that the patient is not in a state of 
health. 

A sluggish pulse is expressive of languor. The unequal 
or changeable pulse is a distinctive feature of a nervous tem- 
perament, accompanying deficient vital energy, it also indi- 
cates spasm of the heart and sometimes inflammation of the 
lungs and is a very serious symptom. 

Intermittent pulse should be closely watched. It may be 
interesting to the practitioners of dental surgery to all indeed 
to whom it is not familiar to say something concerning the 
resuscitation of those who may become asphyxiated while 
having administered to them an anaesthetic. 

In such cases, the first thing to be done, is to draw the 
tongue of the patient out half its length and retain it in that 
position while artificial respiration is being carried on, which 
is best performed by moving the arms and shoulders back- 
ward and forward, thereby expanding and contracting the 
respiratory apparatus and so induce natural respiration. And 
now, in conclusion, allow me to express the hope that all will 
unite in the belief that the discovery whereby ansesthetics 
have been applied for the alleviation of pain, when necessity 
demands the performance of the severest surgical operations, 
is an unspeakable blessing, it has gone forth to cheer and 
gladden humanity, but when administered, it should be done 
watchfully, carefully and judiciously. — Dental Register, 



^\tm^ mh ^ut%U$. 



Early Sfflcnlties of Toting Fzactitioners, and the Way to 

Overcome Them. By A. A. Duncanson, M. D., Chica- 
go, 111. 

' It seems to be a confirmed idea in the thinkings of the pub- 
lic that youth is a synonym of folly and ignorance, and age 
that of wisdom and knowledge. No conception could be 
more absurd! Very many of the young men who are edu- 
cated as physicians have had but slight early opportunities, 
and are consequently feebly prepared for entering our col- 
leges, but these persons generally make the best pra6tical 
men; they may be inferior, and generally are in theory, but 
in pra<5lice this is more than balanced by a6tivity of habit and 
a sublime convi<5lion of necessity; close study, supplies that 
which early opportunity denied. The two or even three ses- 
sions required to complete a medical education are soon passed, 
and the young man is hurried into the a6live and responsi- 
ble position of a pra<5licing physician before he has properly 
tried on his armor or examined the perfection of his equip- 
ments. To a sensitive mind, to one who fully appreciates the 
importance of life and death, especially to one who takes a 
religious view of these points the position is a trying and dif- 
ficult one. There is a great and essential difference between 
parties — the man who has firmness largely developed and 
self-esteem prominent will dash into pra(5tice, ignorance and 
all, without feeling the least sense of impropriety or being 
awed under the consciousness of his own inexperience. His 
more intelligent neighbor will cautiously advance, feeling his 
way as he goes; satisfied that success, so far as it really can 
be called so, is the result of knowledge, not of ignorant bold- 
ness or of accident. There is a boldness, the result of ignor- 
ance and also a produ(5t of knowledge. The ignorant sur- 
geon may plunge his instrument into a cavity with great bold- 



412 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

ness, simply because he does not know and frequently does 
not care where he goes, but the intelligent is bold, adive and 
successful because he knows his anatomical geography well, 
and all the tissues through which he intends to pass are pa- 
tent to his mind, projected before his thoughts; they stand up 
in a living reality, a kind of impersonation before his view. 
As in surgery so in medicine, boldness and ignorance in 
young men are generally associated. Ignorance even in med* 
icine may be a misfortune, it is certainly no crime, it is a great 
hindrance but may be overcome; it will perplex the mind the 
first few years of pradlice but that very pradiice is the grand 
school where those lessons are taught that will ultimately 
cure it. Very few, generally speaking, make surgery a spe- 
cialty; it is therefore with the difficulties attachable to the 
pra6tice of medicine, or the duties of the physician that we 
are specially concerned. 

The first and chief difficulty that is felt is imperfect diag- 
nostic power. This is the great cardinal quality in a good 
physician. It is to a great extent intuitive, like its cognate, 
the quality to know chara6ter by instant inspe<5lion — few pos- 
sess it. To it is that a physician at first sight will tell the dis- 
ease and if he had examined ten years it would not alter his 
conviction. Another will hesitate, think, rethink, feel the 
pulse, look wise, ponder, appear muddy, and think it is one 
thing one moment and alters his opinion the next, and finally 
comes to no decision at all; would like "to hear what Dr. so- 
and-so says." It is not to be wondered that a young pra<5li- 
tioner may feel hesitancy; his college course has been too 
generalized; not enough said on the practical part of a<5live 
diagnosis. In the clinic the cases have been too often pre- 
sented as cases of given disease instead of excercising the 
diagnostic power of the students by urging them to diagnose 
the disease and suggest the course of treatment or operation 
subject to the professors explanation and approval. In our 
academical instructions there is too much done for the stu- 
dent, too little by him. To compel him on his own responsi- 
bility to diagnose one case would do him more good than any 
number of viva voce ledtures. When he comes into a<5taa 



Theory ixnd Practice, 413 

practice and has living humanity to pra^ice on and to do it 
on his own responsibility, he is too often like Mahomet^s cof- 
fin hung between heaven and earth; what is the disease he 
has got — can not tell, very unlike anything he has read about 
or heard of, and too frequently " he goes it blind." This is a 
painful condition of mind, but do not be discouraged, there is 
a way out of it. Make your patient your book, endeavor to 
see by carefully noting all the phenomena that appear what 
nature intends to do and enlist yourself on her side; if you 
go against her the fight will be unequal; she will conquer 
you and make you sorry you ever entered the city. No man 
ever attained to perfedtion in any department at once* Your 
ability by careful cultivation will gradually grow. Read up 
every case that you get carefully, both disease and treatment; 
cultivate self-dependence, do not nail your pra^ice to your 
book nor to your professor. Your patient is your book and 
carefully read every leaf that the disease presents; do not think 
it is all to be done by medicine, and give coUossal doses — ^you 
may kill the patient but assuredly not the disease, and your 
expedtations may perish with him. Give nature a chance; 
she is your friend if you intelligibly interpret her admoni- 
tions. To work out your first case without depending on any 
outside help will give a confidence and self-reliance that noth- 
ing else can give. Your next case will be easier in its pressure 
on your own mind and its diagnosis and prognosis better under- 
stood! In this way your diagnostic power will increase* 
When walking along the streets exercise your capability in 
this department by observing the countenance, posture, man- 
nerism, and value of voice, etc., of those you see around you 
and suggest to yourself the treatment you would give such 
and such an exhibition of disease — this is a<5tual, pra<5tical 
education; it will do a world of good. Almost every second 
person presents some feature of disease. It may be physical, 
mental, or moral; observe it all; you may have occasion to use 
your ideas acquired in this way some day and they may serve 
you a good end! Do not depend on what a patient says; he 
sees through a diseased medium; do not rely on what friends 
or nurses say; make up your mind independently of what 



414 Cincinnati Medical Advance* 

you hear from them — listen deferentially, not haughtily as if 
your office was to teach, not to learn, but let your own con- 
vidlions guide you in the treatment You will be frequently 
carried off your feet if you depend on what is said in the 
apartment of the sick either by the patient or attendants — 
never for a moment forget that your book is your patient, 
and your eyes, not your ears, the mode of reading it. For- 
tunately imperfedl power in diagnosis is not incurable; by 
careful reasoning and independent observation it will be im- 
proved every day. Do not take up the cases you obtain on 
the same basis as others, you may turn your attention to their 
treatment if you please but do not make it your standard; take 
up the case for yourself, carefully separate cause from effe<5ts; 
results from original lesions; remember constitution and cir- 
cumstances are strong modifying influences and give them 
weight in your diagnosis. It is probable that the case the 
professor treated or your friend Dr. Blank treated of the same 
disease was in a totally different patient; do not fall into the 
mistake of supposing that the same treatmeut will do, as you 
will be disappointed; take in all the modifying circumstances 
and then proceed. Pneumonia may be a simple disease in A, 
but fatal in B; keep your eyes wide open! A medicine may 
have touched and arrested it in A that proved powerless in 
B; survey calmly the whole field and make up your mind; do 
not read up a great many books, it will confuse your thoughts, 
but keep your materia medica well in view. Next to correct 
diagnosis lies an acurate knowledge of medical agents and 
their specific uses. 

The second great difficulty that lies in the way of 3'oung 
practitioners is a limited knowledge of the materia medical or 
rather the practical application of medicine. It is not so much 
to have our minds filled with the multitudinous details and 
symptoms so frequently given in books but to know in brief 
what each medicine can accomplish, its specific application to 
the disease, to the exact symptoms that present themselves. 
If we are to follow the detail of the books ever}' medicine 
spoken of will cure all the diseases flesh is heir to, in its con- 
fusion doubly confused. If such books were burned and we 



Theory and PrcuAice* 415 

were compelled with our present knowledge of medical sci- 
ence to make our observations dt novo^ it would be a great 
gain to medical literature and the pradtice of medicine! The 
thousand and one symptoms given in conne<5tion with each 
drug confuse the mind of a young beginner beyond calcula- 
tion; he wishes the whole affair in purgatory and that some 
kind being would give him but one specific hint by which he 
might handle the medicine skilfully and effediually. By the 
elective power of nature every medicine is calculated to im- 
press some organ and in some specific way as a stimulant, ' 
styptic, sedative, laxative, etc. To know this is the acme of 
all medical skill! We know the use of a lever, pulley, wind- 
lass etc,; we are certain that they will accomplish certain 
things; we apply them and what is predicated is done! Why 
all this blundering and conjecture in medicine; is there no fix- 
ed law by which therapeutical adtion is guided; is all confu- 
sion and disorder; is this the only realm of nature where God is 
not; is a plant, or a mineral, or a metal, one thing to-day and 
another to-morrow? We know better. It is our own blun- 
dering and ignorance; everything will be found as certain 
here as in any other department — the apple does not fall to 
the ground as a fixed fa6i with any greater certainty than will 
medicine cure if we only apply it rightly! Our knowledge 
should embrace not merely the general fa6l that such a medi- 
cine is a stimulant, or a laxative, or a tonic, but in what sense 
or what fiber, nervous, muscular, or arterial, and not only on 
what fiber or organ but in what condition of that fiber or or- 
gan. Medicine is not a system of blundering but of a scien- 
tific fadl, and when properly taught and understood as 
certain in its results as the inductions and deductions of 
chemistry. 



416 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

This Thing of IM. 

Under this caption, an honored and influential friend 
from the West, sends us an article so red-hot and full of 
spontaneous combustion, that we dare not reproduce it with- 
out some comments. He writes : 

"The writer was "brought up" the strictest kind of a 
Hahnemaniann. He had implicit faith in the teachings of 
the " Great Founder," — not only in relation to his strictly 
medical views, but also believed in his teachings regarding 
the collaterals. Hence, as in duty bound, he regarded the 
fumes of a match, or of tobacco, or even of flowers, in the 
sick room, with a proper horror. 

In like manner he proscribed, secundem artem, the use of 
fat meats, ^^Jlsh without acaleSy'* tea, coffee, spices, and other 
condiments; tobacco, wine; in short, was a desciplinarian of 
the most rigid type. The following paragraph will tell you 
why he was induced to make independent inquiry and ex- 
perimentation, instead of "going it blind" as do so many of 
our professional brethren. 

In 1849, in company with his father, (who, by the way, 
instilled this faith into the writer), he called at the oflUce of 

Prof P , of C . The Dr. then stood at the head of his 

profession in the West. Young in years, and but a tyro in 
medicine, it may be imagined with what trepidation the 
writer approaccd the august presence. And here was the 
picture : Seated at his table was the learned Dr., with his 
fine, commanding physique, engaged in putting up a pre- 
scription, while at the same time, Aorrt6Ze dictu, he was com- 
placently smoking a cigar ! On expressing our astonishment 
at this violation of the * code,' he very quietly remarked, 
with a German accent, * It makes no difference; our medicines 
penetrate through every thin gP 

This remark led to a train of refle6lion, altering, in many 
important particulars, previous convictions, and has been a 
* Key-Stone" throughout the writer's medical career. And 
this Ipads to the purpose of this article — a consideration of 
our dietetic rules. Let this be in the form of queries: 



Theory and Practice. 417 

Did you ever know a Grahamite— one of these brown- 
bread and baked-apple fellows, who wasn't a lean, cadaver- 
ous cuss — ^a regular glutton — and who lacked essentially 
either in physique or mental organization? \S 

(Certainly we have. As a rule, these parties are quite 
abstemious in fa€t, as well as theory. Some of the best phy- 
sical specimens we ever saw, were of the Grahamite persua- 
tion.) 

"Unbolted wheat, * say they, relaxes the bowels.' Do they 
know why? Are they aware of the mechanical irritation it 
produces? Give one of these gentleman — fed for a week on 
such food— an inje^ion and a pint of husks, more or less, is 
the result. Is this mucous irritation healthy t 

Did you ever know a man twenty-five years of age, who 
never chewed, nor used tobacco in any form, whose tongue 
was not coated a dirty-white, and whose breath was not of- 
fensive? 

(On the contrary, we never knew a man twenty-five years 
of age or any other age, who chewed or used tobacco in any 
form, who had a clean tongue or a pleasant breath. The 
writer is simply sarcastic. How the ladies keep their breath 
sweet without the use of tobacco, is a mystery!) 

Is the use of fhh-oil in the North, of garlic and pepper in 
the South, conducive to brevity of life? 

Who are these people, anyhow, who preach entire absti- 
nence from the good things of life, these Dio Lewises, Leo 
Browns, Fowlers, et cetera? Are they to be taken as types 
of the immaculate? A distinguished clerical friend says : 
* The Lord has given the luxuries as well as the necessities 
of life, let us use them.' 

Is a draught of cold water more healthful and more invig- 
orating, taken in the morning, than a cup of coffee? Brutes 
don't take hot drinks — are they not healthy?" So, too, do 
brutes lie down and sleep after each meal— do you? 

To come back to the physician's exclusive province; it is 
his duty to heal the sick. It is not necessary to be mere lati- 
tudinarians. 

Jan-3 



418 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

You, of long experience, tell me this. Is it better in tire 
treatment of chronic disease, to stop a life-long dietary habit 
or to prescribe to the individual as he is? Did you ever ob- 
serve paralysis follow the sudden estoppal of the use of Cof- 
fee? Or ramollisement, or insanity? 

More practically — How and under what circumstances 
were most of our Hahemaniann provings made? Were they 
by non-smoking German students — certain lustis naturai 
The truth of history compels us to answer in the negative. 

Then why all this fuss about diet? Truth is, nature is the 
best* guide, and only in exceptional instances need we take 
any other. Learned disqusitions by big-headed *'Reform« 
ers" and Scientific demonstrations may as well be discarded 
for a little practical commen sense. 

By the way^ one of the learned editors of this periodical 
accuses the writer of not being "posted" on modem sciences. 
Perhaps not; but although he reads half a dozen Scientific 
Journals regularly, he is disposed to believe there are more 
downright fools^ as far as medicine is concerned, among the 
" Scientists," than can be found elsewhere. 

Strictly, our duty as physicians^ is with the sick. Enlarge- 
ing our province we can become philanthropists, humanitar- 
ians, and clap-trap reformers generally; but it were better 
for professionial skill, professional renown, and above all, 
for profjessional success, to confine ourselves within the strict 
line of duty. G. H. B. 

Note. — If the writer would consent to undertake the diet 
he so strongly discards, he would find it advantageous in cool- 
ing his beated blood. Digestion often effec^ls one's vision, and if 
he would pursue a Grahamite diet a few weeks, he would have 
a clearer view of the subject he is discussing. 



IT^oty and Practice. 419 

Onr CUmate and our Mortality. 

The effects of varieties of climate upon human health form 
an interesting subjeA of inquiry, and which is increasingly 
discussed at the present day. While within the boundaries 
of the United States are included almost ever}' variety of 
climate, from the tropical to the frigid, and from the driest to 
the most moist, the sanitary results observed in various locali- 
ties become of great value to the investiga*or. The question 
of health is so vital to all our people that although few of 
them may be able absolutely to choose their residence, or to 
choose it at will, yet no fafts bearing upon this subject which 
are well attested can be wholly without benefit. 

It is much to be regretted that there exists so little thorough 
or comprehensive knowledge as to the relative mortality of 
different regions in the United States. The mortality tables 
of the United States census, although very valuable as cov- 
ering the entire country, are subject to the immense draw- 
back that they represent only the deaths of a single year, and 
that year separated by an interval of ten years from the near- 
est comparison. A five-year census would be twice as valu- 
able to us in supplying data from which to draw conclusions 
in vital statistics as a decennial census. And the States pro- 
vide by law for making a complete registry of deaths, in 
conncdlion with the causes of death, or the table of diseases 
that prove fatal, deserve great credit for providing for this 
class of statistics. Unhappily these States are yet so few 
that no conclusions general to the whole Union can be drawn 
from them, and we are thrown upon the United States census 
for our only means of arriving at the comparative statistics 
which go to show the effedls of climate upon the health of 
the people 

One conspicuous fact evidenced not only in our own 
country, but in all others, is that the population of cities are 
subject to a much greater mortality than those of the country 
districts. While the percentage of deaths to population, 
taking the average of the United States, amounted only to 
1.39 in 1850, 1.25 in 1860^ and 1.28 in 1870, the average mor- 



420 Cincinnati Medical Advance,^ 

tality of the principal cities, on the other hand, was more 
than twice as great, varying from 1.80 to over three percent, 
per annum. That is, while the proportion of deaths in the 
country was but one and a quarter in one hundred, the pro- 
portion in the cities varied from two to over three in the 
hundred. The causes of the greater prevalence of disease 
and death in the condensed population of cities are obvious. 
They may be summed up in impure air, artificial diet and 
stimulants, traditional hours, and unnatural stimulus and ex- 
citement in the condition of living. In the pointed phrase of 
Rousseau, " Cities are the graves of the human race." 
While wealth and power are concentrated in them, health 
and happiness are recklessly squandered. It is believed by 
eminent physiologists that the population of the great cities 
of the world would become extinct in a few generations were 
they not constantly recruited by emigration from the rural 
districts and from foreign nations. This fresh infusion of 
healthier blood preserves the denizens of cities from that fatal 
deterioration which would otherwise overtake them. The 
vigor of our urban population would soon be lost were it not 
for these accessions, and for occasional recurrence to purer 
fountains of health on the part of the citizens themselves. 
Happy is that' city which is so favored in climate and loca- 
tion as to add no stimulus to the causes which continually 
tend to sap the life-blood of its people. 



'♦ • » 



iUcohol as a Uedicine. By Geo. H. Blair, M. D. 

A just criticism is always to be commended, and no excep- 
tion should be taken thereto; but when a mawkish sentimen- 
tality, intense ignorance, blind prejudice and erethism bom 
of a public excitement leads individuals to attack the well- 



TTteory and Practice. 421 

founded and incontrovertible opinions which experience 
has from time immemorial proved to be corre6t, it may be as 
well to squelch them in their incipiency. 

The writer has been blamed, publicly and privately for 
views expressed before the Iowa State Medical Society, in 
regard to the use of alcohol as a remedial agent. He does 
not propose to lie under the imputation of wrong doing with- 
out a statement of his side of the case, and while the argu- 
ments advanced in favor of his views are practically unan- 
swerable upon any reasonable or any scientific basis, he 
wishes to anticipate his "God in the Constitution" critics, by 
remarking that right is above sympathy and that sentiment 
does not govern the law of therapeutics. 

But before discussing the subjedi proper, let this one be 
understood, that while personal liberty is a delicate question 
to handle, and "crusading" has proved itself a social nuisance 
and a political injury it is not proposed to entertain other than 
a stndlly medical and hygyenic view of it. Intemperance is 
frequently, though not always, a sin, and total abstinence is 
as often an error. It is the purpose of this article to substan- 
tiate these propositions. 

One flaunting and abominable falsehood, known to be such 
by every observant pradtitioner, but singularly permitted to 
go on without contradiction, is the charge that physicians are 
responsible for so much of the prevailing intemperance. The 
fa6i is, that the taste for alcohol, when properly prescribed, 
ceases with the necessity for its use, if indeed, any "taste" can 
be said to have been acquired. In fa6t in a majority of in- 
stances its administration is of so short duration, that there 
can be no acquired appetite. The real truth is, that "old 
soakers," especially females, make a convenient handle of this 
charge, to screen themselves from self-acquired abuses. Not 
one person in a thousand but knows the effeiSi of an alcoholic 
stimulant, whether prescribed by a medical attendant or not, 
and if its use is perverted, it is at the risk of the individual 
indulging. 

A word before entering upon the real subjeft. The writer 



422 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

has had a professional experience of a quarter of a century. 
He has had particular reason to deplore the evils of intemper- 
ance. At the same time he trusts he is neither a fool or fa- 
natic, and hesitates not even in the face of a perverted public 
sentiment to give his well matured opinions. Some times 
**desperate diseases require desperate remedies" — 10,000th 
potencies to the contrary, — and "some times the end justifies 
the means." Let us consider. 

Alcohol is a poison — granted. So is oxygen ; so are thein, 
coffein and all our condiments. But they are each only so 
wrhen administered to a certain extent. As stimulants they 
are produdlive of good; when carried to the extent of narco- 
tism a positive injury. This consideration is of the first con- 
sequence in forming our conclusions. Alcohol is also a food, 
in the same sense that starch and sugar are. It augments the 
flow of gastric juice when given in moderate quantities, while 
it arrests decomposition, not digestion. It is an excitant of 
the nervous system, especially of the lymphatic. It is the 
greatest source of a supply of carbon. It is a positive and 
unequivocal antidote to certain blood poisons. It retards the 
waste of the system, either through some peculiar a<5tion, or 
because it is a real food as has been abundantly demonstrat- 
ed. Individuals have been known to live for months upon 
alcohol alone. And here it may not be inappropriate to say 
that Liebig, so often quoted by temperance apostles, in his 
later years, admitted that alcohol was a food; and stated that 
in the districts of the Rhine "wine is the universal medicine 
of the healthy as well as of the sick. It is considered as milk 
for the aged." 

A craving for alcoholic drinks is invariably due to a change 
in the molecular nervous system, either inherited or due to 
long continued narcotism. Stimulation, alone, never creates 
this desire. But these refledtions, if indulged in, will lead us 
outside the purpose of this article, which is intended to be of 
a pra6lical instead of theoretical charadler. 

In the days of the writer's student life, the milk and water 
diet of Louis and I^urence was the exclusive hygienic pre- 



Iheorjf and Piractice. 423 

scription for patients suffering with phthisis pulmonalis. 
Observation led him to oppose the system, and an old and well 
worn thesis of his own, recommending stimulants, he is glad 
to say, now meets with the approval of most medical men. 
The fa6t is, that in tubercular consumption, alcohol and fat 
are indispensable, and rank far beyond any so-called medici- 
nal remedies. The virtue of cod liver oil is undoubtedly due 
to its fatty principle, carbon, and not to its imaginary infini- 
tesimal ingredients of iodine and phosphorus. 

In typhoid fever and confluent small-pox, where there is a 
rapid waste and degeneration of the tissues — without decided 
local manifestations — were a choice to be made between bran- 
dy and milk, and the medicine case in the treatment, the latter 
would certainly be sacrificed. 

For the bites of venomous serpents no other known reme- 
dy is available. It is safe, speedy and certain. 

In congestive or "sinking" chills, where your patient is 
pulseless and unconscious, the physician who would not resort 
to alcoholic stimulants would be criminally guilty and ought 
to be prosecuted. 

It ha§ been the writer's fortune to have had three or four 
cases of valvular disease of the heart, where the patients were 
subjeA to attacks of vertigo and syncope. While ca<5tus, ac- 
onite, digitalis, etc., were of no avail whatever, alcohol was a 
means of relief. And so of many other diseases. 

It is presumed there is no antagonism to the law ^^Similid!^ 
in the foregoing. Where the benefit was not derived from 
the food properties of alcohol, or its supplying a needed lost 
element, the conditions were of a nature not properly coming 
within our law of cure. Hence other means were to be sought, 
and were happily found. 

In view of the foregoing fa<fts, — and they might be multi- 
plied, — why this uproar because of their statement? If the 
experience of years is to be called in question, and motives 
rudely assailed, it is a poor recompense for a life long devo- 
tion to a noble ' profession. The truth is, there is a class of 
rattle -brained "reformers" who have but one idea at a time, 
and everybody and everything must be subservient to that. 



424 CincinncUi Medical Advance. 

Pathos takes the place of argument, and false premises sub- 
stituted for fadls. The sooner people come to a realizing sense 
of rational medicine, the better for all concerned. 



■♦ » 



Bailway Advantages and Penalties. 

The enormous advantages to .civilization and progress^that 
are due to the invention of railways have not been achieved 
without some serious drawbacks. One of these unquestionably 
is the loss or diminution of air and the habit of exercise nec- 
essarily fostered by the older method of traveling. 

A little consideration shows that the performing of even the 
longest journey sitting in a railway car involves no exercise of 
the limbs, and only a partial or (if too much prolonged) in- 
jurious exercise of the muscles. Add to this the fa<5t that 
railway travel, whether rapid or slow, gives little command of 
fresh air to the traveler, and that little is commonly overloaded 
with dust or smoke or both combined, so as to be deleterious 
rather than beneficial. The older methods of travel in open 
carriages, on horseback, and especially on foot, involves plen- 
ty of air and exercise 

Another conspicuous drawback upon the benefits of railways 
as means of communication is the fa6l that they compel near- 
ly all the travel that takes place to run through valleys and 
low grounds, avoiding the sightlier and healthier regions at a 
greater elevation above the sea level. Railroads naturally and 
for economical reasons must hug the valleys and natural wa- 
ter courses. The result to health in the case of those compel- 
led to constant or frequent travel at all seasons of the year, is 
not beneficial. 

The facility of travel by steam has unquestionably cut off 
the majority of business men from much of the exercise to 
which they would otherwise be daily compelled. Indeed it 
would seem no extravagant statement to say that while we 



Proceedings qf Societies. 425 

have ganied the use of iron horses, we have lost the use of 
our feet. How few persons are there in the leading cities 
who take any regular exercise whatever! Such persons arc the 
exception, and not the rule, among the mass of business and 
professional men and mechanics in most of the trades. Yet 
nothing is more clearly demonstratable than the fa6l that long 
life and sound health are more dependant upon plenty of air 
and exercise than upon any other conditions whatever. 
Muscles and limbs which are unused grow weak and flabby. 
Lungs which breathe only confined air grow shrunken and 
and feeble, and invite all manner of diseases. Maladies of the 
nervous system, which might be wholly prevented, or 
cured by a life in the open air, are aggravated and rendered 
chronic by a life within doors. The modern methods of warm- 
ing houses, convenient and labor-saving and nominally com- 
fortable as they are, are great poisoners of the vital fun6tions. 
Those so much vaunted hot-air furnaces, which keep our 
houses warm in every room and passage-way, are usually so 
regulated or overdriven as to dry up and dessicate not only 
the air, but the physical systems of those who continually 
breathe it. The same remark applies to nearly all railway 
cars which are commonly over-heated and ill- ventilated dur- 
ing cold weather. 




mtttiittp al SocidU$. 



Homoeopathic State Uedical Sodety of Hichigan. 

It will be remembered that at the annual meeting of this 
Society in this city last May, it was resolved to adjourn for 



426 CincinncUi Medicaf Advance. 

six months. Yesterday the Society assembled in the Court 
room at 3 o'clock, with Dr. King, the President, in the chair. 
Dr. King delivered his annual address, in which he spoke of 
the formation of two new and thriving societies in the State; 
St. Joseph Valley and the Saginaw Valley Societies. He 
spoke with feeling of the death ol Dr. S. B. Thayer of Battle 
Creek, and wished resolutions to be passed commemorative 
of the deceased. He made some desultory remarks upon the 
use of the spectroscope, microscope and upon other scientific 
subjects. His address was accepted and referied to the pub- 
lishing committee. 

The eledtion of officers was next in order and resulted in 
the choice of the following; 

President — Robert King, M. D., of Kalamazoo. 

First Vice-President — W. J. Calvert, M. D., Jackson. 

Second-Vice President — Miss Fanny E. White, M. D., 
Jackson. 

Cor. Sec. — A. A. Bancroft, M. D., Lansing. 

General Secretary and Treasurer — I. N. Eldridge, M. D., 
Flint. 

Wm. D. CLirk, of Monroe, and Isaiah Dever, of Dexter 
were voted into membership; H. J. Seigler, Pinckney, ap? 
plied for admission and his jcase was referred to the Secre- 
tary. 

The Society met again in the evening, with Dr. Calvert in 
the chair. The first business was the election of visiting 
delegates to other State Societies. 

Dr. Dever of Dexter, opened the discussion on the subje<5l 
of materia medica. He spoke of the lack of understanding 
among the profession of the nature of their remedies, and 
said that if physicians would study into and individualize 
each case, they would avoid falling in routine practice. He 
gave a number of cases of ague, cholera infantum, dysentery, 
scarlet fever, and others which he had cured by adopting the 
remedy indicated by the symptoms. The discussion was con- 
tinued by Drs. Woodruff, Sawyer, Jones, Eldredge, and oth- 
ers, and branched off into the number of the attenuation to 
be used, the practicability of stopping to individualize each 



Book Notices, 427 

case, and took a very wide and interesting range. 

Dr. Tuttle invited the Society to visit the Prison some time 
to-day, which was accepted for ii o'clock 

Dr. Eldridge alluded to the litigation on behalf of the Hom- 
oeopathic profession against the Regents of the University, 
and moved the appointment of a committee to take charge of 
the suits. Dr. Eldredge, Woodruff, Clark, Sawyer and King 
were made such committee. 

By invitation of Dr. Calvert, the Society then adjourned to 
Field and Son's where they partook of an elegant repast, and 
toasts were made and responded to. Dr. Holmes, of New 
York, spoke of the state of "Homoeopathy in the Country." 
Dr. Sawyer spoke of Homoeopathic Surgery," rejoicing over 
the advancement of his profession in that department. Dr. 
Woodruff spoke on "Stimulants and Narcotics," speaking 
against the use of liquor and tobacco. Dr. Tuttle gave some 
statistics on the health in the State Prison. Dr. Dever 
spoke on the "Allopathic and Homoeopathic Materia Medica 
Compared." J. B. Delbridge, representing the Northwestern 
Pharmacy Co. of Chicago, spoke on "Homoeopathic Pharma- 
cy," and the balance of the evening was occupied with chats. 



^u\ ^olic($. 



A Guide to the Practical Examination of Urine. By Jas. 

Tyson, M. D. Lindsay and Blakiston. 

This excellent treatise is the fruit of a large daily pradlical 
experience on the part of the author. 

The text is carefully prepared and written in a pleasing 
style, while the typography is unexceptionable, and the illus- 
trations numerous. The volume is not large but quite com- 
prehensive and will serve as an ample guide to both pradlition- 
er and student For sale by Robert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati. 



428 Vincinnati Medical Advance. 

Surreal Emei^ndes. EmersMieiea attendant on Pai^ 

tnrition, etc By Wm. Paul Swain, F. R. C. With 
Eighty-two Illustrations. Ijndaay and BlakUton. 
This is an admirable attempt to sift out of the great mass of 
surgical fa6ls the really practical ones that arc called into ukc 
under circumstances that do not allow prolonged search in 
bulky volumes. We can scarcely speak too highly of this 
work. Every important operation is perfeflly illustrated and 
none too much or too little is said to render the case perfedly 
plain. Possibly there is very little new in the book but the 
work is none the less of great importance to all who have 
thrust upon them the responsibilities of emergencies. For 
sale by Robert Clarke & Co. 

Transaetloiis New Twk Homoeopathie Hedkal Sodetr, 
1872, Tol. X. 

Before us am ten handsome Toltune», they are qaite a Hbn- 
ry of Homoeopathic literature. They are monnmental of the 
liberality of the State, and of the iDtelligenoe and enterprise of 
the members of the society. To Dr. H. M, Paine, the Secre- 
tary, the greater share of the glory belongs. We understaDd 
that the state has withdrawn its patronage from all the medi- 
cal societies, and this society must henceforth rely upon itself 
for means to publish its proceedings. We hope it may con- 
tinue to send out its usual annual volumes, but we fear the 
present high standard will not bo maintained. But if so, it 
must continue to be the banner State of society proceedings- 

lufiint Diet. By A. Jacobi, M. D. Revised, enlarged, a 
adapted to popular use. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New Yffl 
At the first presentation of this essay to the public, » 
three years ago, it attrai^ed considerable attention and \ 
widely quoted. In its present form its value is grcadjr I 
larged and wc venture to say that we hav 
extant. The re-vision of the work has been very n 
complished by Mary Putnam Jacobi, M. D., and it 
shape will be found a great aid to that pe"""!** 
"What shall the baby have to eat?" I 
Clarke & Co. 




Sook yoticer. 429 

Erysipelas and Child-Bed Ferer. By Thos. C. Minor, M. D. 

Kobert Clark & Co. 
We have here a closely printed volume of 131 pages, con- 
sisting largely of compilations of the National Census, Health 
Reports of various Cities and various reports on climatology 
and diseases in different parts of the country. As it is quite 
destitute of a table of contents or an index we must either 
read it wholly through or carefully glean out the topics from 
the almost chapterless pages. As may be surmized, the mat- 
ter is not highly interesting by virtue of its variety. But the 
monotony is happily broken at pags 53. 

"Florida — That beautiful land, where the eternal kiss of a 
summer's balmiest sunshine lingers on the lips of a warm, 
tropical nature, scented with the breath of incense-breathing 
exotics, musical with the tintinnibulations of richly -plumaged 
warblers. Land of lazy, tremulous languors, wherethe weary 
invalid convalesces, while dreaming the time away in a deh- 
cious dolce far niente state! If Ponce de Leon did not carry 
back with him to Old Andalusia' any of the waters of the 
fabled Fountain o( Youth, he must, at least, have taken a new 
lease of life during his short sojourn amidst your blossoming 
orange-groves!" 

This is the solitary oasis in a wide desert of statistics the 
author states his work as "including an inquiry into the con- 
nexion said to exist between Child-Bed Fever and Erysipe- 
las." But so far as we can see this is the whole work in a nut- 
•bell. There is very little of it At page 1 19 the author sum- 
mariMS bis investigations as follows: 

"/« Ifiere a connection beltreen- puerperal fever and erytipe- 
taut If after the mass of liguics we have waded through, 
WC have not been able to learn something regarding puerper- 
•^'■'*^" ■ -— ' erysipelas it would be surprising. The study of 
' ' ■" S70, although they fail to give many de- 
innediion between puerperal fever and 
.■ valuable lefison. It is this: In any 
'it fo d, there will be found puerperal 
"xit t minute particulars than are 

'e are constrained to only 
>nclusion is based on the 

r teem to prevail together 




430 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

2. Any marked increase in ang one locality of one disease^ 
seems to be accompanied by a corresponding increase of the 
other, 

3. Where histories of past y)idemics qf either disease are 
obtainable from any of the states^ the seeming connection of the 
two diseases was noticed by physicians at the time cf such epi- 
demics^ and remarked on, 

4. For these reasons we are, I think, justified in concluding 
that there is an intimate connection existing between puerqeral 
fever and erysipelas. 

On page 131 he concludes as follows: 

" Need we go on to multiply our authorities on this subjedt 
of contagion? I think not. If the reader desires to investigate 
the special subje6t of the connection of the two diseases fur- 
ther, a careful reference to the numerous writers I have quot 
ed will, I think, satisfy the most incredulous that there is a 
connedlion, and that they are mutually interchangeable. That 
many eases reported to be puerperal fever are cases of puer- 
peral septicaemia, I have no doubt, and that these latter cases, 
while infectious to the highest degree, and capable of being 
manually transferable, can not be said to be genuine cases of 
puerperal fever as that disease is observed in its epidemic 
form, 1 fully believe; as I likewise believe, that^rysipelas and 
puerperal fever are entirely dependent on the same poison — a 
Delief I have frequently reiterated during the course of this 
article." 

On the whole. Dr. Minor's work pleases us very well, and 

to the student of pathology it will prove of value, though it 

is not certain his conclusions will be wholly accepted. 



^HUii^ ^Mt, 



The Medical Record ok New York after January ist 
will be changed into a weekly and the price raised to $5 00 
a year. A better journal is not published in the Allopathic 
school. 

The Psychological and Medico-Legal Journal 
owing to its sucessful reception by the profession, will here- 
after be issued monthly. 

Dr. Tafel's genial face beamed in our san(5tum just now. 
He is making the run of the profession from Chicago to New 
York, and reports favorably at every point. 



Editor's Table. 431 

Allen's Materia Medica, Vol. I. is out and it strikes us, as 
altogether the finest piece of workmanship in that line we 
have seen. A glance at the well-filled and beautiful pages 
satisfies us that this is to be by all odds the most important 
and valuable addition yet made to our literature. There is a 
probability that the time for subscription to this work may 
be extended to July next. 

We have just recieved six elegant numbers of the Hospi- 
tal Bazaar a journal published at the recent Chicago Homoeo- 
pathic Fair. From all accounts the enterprise was just like 
everything at Chicago, a perfect success. The daily paper 
in question as regards matter and typography challenges our 
highest admiration. 

The Scientific American now in its 30th year, enjoys the 
widest circulation of any weekly newspaper of the kind in 
the world. Its contents embrace the latest and most interest- 
ing information pertaining to the Industrial, Mechanical, and 
Scientific Progress of the World; Descriptions, with beauti- 
ful engravings, of new inventions, new implements, new 
processes, and improved industries of all kinds; useful notes, 
recipes, suggestions and advice, by pradtical writers, for 
workmen and employers, in all the various arts. The Scien- 
tific American is the cheapest and best illustrated weekly 
paper published. Every number contains from 10 to 15 ori- 
ginal engravings of new machinery and novel inventions. 

With the Advance, the Scientific American may be had for 
$5.00 a year. Now is your time to subscribe! 

The Free Dispensary Fair held in College Hall, according 
to the programme, from December 7th, to the 13th inclusive, 
quite exceded our highest expectations. The details are re- 
corded in the daily paper, a complete set of which wc send 
all our subscribers. The aflTair brought out the better part of 
our Homoeopathic strength, and demonstrated the fadt that 
our cause does not lack for noble friends. Nothing in the 
least marred the entire occasion, which was a source of pleas- 
ure, although it called for much hard work. Just at the close, 
the Elephant race came off with great eclat Drs. Buck, Hoi- 
combe, Bradford, £3irniann and Hunt, got away and made 
things lively for awhile. The result stood, Hunt, the viA ot 



482 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

followed in order by Owens, Buck, Bradford, Holcombe, and 
Ehrmann. Large donations were received from Covington, 
Clifton, Glendale, Oxford, Cumminsville, Richmond, Ind., 
and Maysville, Ky. Receipts over $4,000. 

It makes us fairly dizzy to think how swiftly the proceed- 
ings of the HomcEopathic Medical Society of Ohio are com- 
ing out. It will be remembered how the matter was talked 
up at the last meeting and that finally it was ordered that the 
medical journals should not be allowed to publish one of the 
articles presented and the Secretary should publish the pro- 
ceedings forthwith. This was fortunate; otherwise we would 
have seen nothing of them for years to come. As it is they 
are not visible to the naked eye. There is no lack of means 
and to say the parties having them in charge lack the neces- 
sary energy would be slanderous — unless it were true. The 
Homoeopathic Medical Society of Pennsylvania showed more 
wisdom than ours. It generously offered the Hahnemannian 
Monthly all its papers and we are having as the result in the 
pages of that journal a series of excellent articles. But the Ohio 
proceedings have to undergo incubation, the officers doing the 
setting and we all patiently waiting the event of hatching. 

The Medical Advance for 1875. Our Prospe6tus for 
the coming year is herewith presented. It seems tame in 
comparison with those issued by our contemporaries. We 
might fill it with empty promises and idle boasting, and these 
might win us a few more subscribers; but we can not consent 
to put our ideal journalism on a par with the advertisements 
of patent medicine venders. We are content to state the 
simple fadls and then labor to more than fulfil the expei^la- 
tion of our patrons. The following parties are engaged to 
contribute to our pages: Prof. W. H. Holcombe (the Dr. has 
recently removed to Cincinnati and has promised his hearty 
co-operation.) Prof Wm. Owens, Prof. J. D. Buck, Dr. Lew- 
is Barnes, Dr. Ad. Lippe, Dr. J. P. Dake, Dr. Geo. H. Blair, 
Dr Marv A. B. Woods, Prof G. Saal, Dr. E. S. Stuard, etc., 
etc. This is not a long list but our readers know them all as 
some thing more than mere figure heads, they know them as 
sound practical writers who may be relied upon to keep our 
pages filled with valuable matter. 



THE 




indnndi ^^&kal ^iHtttt. 





VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.— FEBRUARY, 1875. [NO. 10. 



'Subscriptions to the Advance should be sent to Dr. T. C. Bradford, P. O 
Drawer 12S4, Cincinnati, Ohio. $3.00 a year, in advance. 

All business communications, relating^ to the publication or to advertising', should be 
addressed to Dr. T. P. Wilson, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Mound SU., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



And still anarchy reigns in Michigan. One doctor issues 

a manifesto, declaring that the Lansing school will rise from 

its ashes on or about December 1st. Four or five other 

doctors issue a statement to the effect that the said school 

will have no immediate resurrection. Michigan may be 

said to be an unhappy State of affairs, Where is the late 

protectorate declared over it by the Chicago doctors ? 

Hippocrates refusing the Gold of Artaxcrxes is offered as our premi- 
um for Vol. III. It will not be our fault if a copy does not grace the 
offices of all our readers. Just look at the terms on which this elegant 
picture may be obtained ! 

It was once characteristic of Homoeopathic practitioners 
that they laid great stress on dietetic and hygienic manage- 
ment of the sick. With no lack of faith in the power of 
their medicines, they insisted upon their patients following 
Feb- 1 433 



434 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

the strictest rules in regard to eating, drinking, exercise, 
air, clothing, etc., etc., so much so, that many times persons 
would refuse to go under such treatment, as they would not 
consent to be so deprived of the luxuries of life. On the 
other hand, the "regulars'^ said very little about dietetic 
matters, knowing very well that, with their drugs in the 
stomach, there would be precious little excess of eating. But 
now matters have changed somewhat. Homoeopathic doc- 
tors arc daily becoming more and more lax. They seem 
to think with our last month's correspondent, that '*our 
medicines can go through everything.'' While at the same 
time our Allopathic doctors are giving special attention to 
hygiene. And the question for us to consider is, will we al- 
low our competitors to carry off all the laurels in this de- 
partment? Our right position before the public is, to 
stand as champions of the public health, and not solely as 
healers of the sick. AVill not some of our young men com- 
ing into the prt)fession give their special attention to the 
science of hygiene and so save to Homoeopathy much of 
her old glory. 

We feel a slight touch of sorrow for the Medical Inves- 
tigator, (Dec. No.) and its gushing Surgical Editor. The 
latter makes an exhibit of his practice "for the past ninety 
days" and is no doubt proud of the showing, but if he 
only knew what a pitiful figure he cuts in the eyes of spe- 
cialists, he would 'Cut less confidently into the eyes of his 
patients. Will he take this hint or will he insist on mak- 
ing himself the prince of bagatelles ? 

Nothing so marks the rapid evolution of modem medi- 
cal history as the prominence which is now given to the 
study of Hygiene. And doubtless this is indicative of a 
commencing revolution in medical science that will be as 
lasting as it is profound. Heretofore the medical profession 
has given its entire study to drugs and their curative rela- 
tions to disease. Pathology has been chiefly studied with 



Editorial 435 

a view to ascertain how diseases might be most successfully 
treated. A glance at our text books and the curriculum 
pursued by our students will show that our energies 
have been wasted in the attempt to combat disease after 
it had declared itself in morbid alterations of the physi- 
cal structure. We have pursued "a masterly inactivity" 
until the enemy has entrenched itself and opened up its 
warlike operations. Over the ground already devastated by 
disease we have marched with all "the pomp and circum- 
stance of war," and hurled, in blindness and fury, equally de- 
structive agencies, until our victims had nothing left but the 
sad memorials of a useless conflict. If we failed in our attempt 
to dislodge the foe we coolly laid all responsibility on "di- 
vine Providence ;" and if we apparently succeeded, however 
scant our trophies, we arrogantly gave all the praise to our 
"divine art." From the days of Hippocrates until the com- 
mencement of the present century our policy of war has 
been "death to the invader." No notes of the enemy's 
preparation served to rouse us into action. We looked on 
with stoical indifference until his troops behind their strong 
battlements began the war of aggression. Not until they 
were fortified on the "sacred soil" could we find occasion 
for active operations. During the past fifty years or more, 
we have changed our policy only in this, that we have sought 
to overcome the foe with less injury to our patients. We 
have largely discontinued our heroic practice through a 
vague realization of the fact that our drugs have been more 
destructive than disease. But our plan of war has been 
always the same : to wait until aggressions began, and then 
manfully struggle in the defence. All this is rapidly un- 
dergoing change. The present epoch is marked by the 
policy oi prevention rather than cure. We are now shifting 
the theater of warfare into the enemy's own ground. Our 
allegiance to .dCsculapius is at least partially foresworn and, 
under the rule of Hygeia, we now become the aggressors. 



4«36 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

and seek to anticipate the evil before it is born^ to scotch it 
before it is grown to mischief-making proportions. In 
shorty before many decades^ Medicine will hold a secondary 
relation to Hygiene. 



Mental Dyspepsia. By R. Ludiam, M. D. 

Our mental like our bodily growth is the product of assimi- 
lation. Our thoughts and our tissues are organized in a 
similar way. Before it can be utilized the raw material of 
both these products must be subje(5ted to a process that is 
substantially the same. 

There is one apparatus for our physical and another for our 
mental digestion. Each is best adapted to its own especial 
fun6lion, to the solution of the kind of food which it is to pre- 
pare, and to the indu6lion of the initial changes that will fit 
its elements to assume the chara<5leristics of bone, muscle, and 
brain- product. Both are delicately organized and subjedl to 
derangement and disease. 

In its own way one of these organs is as important as 
another. They all help to dissolve the food, to facilitate its 
absorption, and to render possible the changes which are 
requisite in order to maintain a healthy balance between the 
waste and repair of our tissues. 

These organs have been created and set in motion with an 
inconceivable delicacy and power. They seize upon the 
food, which is the conjoined produd of the animal and vege- 
table worlds, disintegrate it, subje6t it to a careful solution 
and analysis, sele6l the elements which arc suitable for the 
several textures, and then mold and fashion them into our 
bodily forms. 



Mental Dyspepsia, 437 

After taking a meal, the best blood in the body is attra6led 
and drawn upon to furnish the ingredients from which the 
solvent juices are to be made. We take our siesta, and a 
thousand little glands are busy with the distillation of these 
delicate compounds. We go about our work, and the little 
rootlets of humanity within us drink up and pass along the 
materials of our bodily growth. We plan great schemes, 
build our collep'es and railways, and make a great ado over 
the prt)grcss of the age, and the improvement of towns and 
cities. Meanwhile the myriads of little cells of which our 
bodies are composed are quietly rebuilding and repairing our 
own tenements and fortifying us against the inroads of time 
and disease. 

Not a grain of food can pass the gateway of the nutritive 
tra<5l without notifying the nervous centers of its approach. It 
gives a savory signal, and the stomach is on the alert to re- 
ceive it and take care of it. The pious delight that Pecksniff 
felt when his digestive machinery wis wound up and going 
imparts an infinite relish to our very existence. The glow of 
benevolence that comes over one after a warm meal, the 
hearty invigoration, and then the force evolved from a good 
bill of fare illustrate the workings of a wonderful mechanism 
within us. The pulse is quickened, the temperature is raised* 
there is no fri<5lion among the fundtions, the wheels within 
wheels spin, and the whole organism is in tune. Harmony 
reigns and healthy repair is the result. So, in the higher 
form of digestion, the analogy holds. The brain is the great 
receptacle of our mental food. Whatever material the sen- 
ses gather is carried to it for solution, analysis, assimilation. 
But, instead of one mouth this system has five of them. In- 
stead of one long tube, through which all the aliment must pass, 
there are many avenues to this upper stomach. And, what 
is more remarkable, each of these orifices and conductors 
filters and conveys its own proper kind of food and no other. 
The eye has no perception of sound, nor the ear of light. 
The wave on which the elements of thought and enjoyment 
find access must be the right one, or it will not gain an 
entrance. 



438 CincinncUi Medical Advance, 

Each of the five senses is, therefore, an aid to mental di- 
gestion. Its special duty is to separate the kind of food 
which it carries and contributes to the common stock. Sighti 
hearing, taste, smell, and touch stand in a most important 
relation to our mental powers, qualities, and attributes. To 
keep us in proper accord with the external world, they are 
indispensible. If there were no brain there could be no mind. 
If the senses were obliterated the brain could have little or 
nothing to do. The elements of thought must be poured 
into this digester, or its function will pradtically cease. Shut 
off the senses, and the elaboration of ideas is at a stand-still, 
or nearly so, just as incubation stops when you coat the egg 
with varnish. The hen may set on such an Qgg until dooms- 
day, but her progeny will never crow nor cackle. 

This is the prehension or taking in of aliment, which pre- 
cedes its digestion. Once the materials of thought have 
been properly furnished, the healthy brain will take care of 
them. And the process, hke that of physical digestion, is 
full of enjoyment. There is no pleasure to compare with 
that which springs from a6live mental exercise. The blood 
mounts to the head and winds through the tortuous vessels 
of the brain as a prime connedlion of its fundlional activity. 
The faculties arc clear and the ideas flow. New combina- 
tions of old elements suggest themselves. The buds of thought 
blossom and shed their fragrance all around. The emotions 
coquette with the will and the understanding. The mind 
soars with poetry, or settles itself into a philosophical train. 
Healthy cerebration of brain- work is the highest type of hu 
man enjoyment, fascinating, exhilirating and even intoxi- 
cating. 

If these two forms of digestion were not subje(5t to disor- 
der, the sum total of our happiness would be increased a 
thousand-fold. But they do not aflbrd an exception to the 
rule, that the more delicaic an organ, and the wider the range 
of its relations to human welfares, the greater its proneness 
to become diseased. 

There are comparatively few persons who pass through 
life without more or less of indigestion. Even supposing 



Mental DyapepMia. 430 

them to be born with good stomachs, not more than loo ba- 
bies get through "teething" without having acquired the dys- 
peptic bias. Before they are old enough to eat, their alimen- 
tary system is upset. And, as for mental dyspepsia, a majority 
of the children who have spent a few years at school have 
had a similar experience. Indeed it would not be difficult to 
prove that the risks of the nursery, great as they are, arc 
exceeded by those which are contingent upon the acquisi- 
tion of our "early education," as it is called. For the young 
brain, which is only half developed at birth, is slow to unfold 
its faculties, and those faculties are correspondingly weak and 
susceptible of derangement. 

If this question did not touch the secret springs and forces 
of society, it would not, perhaps, merit our consideration. 
But I submit whether, these things being so, we should in- 
quire into the causes and consequences of mental dyspepsia? 

To insure its proper a6lion, the brain must be healthy to 
begin with. This condition supplied, its food must be furn- 
ished in proper amount and quality. The taste, appetite, and 
capacity for digestion must be consulted. For it is just as 
important to regulate the methods of study and observation, 
the desires and inclination with respcdt to brain food as it is 
to the taking of any other aliment. To read a book, no 
matter how good a one it may be, when the mind does not 
crave it and can not enjoy it, is like cramming the stomach 
with what is distasteful and repulsive. Its integral may be 
of the right kind, but it does not accord with the eternal fit- 
ness of things to thrust it upon the organism in such a way 
and at such a time. 

We are all possessed of instinctive desires for certain kinds 
of mental nutriment, which, if they are not perverted, will 
sooner or later declare themselves, and help us to decide 
what knowledge is best for us. If we violate these instin^^ls 
by arbitrary or artificial rules, we will certainly become the 
vi<5lims of mental dyspepsia. 

Now these instindls differ, not only in individuals, but also 
in the same person at different times. While we could none 
of us read all books that are on our shelves at a single sit- 



440 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

ting, or in a month, any more than we could eat and digest 
as many dishes at one meal, still, between youth and old age, 
we might, perhaps, find a time in which their contents would 
be grateful and useful to us. 

Unless they are decidedly morbid, the instindls that regu- 
late the appetite are in strit^ accord with the capacity for 
digestion, and with the ultimate needs of the economy also. 
This rule applies to the brain as well as to the stomach. The 
little child craves an excess of sugar in its food; its stomach 
is not disturbed by taking it, as yours or mine would be, and 
so its little organism gets what it wants, and must have in 
some form or other. Young people of from 12 to 20 years 
have a similar relish for fidlion, and the natural desire may be 
gratified and satisfied without harm, if their mental condi- 
tion is sound and their surroundings are what they should 
be. The child's appetite for sweets will soon change, and it 
will want something more substantial; the novel reader will 
soon be cloyed with the husks of literature, and ready and 
anxious for something better. In cither case, if we attempt 
to force matters wc work mischief. 

The daily experiences of life change our mental needs as 
they change our acquaintance. Something of this change 
is undoubtedly due to fashion, but it is not exclusively the 
result of caprice or of accident. The ornamental acquire- 
ments that we first seek will not and can not always satisfy. 
Only a morbid appetite will content itself with them. We 
must develop the inborn ideas, the thoughts and feeling 
which arc not merely decorative, but useful also. Milk an- 
swers for babes, but full-grown men and women want a 
difTerent diet. 

It would be unreasonable to supi)ose that those of us who 
carry weight in life, and who are responsible to society as its 
workers, should not vary our mental bill of fare to suit the 
demands that are made upon us, as well as our changing 
ability to digest what wc have taken. . And it would be still 
more unreasonable to frame a diet-table regardless of these 
fa6ts, and then to expect and to hope for the exemption 
from the consequences of our folly. Next to the wicked 



Co7Tesp<mdence, 441 

propensity to classify all minds as alike in their needs and 
requirements, is a criminal disregard of the truism that our 
mental aptitude to learn and to teach, to plan and to produce, 
varies from day to day. If we prescribe or pra6lice such 
habits of study and observation as are framed without refer- 
ence to this sliding-scale, a mental indigestion with its un- 
fortunate consequences is inevitable. 

Moreover it is impossible to maintain a healthy balance 
among the faculties without changing the sources of thought. 
If we always read the same authors, and apply to the same 
springs of information only, the brain will store itself with 
cock-eyed perceptions and half truths. And not only will 
its ideas be dwarfed and unsatisfying, but the remaining 
faculties will become powerless and useless from lack of 
exercise. So that, within proper limits, a mixed diet is just 
as necessary for the mind as it is for the body. 



-♦-•- 



FluladelpMa Correspondence. 

Dear Doctor: — The Dec. No. of the Medical. Advance has 
been received in advance of time. Your remarks on the Twelve 
Tissue Remedies have been read with interest, especially, as 
I had tried my ability to express an opinion on this new 
Departure, in the October number of the Ilahnemannian 
Monthly. Although "recommended for investigation," I 
should think there were but few men among us so insane as 
to accept »Schussler's dictum, based on his study and experi- 
ment when, at sight, they find him making boastfully absurd 
statementrtj when they find him on the physiological and 
functional crutches, evidently, suffering from locomotor atax- 
ia. All the new discoveries, based on study and experiment, 



442 Cincinnati Medical Advance^ 

in any of the collateral branches of sciences, if true, can bo 
made subservient to accepted infallible principles ; may they 
be offered to the world at large ; they can be made subser- 
vient to religious fundamental truths, if offered to us, as 
Homeopath ists, they can bo made subservient to the funda- 
mental and infallible principle, which we are supposed to 
to have accepted when we entered the ranks of a school, 
founded and characteristically named by Hahnemann. Only 
the illiberal, contracted mind will reject the proffered facts, 
because one or another illogical enthusiast has drawn wrong 
or false deductions from these otherwise carefully stated ob- 
served facts. But we do ask ourselves : Why are we pun- 
ished with these frequent " Departures ?*' Wo see the evil, 
the growing evil ; and for all evils there is a remedy. As 
long as men, in or out of the profession, will submit to be 
guided by the opinions of miserable, fallible men, these 
"Departures" will multiply, from Humphrey's Homoeopathic 
Specifics, down to the Twelve Tissue Specifics and Grauvogers 
Lapis Albus (another Specific for Carcinoma). It has been 
men's opinions which have superseded the (by them violated) 
fundamental principles. 

As long as our societies, our colleges, our journals de- 
cline to define their views of what is truly Homooopathy, as 
long as no definition of our fundamental principles is offer- 
ed ! just so long will the increasing number of "Liberals," 
of men who are taught to believe in the freedom of medical 
opinion and action, be exposed to the temptations offered 
" lazy doctors." And if this is so, then the only remedy is, 
to unite upon infallible fundamental principles, belonging to 
the school of Homoeopathy ; such united acknowledgment 
of principles will require a free discussion of them ; to make 
a beginning in the good work, may 1 be permitted to sug- 
gest for further consideration, a creed of ours, expressed in 
three sentences. 

1. The Dynamic Origin of Diseases. 

2. The Dynamized Single Eemedy, administered under 

3. The Laws of the Similars. 



Correspondence. 443 

Otj shall wo consent to submit these weighty subjects to 
self-constituted arbitration ? The tendency of our days lies 
in that direction. Permit me to call your attention to 
"Facts." Vide Ilahnemannian Monthly, vol. x. no. 4, p. 183. 
A well qualified professional gentleman, published a mild 
criticism ot Dr. Korndoerter*s translation of Boenninghau- 
sen's Fever-Work, with additions, the renowned author re- 
sents the critisism, and assumes the responsibility of the 
work as it stands, but claims the valuable assistance of Dr. 
Hering, which he says : " Is not deserving of maligning 
from such a source !" He further says on page 184, "Many 
symptoms, however, have been purposely omitted. " These 
are such for which no guarantee of sufficient weight could 
bo obtained." Here we have a self-constituted committee 
sifting our Materia Mcdica, and rejecting just what is thought 
of light weight. In order to show the great danger which 
such arbitrary proceedings will inflict on us, we shall men- 
tion only one symptom of one remedy. Under Eupatorium, 
we find, " vomiting at the conclusion of the chill." True, 
Dr. Walter Williamson gives in the Transactions of Ameri- 
can Institute of Homoeopathy, 1846, the same symptom (150) 
but also, (Symptom 148) retching and vomiting of bile. 
Afler having had a rather enlarged experience by the clini- 
cal experiment of the curative action of Eupatorium, es- 
pecially in intermittent fever, having successfully cured 
hundreds of cases by means of this remedy ever since 1846, 
we eiideavored to give a concise pathogenesis of it in our 
text book, and these did give (symptoms 24 and 35) vomit- 
ing of bile. Why does the eminent author drop this char- 
acteristic symptom ? And if his siflings, omissions and al- 
terations supersede in reality the proffered experience ot 
men " who can not give guarantee of suflScient weight," why 
docs ho resort to that, among men of letters considered 
impropriety^ in answer to a criticism ? Must the oii\y critic 
bo the gentleman whom he chooses to parade before the 
profession as having rendered him valuable assistance, who 
surely will be exonerated from participating in the reckless 
manner in really caricaturing, at least, Eupatorium? Dr 



444 Cincimiati Medical Advance. 

Hering has persistently objected to such arbitrary actions, 
and now is called upon to be sponser to them. C. Ilg. has 
cartfully collected all symptons of new and old remedies, 
given by all kinds of men, without considering their color 
or previous conditions, and was thereby enabled to add very 
valuable works to our Materia Medica. Will the profession 
submit their principles or their Materia Medica to such ar- 
bitration ? That 18 the question. 

Yours, very truly, 

Ad. Lippe. 

Philadelphia, 1204 Walnut St., \ 
November 30th, 1874. j 



♦ ♦ 



Bnffialo Oorrespondenc©. By Mrs. E. G. Cook, M. D. 

My Dear Doctor: I am really surprised to see in the Ad- 
vance a statement like the following: "It is my opinion, that 
humanized virus acts better in a majority of cases and is a 
more certain preventive of smallpox," etc. It is absolutely 
fearful to think of the ignorance of physicians who are having 
so little observation, if indeed they are sincere. And unless 
Homoeopathic physicians can keep pace with the Allopaths iu 
reformatory measures they had better join hands and go back- 
ward a few centuries. All the advice given regarding the use 
of humanized virus, sounds like going back to corduroy cause- 
ways, instead of railway coaches. Our experience has been 
large and we have seen enough bad results from the use of hu- 
manized virus to arm us to the teeth against its use in almost 
any emergency. And as it is so easy to obtain fresh from the 
kine, why not come out square and recommend it. I could 
write you of a hundred cases, had I time, where the bad results 
were unmistakably from the humanized. 



ITieory and Practice. 445 

Another very important bit of knowledge, especially for our 
school is, that mixing the crust with glycerine and keeping it 
for several days should never be used, as septic acid is devel- 
oped and fearful results have followed its use in our hands. 

Preach fresh virus from the kine for every child worth vac- 
cinating! 

Please fire a shot at the advocates of humanized virus in 
this degenerate age and oblige yours, etc. 



%\%n% an& ^tu%\t%* 



Tjrphoid Fover. By O. W. Lounsbury, M. D. Read before 
the Homoeopathic Medical Society of Cincinnati. 

Typhoid fever, variously denominated illeotyphus, typhus 
abdominalis, enteric fever, enteromcsenteric fever, and ner 
vous fever, is produced in the human species by some foreign 
ivfections agent, such as emanations from decomposing ani- 
mal substances. 

It abounds most in those localities which are most cursed 
with similar contagium. 

The germs of typhoid are believed to be low organisms or 
animalcula:, which propagate not only without, but also within 
the bodies of typhoid patients. Occurring in secluded places 
sporadically without other appreciable cause, this fever has 
been oftentimes thought to be of miasmatic origin. 

Overcrowded cities, hospitals, tenement houses, etc., favor, 
from one cause or another, the development of typhoid 
germs, and all ord special facilities for the dread march of this 
dangerous disease. 



446 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

It is claimed that the contagion is less in abdominal typhus, 
than in exanthcmatic typhus, and that this contagion clings 
especially to the dejedlions of the patien*. Exhalations from 
the lungs and skin may transmit contagion, but this is quite 
problematical, since it is very rarely that persons in attend- 
ance upon the patient are infe(5led, and when infc<5tion does 
occur, it may be entirely due to emanations from his dejec- 
tions. These emanations are said to be more dangerous than 
immediate contadl^with the typhoid patient's person. 

There is, apparently, a great diflerence in the susceptibility 
of individuals to typhoid infe(5lion. Such as arc habituated by 
exposure to favoring causes, are less liable to danger in 
cpedemics than others, as in intermittent fever, persons ac- 
customed to the peculiar ague miasm of any se<5tion, are less 
liable to the disease than temporary residents therein. 

Again, middle-aged persons are more liable to attacks of 
typhoid than the young or old. Within the range of my 
observation, cases of typhoid fever have invariably occurred 
between the ages of 20 and 45 years; these may not, indeed, 
be the limits, but such has been my experience. Males are 
attacked oftcncr than females, and the poor more frequently 
than the rich. Pregnancy, nursing, child-bed and tubuculosis, 
are said to give comparative immunity from typhoid attacks. 
According to Nicmeyer, the most important pathological 
changes are to be found in the small intestines, as it is their 
mucous membrane which is principally aflfedled. At the 
outset, this membrane becomes hyperaxmic, appearing swol- 
len, relaxed, cloudy and covered with masses of mucous and 
epithelium. This condition may involve the whole membrane 
of the intestines, but it especially involves that part near the 
illeo-c(Bcal valve. The mesenteric glands are also swollen, 
soft, vascular and dark-colored. 

Succeeding the above conditions, appears the second stage 
— that of infiltration — during which the hyperaemia of the 
membrane intensifies and concentrates on the parts around 
the solitary and Peyer's glands in the lower part of the illium. 
The swollen solitary gland oftentimes reaches to the size of 
a pea, while Peyer's patches increase to one and one-half 



7%eort/ and Practice. 447 

inches in diameter. These patches usually unite or co<iIesce 
in the region of the valve, so that they sometimes cover 
several inches of the intestines. 

Subsequently, these changes are either removed by absorp- 
tion of the contents of the follicles as in abortive typhoid, or 
else the glands break down and slough away, leaving a 
troublesome, typhous ulcer. The following important charac- 
ters of this ulcer is given in a quotation from Rokitansky: 
"According as it has resulted from a solitary follicle or from a 
Peyer's parch, it is round or oval, and, if there has been only 
a partial slough on the Peyer's patch, it is irregular; it varies 
in size from that of a pea, to that of a dollar; its seat is in the 
lower part of the small intestine, and the ulcers proceeding 
from Peyer's patches, are of course opposite to the insertion 
of the mesentery. The long diameter of the elliptical ulcer 
corresponds to the long axis of the intestine; the margin of 
the ulcer is formed by a bluish-red, later slate-gray border 
of mucous membrane, about a line broad, which is movable 
over the surface of the ulcer. The floor of the ulcer is a 
delicate layer of the submucous connective tissue, which 
covers the muscular coat. 

Sometimes perforation of the intestinal coats occurs as a 
result of gangrene of the mucous membrane not only, but 
also of the muscular and serous coats. In this case, the con- 
tents of the bowels may penetrate the peritoneal cavity and 
set up a severe and formidable peritonitis. A mild form of 
peritonitis often takes place without perforation. 

The healing and cicatrization of typhus ulcers, Rokitansky 
describes as follows: The loose border of mucous membrane, 
forming the edge of the ulcer, becomes attached to the floor of 
the ulcer, gradually from the periphery toward the center, at 
the same time it becomes pale and less thick; the delicate 
connedlive tissue layer, which covers the muscular coat in the 
floor of the ulcer, becomes whitish, thickened, and is finally 
transformed into a serous plate, into which the adherent bor- 
der passes imperceptibly, thinning, as it approaches the center. 
The mucous membrane gradually extends over this plate 
toward the center of the ulcer, but at the same time, becomes 



448 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

thinner, from the tension to which it is subjedled. When the 
edges of the mucous membrane come together and adhere, 
the healing is complete. From the thinning of the mucous 
membrane, the cicatrix forms a slight depression; it is often 
somewhat pigmented, it is smoother than the parts around, 
and studded with a few tufts. Cicatrization of the typhus 
ulcers never causes stridlure of the intestines. 

In addition to the foregoing changes, others of a compli- 
cated nature sometimes supervene, such, as pneumo-typhus, 
broncho-typhus, etc. This disease does not run an uniform 
course, but is greatly influenced by surrounding conditions, 
and modified by proper medical treatment. 

A chill, more or less severe, usually ushers in the the ty- 
phoid attack, which is generally preceded by lassitude, weak- 
ness, slow pulse, head-ache, and vertigo, besides increasing 
symptoms of debility, for days or weeks. The chill is fol- 
lowed by fever, which keeps a chara(5leristic typical rise of 
temperature, from morning to evening, of one decree, and a 
fall of one-half a degree from evening to next morning, every 
day for the first week. Meantime, the pulse rises from 90 to 
100 beats per minute, and the patient complains of increased 
head-ache, vertigo, prostration, flickering before the eyes, 
and ringing in the ears. His sleep is restless, he has tire- 
some dreams, and he mutters incoherently. Constipation is 
usually succeeded by diarrhoea near the end of the first week. 
The tongue is flabby and coated by whitish fur, followed in 
a few days by a red, dry, cracked appearance. The abdomen 
becomes bloated, and painful to pressure in the illeo-ccrcal 
region, where, in cases of typhoid diarrhoea, a gurgling sound 
is produced. Roseola spots appear upon the chest and ab- 
domen in the region of, and surrounding the epigastrium. 

During the second week, all the symptoms of the patient 
intensify, until the mind is unable to perform its fun<5lions, the 
abdomen grows tympanitic, sordes appear on the teeth and 
gums, tongue is covered with brownish crust, stool and urine 
are involuntarily voided. 

In the third week, the disease reaches its height, and, if it 
does not take a favorable turn, followed by a gradual abate- 



TTieary and Pmctice. 449 

ment of the symptoms during the latter part of this week, 
the patient inevitably sinks into complete prostration, 
somnolence and stupor, and death soon closes the scene. 

The treatment of this disease, Homocopathically, presents a 
favorable contrast to the heroic pra<5tice of our Allopathic 
brethren, both as to its duration and mortality. It is not un- 
common for well-chosen Homoeopathic remedies to abort the 
disease the first week, nay, to wipe it out at its first approach. 

During the premonitory stages, the proper use of ele<5tro- 
magnetism is often sufiicient to entirely avert the disease. 

Bryonia and Rhus tox. correspond most nearly to the or- 
dinary typhoid symptoms. They especially correspond to 
brown-coated, rough tongue, bilious derangements, bitter 
taste and nausea, constipation or foul discharges, petechia, 
extreme prostration, low muttering, delirium, putrid or bloody 
diarrhoea, cough, with stitches in the chest, great thirst and 
scanty urine. 

Arsenicum corresponds to great debility^ prostration, rapid 
and alarming, small, thready pulse, cold perspiration, diarrhoea, 
with dark and oflfensive discharges. 

Ipecac, mercurius, veratrum, phos. and many other reme- 
dies will often be indicated as one or another of the concom- 
itant symptoms arise. 



♦ ♦ 



Discussion on Dr. Lonnsbnry's Paper. 

Dr. Owens begged to differ with the gentleman, especially 
on the etiology and pathology of the disease. The paper 
does not sufficiently distinguish between typhus and typhoid. 
There is a clear distin<5tion. Typhus is a disease of cities, 
camps, ships, and springs up where impure air is generated. 
But typhoid is a disease of the country, where there is no 
Feb-2 



450 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

crowding, and the air is abundant and pure. I do not be- 
lieve typhoid takes its origin from decaying animal substances. 
It is essentially miasmatic. Typhus is no respe6ter of age, 
while typhoid keeps pretty carefully within the bounds of 
15 to 45 years of age. The typhus ulcer spoken of, is on 
the side of the bowel opposite the attachment of the mes- 
entery. Rhus is indicated by the feeling of exhaustion, bry- 
onia by the feeling of soreness. Now most cases exhibit at 
the outset both these conditions, and when given in alterna- 
tion, will, in nine cases^out of ten, abort them within the first 
week. 

Dr. Buck: These diseases are exceedingly prevalent in the 
west. But typhus is found mostly in the Mississippi Valley, 
while in the north and north-west, we have typhoid. But the 
differential diagnosis is not always clear. These diseases of- 
ten blend in a case. You cannot tell with certainty just what 
you have got. Sometimes the type is markedly bilious, and 
then baptisia and gelseminum will cure. At the inception of- 
en belladonna and aconite given low and in alternation, will 
break up the attack at once. Typhus comes from a poison 
absorbed, while typhoid generally comes from exhaustion; 
the nervous system and blood are affected; this induces the 
attack. Cases occur which are ushered in by profuse haem- 
orrhage from the bowels, a vessel half full at the first dis- 
charge. These cases require the mineral acids. But if begin- 
ning with a profuse watery discharge, then terebinth is the 
remedy. 

Dr. Owens: Terebinth, like aconite, a<5ts on the arterial cir- 
culation. If the blood is black, belladonna; if bright, tere- 
binth or aconite. But what shall we do with the phlegmons 
that so often occur? 

Dr. Stuard: If superficial, lance them; if deep, give nutri- 
tious diet and hepar sulph. 

Dr. Marvin: Suppose we have cerebral symptoms, violent 
delirium passing down to stupor? 

Dr. Owens: Bell, has this symptom, and is the remedv. 

Dr. Buck: That depends upon the condition of things. The 
brain is engorged — if with pure blood, then bell.; if with dis- 



Theory and Practice. 461 

organized blood, hyos., or stram. In the first case we would 
have a furious delirium, and in the second, a low muttering. 

Dr. Griffin: Does it make any difference in our treatment 
whether we have a case of typhus or typhoid? 

Dr. Owens: The symptoms must in any case be our guide. 
But in typhus the blood will not coagulate, whereas in ty- 
phoid the clot is readily formed. Our remedies correspond 
to these conditions. Bell., arsenic, lach., etc., produce and 
cure blood decompositions. So the pathology is our key af- 
ter all. Those who treat by symptoms alone are empirics. 
We are rational only when we go by the pathology. 

Dr. Morrow: Are cases treated sometimes successfully with- 
out medicine? Is the disease necessarily fatal or is it self-lim- 
iting? (No one attempted to answer these questions. We sug- 
gest they be propounded again. Reporter.) 

Dr. Wilson: It struck me as curious, that after carefully de- 
scribing the pathology of the disease, the condition of the 
glands, pyers patches, the ulcers, etc., that no use was made 
of the information in the proposed treatment. The writer 
does not say if they indicate electro-magnetism, or bryonia, 
or phos., or how they are indicated. The remedies point to 
the aches and pains of the head, and limbs, and body, the dry 
tongue, the quick pulse, thedryskiii, and not a word about the 
"spreading," "excoriating," "whitish" ulcer, or any of those 
wonderful pathological pictures. These other gentlemen talk 
of decomposed blood that does and does not coagulate, of 
paralysis of the vaso-motor nerves, etc. May I ask how we 
are to find these things out? Must we bleed our patient and 
test the blood? Otherwise we are in the dark on these points. 
It is not clear how these gentlemen make so much out of 
their pathology. The information one gets out of such de- 
scriptions is seriously affected in its value by these two facts: 
first, it is doubtful if they can be ascertained during the life 
of the patient, and secondly, it does not appear how, even if 
known, they are to affect our treatment. I am speaking now 
of the paper presented, and the discussion following, and not 
of a universal fact 



452 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



Ulcers. By E. S. Stuard M. D. Re«id before the Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society of Cincinnati. 

Mr, Chairman and Gentlemen: — Having been requested by 
our honorable Chairman to prepare a paper under the head of 
Ulcers, the subject for discussion this evening, permit me to 
submit the following: The materials of which this is com- 
. posed is not original, but made up from information derived 
from men and books, and my object in laying it before you, is 
to fix a common center around which those luminaries that de- 
sire to throw light upon the subject may revolve; for I can as- 
sure you, gentlemen, that the subject of ulcers, and especially 
their successful treatment still requires a great deal of light. 
If there is one class of maladies above another, that causes 
more annoyance to the patient, and defies the best directed ef- 
forts of the physician to heal it is that of chronic ulcers; of 
their pathology and therapy we have much to learn, and we 
think we do not err much when we say that the successful 
treatment of the great mass of chronic sores that afiiict the 
human race, is confined to the efforts of a few physicians only. 
It behooves us gentlemen of the medical profession, by a closer 
study of their pathology and proper treatment, to change the 
order of things in this particular. An ulcer, in the words of 
Gross, "is a breach in the continuity of a surface, organ, or tis- 
sue, attended with inflammation, and a discharge of pus, ichor 
or sanies." These sores are the results of ulcerative action, 
and ulceration according to the definition of the same author, 
"is one of the results of inflammation, causing molecular death 
in a part as mortification is the destruction of parts upon 
a large scale." To this day, the nosography of ulcers is 
very imperfect, although their classifications have been much 
simplified since the days of the early writers upon the sub- 
ject. Cooper, in his works, sets down no less than ten forms 
of ulcers, namely: the healthy, languid, inflamed, irritable, 
gangrenous, sinuous, menstrual, varicose, ungual, and cutan- 
eous. 



Theory and Prdctice. 463 

Miller, of more recent date, mentions ten varieties, viz: 
Ist, simple, purulent or healthy; 2d, the weak; 3d, the scrof- 
ulous; 4th, the chachectic; 5th, the indolent; 6th, the irritable; 
7th, the inflamed; 8th, the sloughing; 9th, the phagedenic; 
10th, the sloughing phageda^na. Helmuth separates them into 
two divisions: the first embraces the simple, indolent, and 
irritable, and the second includes those sores that have ac- 
quired a specific character from the diseases with which they 
may be associated. Gross divides the whole subject into two 
genera, common and specific; and into two classes, acute and 
chronic. 

For convenience, we propose to adopt the classification of 
the last named, bcUveing with him, *' that the catalogue of 
most authorities upon ulcers, comprehend under different 
names, diseases absolutely and positively identical.^' Let us, 
as Ilomoeopathists, when we come to treat ulcers, strip the 
whole matter of its divisions and subdivisions, consider each 
ulcer separately, view the symptoms, local and constitutional, 
in their totality, find among our provings a corresponding pic- 
ture, administer the selected remedy faithfully and conscien- 
tiously, if the disease does not yield, then try Allopathy, 
Hydropathy, Eclecticism, so called, use any thing, but heal 
them as speedily as possible, without detriment to the patient. 

Common ulcers are such as are produced by ordinary cau- 
ses, as common inflammation, etc., abrasions, contused wounds. 
Specific ulcers are due to the operation of some specific poi- 
son, as that of glanders, syphilis, small-pox, and the various 
forms of cancerous growths. 

The admirable description of the acute ulcers by Gross, 
found in his great work on surgery, is too long for insertion in 
a paper of this kind; we extract from it the following: "The 
acute ulcer is distinguished by the rapidity of its progress, 
and the severity of its symptoms. The sore usually begins 
at a small point of skin or. skin and cellular tissue, from which 
it speedily spreads in different directions, until it often covers 
a large extent of surface. In its form, it is generally some- 
what oval or circular, but it is frequently very irregular, and 
instances are met with in which it is of a serpiginious creep- 



454 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

ing or angular shape. ** " The parts immediately around the 
ulcer exhibit all the phenomena of high inflammation^ being 
of a deep-red or purple color, preternaturally hot, painful, and 
more or less sadematous from sero-plastic effusions, and conse- 
quently pitting under pressure." "The pain of the acute ulcer 
is frequently a prominent and absorbing symptom; it varies 
not only in degree, but likewise in character, being at one 
time throbbing and pulsatile, at another, dull, heavy, and 
knawing, as if insects were feeding upon the parts." The lo- 
cal affection is usually attended with some constitutional 
disturbance, which partakes of an irritable, rather than 
a febrile character, however, when the ulcerative action is 
rapid and extensive, there is generally more or less fever 
present. 

Chronic Ulcers. — The term chronic, refers to time, and as 
applied to diseased conditions, designates a class of affections, 
which have passed through their acute stages, and in conse- 
quence of treatment, and the lapse of time, have been modi- 
fied somewhat as regards their appearances and course. In 
chronic ulcer, quoting the words of the same authority, " the 
inflammation now generally exists in a much milder form; there 
is less functional disturbance, while the constitutional de- 
rangement often entirely ceases, and the local phenomena of 
heat, redness, pain, and swelling are materially diminished. 
The part, however, is oppressed if not overpowered by fluids, its 
vessels are sluggish, dilated, and engorged with dark blood; 
nervous sensibility is perverted, and the restorative tendency is 
much enfeebled or else completely at a stand; ulceration still 
goes on, and perhaps serious havoc is committed by the action, 
but that action is tardy and exhibits few, if any of the pheno- 
mena which characterized it in the first instance." 

A description of the various fonns of specific ulcers would 
consume too much time, and as we think we have*already ac- 
complished the end intended, we will conclude this paper by a 
brief consideration of the primary syphilitic ulcer. 

By most modern writers upon the subject, primary syphili- 
tic sores are divided into the hard, indurated or Ilunterian 
chancre, and the chancroid or soft chancre. The hard chancre 



TTiecry and Prcuitice. 455 

is almost invariably followed by constitutional symptoms, 
whatever be the treatment. 

The soft chancre is never followed by constitutional symp- 
toms, and by no course of medication can it be converted into a 
sore that will specifically effect the system at large. The spe- 
cific difference then between a hard and a soft chancre is, that 
the former effects the constitution, while the latter is strictly 
a local affection, and when once cured, never gives rise to le- 
sions elsewhere in the body. How can we distinguish between 
an indurated chancre and a chancroid? A very pertinent ques- 
tion, indeed, but one that can not be satisfactorily answered, 
until sufficient time has elapsed to ascertain if the system has 
become infected or not. Prof. V". Sigmund, surgeon in charge 
of the venereal department of the great hospital in Vienna, 
where from ten to fifteen thousand venereal patients are 
treated annually, in reply to the question if he could tell, from 
its appearance, whether a chancre was of the hard or soft 
variety, replied that he could not with certainty tell, and that 
the only means he had of ascertaining the difference, was to 
await the characteristic constitutional signs of syphilis, * if 
they appeared, then the sore was a chancre, if they failed to 
make their appearance, then it was a chancroid. 

The treatment of ulcers we have purposely omitted, leaving 
to yon, out of the abundance of your experience and know- 
ledge upon the subject, to inform us of the most approved 
and speediest manner, in which a cure can be brought about. 

We would suggest that in the discussion that follows, that 
the acute common ulcer be considered first, then the chronic 
common ulcer, and, lastly, the specific ulcer. We would also 
suggest that in the consideration of specific ulcers, that the 
gentlemen would confine themselves to the discussion of 
venereal sores only. In conclusion, we would state the only 
apology we have to offer for the brevity and incompleteness 
of this article, is that we know very little of a practical na- 
ture about the subject, and our attempt at compliance with 
the request of our chairman, grew out of a dislike to shirk 
any reasonable task imposed upon us. We might say further, 
that it is not an unusual thing in medical societies for mem- 



456 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

bers to persistently refuse to take part in discnssions, and by 
a neglect, when so requested, to furnish matter or material 
that might be of interest, seriously impair their usefulness, 
and pave the way to their early dissolution. 



» • 



Discussion following Dr. Stuard's Paper. E-eported by C. E. 

Fisher, M. D. 

Dr. Owens: Specific ulcers are frequently propagated by in- 
oculation. The treatment of the specific ulcer, in the primary 
stage, has always been cauterization in some form or another, 
generally by the application of argentum nitricum, Vienna paste, 
caustic potash, or some such preparation. When these fail the 
knife has to be resorted to. 

This treatment, which has prevailed for centuries, has its ob- 
jections, and I do not employ it. My method is to apply dilute 
acetic acid to the chancre, no matter what the stage, using 
about the first decimal dilution, penciling the sore thoroughly. 

Even when the ulcer is ragged with a lardaceous base, this 
application is an excellent one, and the sore will heal by gran- 
ulation, following its use. When applied early the chancre will 
heal kindly in about ten days, and when applied fifteen days, 
or more, after the appearance of the chancre, it will heal in 
about a month. 

In connection with the acid, when the above conditions are 
present, I prescribe, internally, mercurius bin., 2d trit., every 
two hours. 

I have never yet seen a case of secondary syphilis following 
this treatment, and it thoroughly destroys the syphilitic poison 
when used in the first stages. 

I have used the acetic acid also, in phagadenic ulcers with 
sloughing, with good results. I am using it now in a case 



Theory and Practice. 457 

which came to me on the twenty-first day, with sloughing ex- 
tending to the root of the penis and the scrotum. 

The patient is recovering rapidly, although he has a crop of 
secondary which will be the subject of after treatment. 

For the copper colored spots remaining on the hands and 
face, after the syphilitic erifption, I find the following very use- 
ful, serving to bleach out the copper color from the spots, al- 
though it leaves the skin a little whiter at these points than on 
the surrounding tissue: 

Sp'ts Turpentine, 4 5 jv. 
Calomel, 1 3 j. 

Mix — Wash the spots well two or three times a day. 

In buboes, my plan is to keep the ulcer discharging as long 
as it is possible, after it shows signs of pointing. 

Hasten the process all you can, and then by poultices and 
the use of the indicated remedies, free the system from all the 
poison you possibly can. 

Dr. Slosson: Ulcers of all forms are dependant, to a 
great extent, on depraved innervation and mal-assimilation. 
The only case of exemption is that of specific or syphilitic ul- 
cers, and, even in these, this law will frequently hold good. 
My treatment, in view of the above fact, is nearly always con- 
stitutional. 

In the specific ulcer, I always neutralize the poisonous dis- 
charge and prevent the absorption of it. As an external ap- 
plication, I have used with success, sulphuric acid, diluted, and 
crude carbo veg., sufiicient to make a thick paste. The acetic 
acid recommended by Dr. Owens, is a new idea to me, but a 
good one, I think, and I will give it a trial. 

The constitutional treatment consists generally of mercury 
of some form, the biniodide 2d trit. acting the best perhaps* 
In connection with this remedy, I sometimes use an application 
of carbolic acid, one drachm to an ounce of glycerine, and 
keep the ulcer perfectly clean. I always follow the treatment 
with sulphur, beginning with the 3d decimal trit. twice a day, 
lengthening the interval and making a higher attenuation to 
close the case. 



458 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

When the patient has once been mercurialized, I find nitric 
acid and sulphur, in alternation, excellent remedies, acting up- 
on the mercurial and syphilitic disease at the same time. Mer- 
curius alone, of a high attenuation is sometimes used, on the 
principle of Isopathy. Always make it your rule to build up 
the constitution, and afterward treat the ulcer specifically. 

Dr. Marvin: What are the diagnostic signs between the chan- 
cre and chancroid? 

Dr. Stuard: From an English author of note, I glean the 
following: 

Chancroid is never followed by constitutional disturbance, 
while the chancre nearly always is, if allowed to run its course. 

This is the principal, and, in fact, you may say, the only real 
diagnostic difference. The chancroid when cauterized pre- 
sents the appearance of the true chancre. I disagree with Dr. 
Owens, as to keeping buboes open as long as possible, and al- 
ways try to heal them as soon as I can. 

When constitutional in form, I always give the mercurials, 
generally the protoiodide, and in ulcei'ation of the throat, give 
a mild dilution of nitric acid. 

Dr. Wilson: In the indolent ulcer, with hard excoriated 
edges, and the surrounding tissue involved to a greater or less 
extent, cut it out, and heal the wound by granulation. Other 
forms arc sometimes cared by the plastic operation. Reliable 
trustworthy statistics can not be obtained, concerning the ad- 
vantage of Homoeopathic treatment, in venereal diseases on 
account of a lack of hospitals, to carefully compare and treat 
these diseases. Many cases which come under our charge now, 
are not syphilitic at all, but purely mercurial, and until we 
have a fair chance with our Allopathic brethren, Ilomceopathy 
must be content with the laurels gained in private practice. 



Theory and Practice. 459 



Bhetunatism. By C. T. Corliss, M.D. Read before the Indiana 
Institute of HomoDopathy. 

Rheumatism may be defined an inflammation of the fibrous 
tissues of the larger joints, either acute or chronic; and has 
been by writers divided into four distindt forms, viz: acute 
articular rheumatism, acute muscular rheumatism, chronic 
articular rheumatism arthritic deformans, or arthritic rheuma- 
tism. The pains attendant upon acute or inflammatory rheu- 
matism have been, not inaptly, compared to the tightening of 
a vise upon some portion of the body to its utmost tension 
and, then, as a sample of the gout, gives it one turn more. 

Rheumatism and analagous diseases arc frequently caused 
by inattention to some of the expanding and contradling 
principles that regulate the oiganism. The two inseparable 
processes common to all animal bodies termed endosmosis 
and exosmosis, first, the attradlion of fluids and ethers from 
the external to the interior, and second, the repulsion of 
similar elements from the mucous membranes to the exterior 
surfaces must be kept in a balanced condition else disease is 
the result. 

A large per cent of rheumatic cases have their origin in a 
common cold,and]in order to a successful treatment of each and 
every case, the physician should analyze them very carefully 
in order to arrive at the exad point of attack. The medica- 
tion for this disease should be, therefore, the same as for a com- 
mon cold. The first attention should be diredted to the sur- 
face of the body and limbs. Alkaline, sponge and vapor 
baths should precede all other treatments. The muscles, poi- 
soned by morbid pent-up secretion, must first be relieved of 
their load which has been allowed to accumulate through a 
longer or shorter continuance of collapsed cuticle. 

The cause having been removed by this process of exuda- 
tion, the next care is to seledt the remedy which is in stridt 
Homoeopathic relation to the peculiarities of the afTedion 
sought to be removed as to its location, etc. 

To every individual in all matters medical, the high court 



460 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

of appeal is clinical experience, and the physician in bis own 
juriscii6iion is the judge upon the bench. 

Clinical researches must always hold the most honorable 
of any department of niedicine, and physicians should there- 
fore enter into clinical investigations with ardor and zeal, and 
in each case not only individualize the man, but also the med- 
icine and dose. 

In making diagnosis of a case, the physician can not be too 
careful in discriminating between the apparent and real af- 
fedtion. For instance: Myosotis or myalgia which is an in- 
flammation of the muscles or muscle pain, is too often con- 
founded with, or mistaken for, rheumatism, which is an inflam- 
mation of the fibrous tissues of the larger joints. Again, both 
maybe mistaken for neuralgia, which is a nerve pain, neu- 
ron, nerve and algos, pain. 

It is therefore of the first importance for the physician 
called to treat a case ranging itself under one of the above 
heads, that he make a critical discrimination that he may know 
to a nicity, which one he has to treat. The anatomy of each 
being difl[erent, calls for a difl^erent treatment. It is not nec- 
essary to enter into an elaborate discussion to prove this point. 
I believe the fadt to be apparent. If the larger joints is the 
point of attack sti(5la pul. and rhus tox. demand our first atten- 
tion. Rhus, more especially, if there is a general feeling of 
malaise as when catarrh is coming on. The pains which in- 
dicate bryonia are as if the joints were dislocated when mov- 
ing them, while calcarea is almost a specific for cases contract- 
ed while working in the water. Pulsatilla for those pains 
which shift rapidly from one joint to another. Cimicifuga is 
more especially adapted to the belly of the muscles, also where 
the heart is invaded. The peculiarities of ledum are that the 
pains commence in the feet and work upward, while, like 
mezereum, the warmth of the bed is unbearable. Cimicifuga 
has a peculiar affinity for muscles of the chest and in pleuro- 
dyna often affords almost instant relief. The a<5lion of cactus 
grandifforus in rheumatic affcdlions of the heart is one of our 
most valuable agents, and more than divides the palm with 
spigelia, one of our time honored and most efte6iive remedies. 



Theory and Practice, 461 

Caulophyllum stands first in the list for chronic rheumatism 
of the smaller joints, especially of the hands of females; when 
closing them they are very painful. 

Rheumatic stiffness and drawing of the cervical muscles 
are controlled by gelseminum and sanguinaria canadensis, 
two most efficient remedies, while a crick in the neck with 
severe drawing pains between the shoulders, constant, dull 
pains in the cervical, dorsal and lumbar regions, are relieved at 
once by rhus venenata. 

For gonorrhoeal rheumatism, thuja and phytolacca decandra 
are the most reliable and nearer to specific than any remedy 
we possess, if we except perhaps mercurius. 

Where there is, as sometimes occurs, a gastric disturbance, 
veratrum viride claims our first attention. 

Where there is a latent psoric taint which sometimes com- 
plicates disease and makes it difficult of removal, sulphur 
comes to our aid, and by removing or modifying the same 
brings, the cause at least without the sphere of the proper 
Homoeopathic remedy. 

In the treatment of all these varieties, the potency of the 
remedy, and the frequency of the application is left to the dis- 
criminating physician. I have used the low potencies rang- 
ing from the first decimal to the third. But if any of my 
brother praditioners cures them with the 200th or 200,000th 
with him I have no controversy. Some physicians have 
the temerity to say in almost as many words, that the using 
of the highest potencies is indicative of a higher and more re- 
fined degree of Homoeopathy and the physician prescribing 
them is therefore, par excellence on a higher grade of Homoeo- 
pathy than his fellows who use the low dilutions. When a 
physician tells me that he has successfully treated a case of 
fever of a complicated type I do not stop, to ask him what po- 
tencies he used, but what was the medicine prescribed. If in 
battle I bring down my man with an ounce bullet, it is just as 
well as if I did it with a buck or bird shot. 

I present some cases from pra<5lice: 

Florence B., aet. 10 years, nervous sanguine temperament* 
size medium, skin pale, transparent, freckled; hair auburn. 



462 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

Was attacked with rheumatism about the first of August, 1872* 
in the inferior extremities. Large joints principally afle<5led 

She was treated by the best Allopathic physician of this city 
with only temporary relief. Was most of the time on crutches 
till in June, 1873, when she went from home on a visit and re- 
ceived some relief Had a fresh attack Aug. loth, 1873 ^""om 
which she suffered much for several weeks. 

In the mean time the parents thought seriously of taking 
her to the hot springs in Arkansas. Influenced by friends of 
the family they were induced to give Homoeopathy a trial. 

Sunday, Sept. 14th, I was called.* Patient came hobbling in 
on crutches. Examined the case and found they ranged un- 
der the head of sti<5ta pul. Pains in the large joints, no appe- 
tite, feeling of general malaise, listless, with none of the spor- 
tive feelings of young girlhood. Prescribed sti<5la ist 3 drops 
every two hours till amelioration should set in. 

In forty-eight hours after she commenced treatment, threw 
aside her crutches and has not had occasion to use them since, 
now, eight months ago. There was no variation from the 
first prescription, except 06t. ist when she had slight head- 
ache which was relieved at once by cim., and on the 25th 
when there was some pain in the hip joints for which pre- 
scribed calc. with prompt success. I would add that the 
fiast course was the baths alkaline and vapor. ^ She also wore 
a suit of perforated chamois skin under wear. Attended 
dancing school all winter without experiencing the least in- 
convenience. Appetite good and in the more full enjoyment 
of physical and social life than she has been for years. 

Case 2. A young married lady, aet. about 20 years. Ner- 
vous sanguine temperament, slightly built, hair deep auburn. 
Had been suffering with what her physician — who by the way 
is one of our leading Allopaths or regulars — called rheumatic 
neuralgia (if any one knows what that is) for some five or 
six months. I was called to see her on the 9th of April, 1S74. 
Found her suffering from much pain in the head, to all ap- 
pearances of a catarrhal nature evidently aggravated by the 
treatment she was under, which was the very scientific one 
of quinine and morphine in a combination pill. 



Theory and Pra4itice. 463 

As in case No. i, the larger joints were principally affci^led. 
Dull heavy pains, no appetite and the taste of her beefsteak 
was like sand or no taste at all. Nights restless; little or no 
sleep. Weak, debilitated and that feeling of general malaise. 

After full examination I determined to apply the stidla 
reatment as before. Gave the ist 3 drop doses every 2 hours 
till amelioration, etc. Saw her again on the nth, reported 
better, continued same; 13th found her to-day very much bet- 
ter, slept well last night, appetite returning, little or no pain 
in the head or elsewhere; 15th saw her again, improvement 
continued, dire<5lions the same except 5 hours between the 
doses; 17th called for the fourth and last time patient conva- 
lescent. Medicine five times a day two drops. 

Friday April i8th called at my office with the remark, that 
it was the first visit down town since last Christmas. 



-•-•- 



Our Climate and our MortaUty. 

Considering the great fatality of consumption and other 
pulmonary diseases among the maladies which car- 
ry off their great annual quota in this country, it is in- 
teresting to note what regions are most affected by these 
complaints. Important additions to oar knowledge upon 
this subject were contributed by the results ot the last cen- 
sus, as well as by the observations of medical men, occa- 
sionally brought to light and published in scientific or medical 
journals. Accurate statistics have been kept at the office of 
the Provost Marshal General at Washington, which cover 
the examination of all drafted men and substitutes during 
the late war. These examinations, reaching to hundreds of 
thousands of individuals, have lately been tabulated, and 
•how the precise relative number of men rejected on account 



464 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

of physical disability from phthisis. Taking into account the 
localities of each, the relative prevalence of this disease in 
different sections of the country is shown to have been as 
follows : In the New England States 27 in each 1,000 examin- 
ed, were found to be exempt from military duty on account 
of pulmonary disease. In the Middle States there wore 
found to be only 23 men in each 1,000; and in the "Western 
States, 13 only in each 1,000 were rejected on account of 
pulmonary disease. The startling fact thus appears that 
consumption and its allied diseases are more than twice as 
prevalent in New England as in the Western States gen- 
erally. 

Taking the country in another sectional distribution, it 
was found from these tables that along the sea coast there 
were 27 J in each 1,000 disqualified from military service 
from phthisis. Inland, in the Eastern States, there were 19i 
in 1,000 disqualified ; along the lake shores 16^, and in the 
Mississippi Valley only 13 in each 1,000 were rejected from 
this cause. Ilere again it appears that the moist climate of 
the sea-shores and the lakes, is decidedly active in predis- 
posing to pulmonary disease, while, as we di\''erge into the 
drier regions of the country, immunity from lung troubles 
is increasingly found. 

The most salubrious portions of the country, are unques- 
tionably those States which have the most elevation above 
the sea level. Experienced and skilled physicians are more 
and more inclining to send all patients afflicted with pulmo- 
nary diseases to the elevated interior and mountain regions 
rather than to the sea-shore, even though the latter would 
secure them much warmer atmosphere. A late report by 
Dr. BowDiTCH to the Massachusetts Medical Society, on the 
subject of the causes of consumption in the State of Massa- 
chusetts, shows conclusively that the portions of that State 
where the earth is damp and the soil saturated with moist- 
ure from lakes and springs, and where fogs form and linger, 
are those most fatal in the production of this malady. The 
favorable influence of high altitudes upon this class of pa- 
tients has been borne out by observations in thousands of 



Theory and Practice. 466 

cases. It was once fashionable for consumptives to flock to 
South Carolina and Florida to spend the winters ; and many 
persons far gone in consumption have died in the Southern 
States, where they had gone in hopes of amelioration or re- 
covery. There is a sultriness in the air for a large part even 
of the winter season in those States, and a moisture upon 
the seaboard, which are eminently unfavorable to weak 
lungs. In the dry and pure air and great elevation of Col- 
orado, on the other hund, as well as un the Laramie pl.-iins- 
of Wyoming, the conditions are united which appear to offer 
the very best hopes of relief from those insidious maladies- 
which shorten the lives of so many of our people, and an- 
nually carry off such an extensive quota of the population. 
Experienced army officers who have been stationed in 
nearly all parts of country, and who have had ample oppor- 
tunity for prolonged comparison of climatet?, testify that the 
high table regions of New Mexico, elevated some six thou- 
sand feet above the sea, combine those conditions of dryness 
of air and mildness of climate, with equable winds, whiclv 
are most conducive to perfect health. The tables of the 
census of 1870 establish the important fact that those States 
which combine the lowest elevations and the greatest area 
of ponds, lakes, rivers and wet lands to their whole area, 
have the largest number of deaths from diseases affecting 
the various organs. For example, the percentage of deaths- 
from consumption to the total mortality in the year 1870, 
was, in the State of Maine, 25.75, or more than one-fourth, 
carried off by this fell disease. This State, abounding as it 
does in standing water and wet lands, and having a greater 
average of rainfall, as well as snowfall, than any other State 
in the Union, is thus shown to be prolific in pulmonary 
complaints. New Hampshire comes next, showing a mor- 
tality from consumption of 22.20 in the one hundred. Ver- 
mont loses 20.16 per cent., Ilhode Island 20.14 per cent., and 
Massachusetts 19.93 per cent, from these diseases. By the 
census of 1800, the TTiOrtality from consumption in each of 
the New England States was in even greater proportion to 
the whole number of deaths. The proportions of deaths 
Feb-3 



466 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

from cofcsumptian in some of the Westera States were as 
follows : Ohio, in 1860, 14.13 per cent.; in 1870, 17.77 per 
cent. Indiana, in 1860, 11.77 per cent.; in 1870, 15.89 per 
Cent. Illinois, in 1860, 10.09 per cent.; 1870, 10.81 per cent. 
Kentucky, in 1860, 10.57 per cent.; in 1870, 17.42 per cent. " 
These latter figures show in all cases so large an increase of 
mortality from pulmonary disease in the ten years as to put 
us upon the inquiry whether the figures are accurate or de- 
ceptive. And they add much point to the regret we con- 
tinually feel that no adequately full statistics of mortality, 
with the causes of disease, are provided for in the West by 
State legislation. Will not our intelligent professional men 
take up this subject and endeavor to secure a reform ? 




i$c$IIaM<Jtts. 



The Unconsciotis Action of the Brain. 

It may be taken as one of the commonest mental experiences 
of most men, that a fact, and especially a name, which they en- 
deavor to remember, which escapes from the determinate ef- 
fort of recollection, often suddenly jumps, as it were, into the 
recollection without effort, after they have been thinkinc^ of 
other matters. Dr. Carpenter explains this by the theory that 
the part of the brain engaged in storing up and reproducing 
past impressions is not the same part of the brain which is en- 
gaged in the consciousness of those impressions, or in the con- 
sciousness of their reproduction; and that after the seat of 
consciousness has given up its futile labor, the seat of memo- 
ry unconsciously continues its activity, and when it has 
unconsciously brought its work to a successful issue it 
communicates the result to the seat of consciousness; then. 



Miscellaneous. 46*7 

and not before, the fact is consciously remembered. Upon 
this we must remark that the conscious effort to command the 
memory without guide or clew, is generally and singularly un. 
successful in result. The only way to succeed in remembering 
some forgotten thing is to seek some clew, some thread of ide- 
al association which may lead us to it. The direct bald effort 
fails, for the simple reason that the attention is fixed on the ef- 
fort, and not upon the idea sought. Withdraw the effort, and 
the attention fixes upon the idea. The memory of the thing 
was in the brain, must have been there all the time, or it could 
never again have been remembered. Memory is a latent pow- 
er, and always unconscious. Recollection is the mental activ- 
ity which opens the cells of memory to the consciousness and 
recollection, therefore must always be conscious. That any 
portion of brain- work is done unconsciously in the act of recol- 
lection, is a theory to which we can not subscribe without far 
stronger evidence than any which we have yet seen adduced. — 
Db. Bucknill, in Popular Science Monthly, 



Bsdlway Advantages and Penalties. 

The cffe(!:ls of railways upon the life and health of those en- 
gaged in running them is an interesting field of inquiry. Of 
late years considerable attention has been devoted to this sub- 
jecl in France and England. Facts have been assembled 
bearing upon the subjei^t. Railway conductors (who are 
styled "guards" in England) arc found to be subject to the 
same class of maladies which attend those who constantly 
travel by rail. Railways in England embrace upwards of 
twenty different occupations, each constituting a business in 
itself. More than one hundred and fifty thousand individuals 
arc employed on British railways. The engineers (who are 



466 Cincinnati Medical Advance^ 

styled "drivers'') are a class of picked men. All the great 
companies insist upon certain qualities of robustness, steadi- 
ness, and sobriety, before admitting any one to that service. 
To be able to endure the fatigue of the railway service, a man, 
mu«t not only be of perfe6lly sound and healthy constitution, 
hut he must begin young. It was found by a medical com- 
mission of inquiry, recently appointed in London, that men 
over thirty or thirty-five found themselves unable to acquire 
a tolerance of the fatigue of body and brain involved in the 
duties of driving railway trains. The effedts produced on 
men commencing railway work in middle life, as described 
by officials themselves, are that they age rapidly. "They can't 
stand it. They lose their heads and become old men in no 
time," was the expression of an experienced engine driver. 

This is the natural result of the tremendous wear and tear 
of certain faculties which the engineers of railroad trains are 
subje6ied to. Ten years of exposure to the incessant shocks 
of the engine and the constant and violent vicissitudes of the 
atmosphere, are commonly found enough to **knock up" al- 
most any constitution. Softening of the spinal marrow, 
caused by standing too long, and by the continued violent vi- 
bration inevitable in locomotives, is one of the effcd^s. Neu- 
ralgia of the face, sciatica in the right side, with cramps, aris- 
ing from a continued strain upon the muscles, are other cftc(5ts. 
Phthisis and bronchitis are among the diseases to which dri- 
vers and stokers are liable. Rheumatism is almost always 
brought on by prolonged service in the control of railway en- 
gines. Diseases of the eyes and ears arc also not infrequent. 
Firemen and engineers are obliged to be daily for several 
hours near an intense fire, on a machine in a constant state of 
motion and vibration, exposed to all atmospheric changes, 
with all their senses on the stretch to avoid dangers. Yet, 
well sele6ted and sound constitutions stand this well at first, 
and even become more vigorous for a brief period. The ma- 
jority of them, as the testimony shows, get stouter, and delicate 
persons have been restored to perfedl health. Much is due 
to the fresh air and change of occupation. Still the longest 



MisceUaneaus. 469 

period that railway engineers can stay at the business is de- 
clared to be twenty years. 

This class of railway employes are in most cases greatly 
overworked. In England, drivers of locomotives are at work 
from thirteen to sixteen hours per day. In France they are 
daily on duty for about sixteen hours or more. Dr. Duchesne, 
of Paris who has written a book on railways, and their influ- 
ence on the health of engineers and firemen, states that after 
fifteen years of service drivers become incapable of managing 
an engine, and have to give up their employment. 



♦ ♦ 



The Height at Which We Live. 

In a hygienic sense it is to be regretted that our larger com- 
mercial cities do not occupy more elevated sites. The rea- 
sons why cities are generally built upon low ground are ob- 
vious. The leading pursuits of men in cities — commerce, 
trade and manufadlurcs — are such as could not be carried on 
extensively in mountainous regions, or upon very elevated 
ground. Commerce and manufa<5tures both demand the im- 
mediate vicinity of water, and the familiar saying of that un- 
sophisticated philosopher who pointed out the fadt that Prov- 
idence had made nearly all the rivers flow by the largest 
cities, is the reflex statement of a great fa<5t in the history of 
civilization. All our great cities in this country, as well as 
those in Europe, are situated either upon the sea-board or up- 
on navigable streams; some, like the great metropolis of New 
York, being located upon both. Of great cities containing 
over 50,000 inhabitants, there have not been, either in ancient 
or modern times, more than ten which were not built in the 
immediate vicinity of water-courses. The exceptions are 
somewhat notable. 



470 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

In Mexico and Peru the anomalous spe<Elacle has been seen 
of the constru(5lion of cities on the highest table-lands, remote 
from the sea and from rivers. The Syrian sites of Baalbec 

m 

and Palmyra were built up among vast elevated ranges of 
rugged hills. Pcrsepolis, the famous capital of Persia, the ex- 
tensive ruins of which prove it to have been a great city, was 
located in a vast arid plain or table-land, remote from any 
large body of water. And Jerusalem, the sacred city of the 
Jews, was one of those cities set upon a hill, which are almost 
unknown in the modern world. 

While there is little doubt that the elevated regions of the 
world, whether hills, mountiins, or high plateaus, are more 
salubrious than the low alluvial valleys of rivers or the tide- 
water regions stretching along the sea-board, it is an indis- 
putable fa6t that the majority of mankind instindlively set- 
tle in the latter regions. Thus it appears from tables accu- 
rately compiled, that all .the cities and large towns in the Uni- 
ted States containing more than 5,ocx) inhabitants, scarcely a 
dozen approach the level of a thousand feet above the level of 
the sea, while the most populous of all average a height of 
less than fifty feet above tide-water. Witness the followincr 
table of the twelve most populous cities in our country, with 
their respective elevations, in feet, and population: 

Eleven. Pop. Eleven Pop. 

New York 35 942,293 Boston 40 250,520 

Philadelphia 35 074,022 Cincinnati 575 210,239 

Brooklyn, N. Y 40 390,099 New Orleans 10 191,418 

St. Louis 475 310,804 San Francisco 50 149,573 

Chicago 585 298,977 Buffalo 580 117,714 

Baltimore 00 207,354 Washington 45 109,199 

The great majority of the citizens of our large American 
towns and cities arc living at an elevation of only a few hun- 
dred feet above the level of the sea. There are eighty cities 
located at an elevation of less than one hundred feet, and 
showing an aggregate population of about five millions. 
Three million more of the denizens of cities are located at an 
elevation of between two hundred and one thousand feet; and 
it is a noteworthy facl that the site of a single American citv 
can not be shown to have been selected bvits founders on ac- 



MisccUantoMM, 471 

count of the especial salubrity of its locality. So powerfully 
do immediate utility and convenience overweigh all consider- 
ations of health, comfort or longevity. The number of our 
United States cities which are located at anything like what we 
may call a mountain height is extremely few. The loftiest of 
them is Virginia City, Nevada, which occupies a height of 
nearly 6,2CX3 feet. Next comes that capital of the Mormons, Salt 
Lake City, which stands at an elevation of 4,350 feet above 
the sea level. These, it must be remarked, are wholly excep- 
tional among our cities in the great heights they occupy. Then 
follow, in regular gradation, the following cities and large 
towns: 

Kicv'n Pop. Eleven Pop. 

Winona, Minn I,r00 7,192 Hudson, K Y 1,100 8,615 

Springfield, Mo 1,300 5,555 Corry, Pa 1,100 6,809 

Jamestown. N. Y.. 1,350 5,336 Atlanta, Ga 1,050 21,789 

Staunton, Va 1,350 5,120 Titusvillc, Pa I,a50 8,639 

Altoona, Pa 1,220 10,610 Madison, Wis I,a50 9,176 

Council Bluffs, la.. 1,200 10,020 Nebraska City, 1,000 6,050 

Adrian, Mich 1,200 8,4;W Knoxville, Tenn... 1,000 8,682 

Johnstown, Pa 1,200 6,028 Meadville, Pa 1,000 7,103 

Mahoning, Pa 1,200 5,533 Atchison, Kansas-. 1,000 7,054 

MansfieUl, 1,140 8,029 Canton, 1,000 8,660 

Delaware, O... 1,000 5,641 

These are all the cities and towns of tlie United States 
numbering over 5,000 in population which occupy an cleva- 
of 1,000 feet or over above the sea level 

Turning from city to country, it is found that the extremes 
of elevation in different States are very great indeed. Thus, 
while the whole of Florida has an average altitinle of only 
sixty feet, and Louisiana of only seventy-five feet, California, 
located on the opposite ocean, has an avarage elevation of 
2,500 feet, while Nevada goes up to 5, 400, Colorado 6,500, and 
Wyoming, which caps the climax of elevations in the United 
States, has a mean or average altitude of 7,200 feet above 
tide- water. Between these extremes lie the great central belt 
of States, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, 
and Illinois, all of which have an average altitude, varying 
from six to eight hundred feet. This, it may be remarked, 
represents at once the medium average altitude of the States 
as well as the greatest aggregate produ<5tion of the cereal 



472 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

grain. At least half of the territory of the New England 
States, and of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, the Caroli- 
nas and Georgia, has an elevation of less than three hundred 
feet above the sea. It is an interesting fa<5l that as we a<%cend 
above the region of tide-water, the temperature of the air 
commonly falls in the ratio of about one degree for every 
three hundred feet of ascent. It is thus estimated that three 
hundred feet of elevation produces a change of climate al- 
most precisely equivalent to moying a geographic degree far- 
ther north. This rule is however subje<5l to many excep- 
tions. 

The claim has been frequently made, and indeed poetic 
literature is full of it, that mountain regions are far more fa- 
vorable, not only to physical vigor, but to independence of 
chara<5ler, than the plains, the alluvial rivers, or the sea-board. 
Who has not read of the mountain homes of liberty, of the 
spirit of independence which dwelt in the breasts of the hardy 
Swiss mountaineers, and of the indomitable spirit bred in 
the hard and rocky hills of Vermont and New Hampshire? 
The Highland populations of the world, we arc told, arc the 
best material for Republics and reformers. Yet this obser- 
vation, although it may be generally true, is subject to wide 
and important exceptions. The greater part of the Nether- 
lands (as their name indicates) is not only as flat as a floor, but 
lies rather below than above the level of the sea; yet, where 
in the wide world was there ever witnessed courage and en- 
durance more indomitable, or a spirit of freedom more inflex- 
ibly determined than among the Dutch in the glorious era of 
the Republic? Nor does our own more recent history prove 
that citizens bred by the sea-board of Boston or New York, 
or along the banks of the Ohio, or on the low-lying shores of 
the great lakes, fought for liberty with any less courage and 
endurance than their fellow citizens who were bred among 
the mountains. 



Miscellaneous, 473 

Physiology of Nerve Cells. By E. Seguin, M. D. 

Chemical changes of a very complicated sort are going on 
constantly in the cells and nerve fibers of the central nervous 
system, constituting the essence of nutrition. In a state of 
health the acquisition of new material by the tissues is so bal- 
anced with the separation of effete matter, that, in spite of 
great internal activity, the parts are maintained in a uniform 
(not mathematically equal) condition. Wo should never for- 
get that this chemical action in myriads of parts can not take 
place without producing other correlative effects, such as 
nerve force, heat and electric currents. 

The fibers possess certain special physiological properties. 
In the first place, they conduct the impressions they receive 
in both directions, from the central organs to the periphery 
and vice versa. This conduction is not by any means instan- 
taneous or even very rapid, as it takes place in isolated nerve 
fibers at the rate of less than sixty yards per second, whereas 
the speed of electricity is 464,000,000 yards ; that of lighti 
300,000,000; that of sound, 332; that of a cannon ball, 552. 
In the living body the rate of transmission is from forty to 
forty-five yards. This conduction is done, furthermore, in a^ 
perfectly isolated way by individual nerve fibers ; there is no 
interference between fibers on their way to and from the cen- 
tral organs, ^erve fibers are excitable, that is, respond to 
stimuli — mechanical, chemical and electrical — by motor man- 
ifestation (or by sensation when the motor or sensory fila- 
ments are experimented upon. This excitability is quite 
independent of the nervous centers, and is inherent in the 
nerve, as is shown by the fact that a nerve continues to react 
to stimuli for three days after its separation from continuity 
with the nervous center. 

Nerve cells have properties whose existence wo learn in 
part through reasoning by exclusion, after having ascertained 
the properties of nerve fibers, and in part by direct experi- 
mentation. In the 1st place, certain nerve cells have the 
power of furnishing force (motor impulse) to nerves and 
muscles; this is called motricity by some authors. Another 



474 Cbicinnati Medical Advance. 

property of nervo cells is sensitivity, that is, the property of 
transforming impressions received from without by and 
through the sensory nerves into a' sensation. That nervo 
cells possess a power over the nutrition of parts non-nervous, 
we now incline to believe ; but we hardly yet dare name and 
define this property. But nerve cells have, I believe, yet one 
physiological property, viz : that of retaining impressions 
made upon them ; a property for which I now propose the 
term rctentivity. I have for some time believed that nerve 
cells (and other cells to a degree) do in all parts what they 
do in the cerebral convolutions — they possess memory or the 
property of registering or retaining impressions. That this 
is probable is shown by the fatality of numerous actions oc- 
curring a second time and oflener. The occurrence of a sen- 
sation will give rise to a flow of ideas associated with the 
sensation, and this under normal conditions will bo repeated 
whenever the sensation is renewed. An action of the class, 
called reflex or sensori-motor, is after its first performance, 
fatally repeated whenever the same initial sensor}' irritation 
occurs. A bolus of mixed foods passing down the alimentary 
canal provokes in a necessary or fatal way the action of vari- 
ous muscular, vascular and glandular organs. The well- 
known experiment of placing a drop of acid near a frog's 
anus, illustrates my view of the possession of memory by the 
nerve cells of the si)inal cord; for in this experiment the 
hinder logs of the animal arc drawn up and moved in an ap- 
parently intelligent manner, in such a way as to remove tho 
irritating acid. Three years ago, in spring lectures given 
here, 1 explained this phenomenon by saying, that the frog 
having during its life often performed this act for the same 
purpose, its occurrence after cerebral death takes place by 
necessitv, because the same sensation is transmitted to the 
spinal cord. Additional proof of the correctness of this the- 
ory is to be obtained from a study of the mode of acquisition 
and retention of com2)lex co-ordinate movements such as 
walking, dancing, piano-playing, etc. Motricity, sensitivity 
and rctentivity are therefore the chief special physiological 
properties of nerve cells. — Medical Record, 




M% Mtiim. 



Allen's Encyclopaedia of Pure Materia Hedlca. Tol. I. 

Boerickc and Tafcl. 

This is the initial number of what promises to be the largest 
and most complete Materia Medica ever produced. It will, 
when completed, be a noble monument of the industry and 
learning of the distinguished author, and a lasting honor to our 
school. The assumption that it is a "Pure Materia Medica" 
admits of question. The author will no doubt cheerfully ac- 
knowledge that he has gathered with his wheat an abundant 
amount of tares. And all will agree that the latter should be 
winnowed out. But for the present this is left for each one, 
guided by his own experience and observation, to do for him- 
self The present volume includes the pathogenesis of 107 
remedies from abies canad. to atropinum. Subscriptions to 
this work will be received by the publishers until July next. 
It will be sold to subscribers only. 

Annual Record of nomoeopathic Literature^ 1874. By 

Chas. G. Raue. Boericke and Tafel. 

The profession may congratulate itself on the facl that we 
have one so well qualified as Dr. Raue willing to devote his 
energies to such a task as this, and that we have a publishing 
firm of sufficient enterprise to issue such a book. That an an- 
nual production like this meets with the approval and receives 
the patronage of the profession is a matter of the greatest 
gratification for it speaks volumes in proof of the advance- 
ment and intelligence of our school. But it is very clear that 



476 Cincinnati MedicaU Advance. 

Dr. Rauc and his assistant gleaners miss a great many good 
things. They seem never to go back of the statements they 
find, to enquire into their reliability. The book abounds in 
observations from men who impress us with nothing but their 
superabounding credulity. These men fill our journals with 
trash, and its a pity that it must be gathered up and put into 
the Annual Record. 

A Practical Treatise on the Surgical Diseases 'of the 
Oenito-llrlnary Organs^ including Syphilis; with 
engrayings and cases. By W. H. Van Buren, A. M., 

M. D., and E. L. Keyes, A. M., M. D. New York, 
D. Appleton & Co., 1874. 

Both of the authors are professors in .the Bellevue Hospi- 
tal Medical College, New York, and consulting surgeons to 
various hospitals in that vicinity. The senior editor has had 
peculiar advantages for the study of the diseases treated of, 
and the profession has reason to congratulate itself upon the 
fadt that the result is so valuable a contribution to medical 
literature. It will receive a hearty welcome, although not a 
complete endorsement. Most, and perhaps all, Homoeopaths 
will agree with the author that mercury and the preparations 
of iodine arc the drugs to be depended upon for the specific 
treatment of syphilis, but we most respecSlfully protest against 
the size of the doses recommended. In part I, the author 
includes all diseases treated of in the work except chan- 
croid and syphilis, while part II is devoted to these. Four- 
nier's classification is adopted, and chancroid and syphilis 
treated as entirely distindl and difl'erent diseases. On pp. 531 
to 535 the reader will find a table for the differential diag- 
nosis of syphilitic chancre, chancroid, herpes and ulcerated 
abrasions as well as the accompanying buboes of the former, 
which for completeness we have never seen equaled. 

The publishers have done their part well, and paper, type 
and binding all testify to their determination to give the book 
an attra(5live appearance. The wood cuts are generally well 
done, those of instruments particularly so. Marvin. 



Book Notices. 477 

Specific Diagnosis, a Study of Disease^ with special Re- 
ference to the Administration of Bemedles. By 

John M. Scudder, M. D., 1S74. 

Dr. Scudder is a voluminous writer. Too often he seems 
hasty and careless. But he is always instru(5live and enter- 
taining. This his latest work has been wrought with com- 
mendable care and its many points of excellence quite over- 
balance the few seeming objc(5lionable features it contains. 
It occupies the middle ground of Modern Therapeutics. It 
is so far ahead of the best ideas of the Allopathic school that 
we doubt if it will fall within their comprehension. To one 
standing in the advanced position of the Homccopathic school 
it will appear in some sense childish and primitive in its char- 
a6ler. While to the Eclectic school it will be as the Shekina 
to the wandering Israelites leading them up out of the dark- 
ness and bondage of ignorance into the glorious light of the 
liberty of law. There is both empiricism and dogmatism in 
abundance in the work. But these are inseparable from the 
writings of one who has but an imperfedt and partial view of 
the essential truth of medicine. Dr. Scudder is undergoing 
a rapid evolution in his medical opinions, and this book is full 
of his brightest and latest thoughts. 

We have recicved the following recent publications: 

Ifomceopathy. What It Is And What It la Not, By Lu- 
cius D. Morse. M. D., Memphis, Tenn. 

^^llonorahle Medicine^'^ and Homoeopathy, A defense of in- 
dividual freedom in the study and pra<5lice of Medicine. By 
Thos. E. Enloe, M. D., Nashville, Tenn. 

liaue'Sj liecord of Jlomcpopathic Literature for 1873. 

Transactions of the Eighth and Ninth Annual Sessions of the 
Horn. 3fed. Society of Pennsylvania, 

The Legal delations of Emotional Insanity. By E. Lloyd 
Howard, M. D., of Baltimore. 



478 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



%U%n'% %M%. 



Dr. Will Murdock has removed to Akron, Ohio. 

Dr. T. C. Bradford, our worthy confrere has just recov- 
ered from a long and painful illness and is again at his prac- 
tice as usual. 

Dr. E. H. Drake, of Detroit, was suddenly killed by a 
locomotive at Ypsilanti a few weeks since. His loss is very 
greatly to be deplored. 

The N. Y. State Homceopathic Medical Society, 
meets at Albany, February 9th and loth. Dr. Wm. Todd 
Helmuth delivers the annual address. 

A doctor in the west writes us that he is "journal poor," 
and after receiving the Advance for nearly two years, he sends 
them all back by express at our expense. Just how we have 
helped to impoverish him is not clear unless we failed to pay 
him storage. But this is better than we arc served by some 
who fail to pay our bills, answer our letters, return our journals 
or thank us for the courtesy shown them. 

Drs. Gish and Young, of Hopkinsville, Ky., under date of 
Nov. 26th, 187-^, write: We have several good locations in 
view in the surrounding towns containing from 500 to 2500 
inhabitants and surrounded by rich farming country where a 
young man's expenses would be moderate, and he would in 
a few years have accumulated energy enough to give him a 
line start in larger places. Kentucky offers more openings to 
men of education and energy than any other state in the 
Union, and we are anxious to see her filled with Homoeopaths. 

"Portelance" is writing "Letters to a Medical Student," 
in the American Observer. In his first attempt he reaches 
these sublime conclusions: The Pulte Medical College is one 
of the "minor schools." The increase of clinical advanta<res 
and multiplicity of text books "confuse the student's mind," 



Editor's Table. 419 

and "the students are not much better than were the students** 
of his time. When this gentleman gets through with his 
communications we will engage some **medical student" to 
write him a series of letters and give him some information 
that he stands sorely in need of. 

Heke is the pidlure of a busy do6lor's life — one whom we 
solicited to help us in contributions to the Advance. 

"I am forced to admit that my opportunities for acquiring 
surgical experience are perhaps above the average, but I ei- 
ther lack the faculty of making this experience available 
(journalistically), or it requires more time than I have at my 
disposal. The fa<5t is. just this, there is hardly a day that I get 
through my work much before midnight, and then weariness 
induces me to postpone writing until a more favorable occa- 
sion, and the result is indefinite postponement. I have now 
several papers on my hands in an unfinished state, hanging 
over me like a nightmare^ and should I undertake more, my 
peace of mind (and perhaps piece of mind) would be gone 
sure. However, do<5lor, I look forward to that delightful 
time when I will not have to labor so hard for the bread that 
perisheth." 

And so it is with hundreds of others. In fa6t, we all sincr 
of "The good time coming," when, in fa(5t, we are not likely 
to see better times than now. And the dodtor who exhausts 
his energies in such ceaseless toil, now, will have no future 
worth living for. Our friend, the writer, is young, ambitious 
and rising to eminence, but he should not sacrifice himself 
even though his profession demands it. 

When Dr. II. M. Paine gets on the war path, it is for good 
and sufficient reason. The Allopathic school have come to 
dread his waking up as do the Alpine shepherds the launching 
of an avalanche. An attempt is being made quite simultan- 
eously throughout the country in many of the states and at 
the National Capitol to establish "Boards of Health" made up 
of course of experts, or in other words, of doctors and of 
course Allopathic dodors if nothing happens. But something 
does happen and that is Dr. li. M. Paine. lie happens to 



480 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 



obje<5l to any onesided legislation, and he sounds the alarm 
along the entire line, and demands that we see to it in every 
state in the- Union that we as a school are properly and justly 
represented. These "Boards" are a novelty and their powers 
are but imperfe6lly defined. That they will be used to our 
disadvantage on every possible occasion is just as certain as 
the old school get control of them. This fa6t should arouse 
us all to action. 



# » 



A Presentation. 

On New Year's eve the students of the Homoeopathic Med- 
ical College clandestinely assembled at the residence of Prof. 
T. P. Wilson, 97 Dayton Street, and when the dodtor decend- 
ed to the dining room he found it strangely wrapped in dark- 
ness.. As suddenly as the' lights vanished from Tam 
O'Shanter's gaze at Kirk Aloway, just so suddenly the lights 
here returned, and there were found full two score of men 
standing round the loaded table, and at its head a magnificent 
silver coffee urn, which, having been duly unveiled, was pre- 
sented in behalf of the class by Mr. J. W. Clemmer as follows: 

**Prof. Wilson: In behalf of the students of Pulte Medical 
College, I have the pleasure of presenting you this piece of sil- 
ver ware. It is a token of our iespe6l for you; and an index of 
the appreciation of your professional services. 

It is an indication that your qualities, ^s a gentleman and 
as an instructor, are highly prized and commended. It is 
trusted you will accept this mark of respe6l — not for its nom- 
inal value — but for the social feeling in which it is proffered. 

Now, on the event of a New Year, we hope this occasion 
may contribute something to the continuance of a happy life 
— both for you and your family." 

Supper, with toasts and speeches, followed; and before the 
happy company dispersed, the New Year dawned. 



THE 



€indMali Mtiitnl MHu$. 






VOLUME II.] CINCINNATI, O.— MARCH, 1875. [NO. 11. 



'Subscriptions to the Advancb should be sent to Dr. T. C. Bradford, P. O. 
Drawer 1284, Cincinnati, Ohio. $3.00 a year, in advanck. 

All business communications, relating to the publication or to advertising^, should l>e 
addressed to Dr. T. P. Wilson, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Mound Sts., Cincinnati, Ohio 



The remarkable dullness of one of our city Allopathic 
journals is at last accounted for. The sapient editor volun- 
tarily confesses that he throws his best communications 
into the waste basket. 

Dr. Ira Barrows, of Providence, Rhode Island, is re- 
ported to have met with a serious and very curious acci- 
dent. His buggy broke and horse ran ; a hook caught 
into one of his eyes and tore it completely out. 

IIippocBATES Refusing the Presents ofArtazerxes (24x30) by 
A. L. (jIrodet-Trioson. — As a grand classical composition, this picture 
is wortliy of the great masters of the renaissance period. The numerous 
figures are grouped with wonderful skill, and are full of force and dignity. 
' The engraving, which reproduced the painting, attracted a great dcu I 
of attention, and, it is needless to saj, fully deserved it. 

Mar-i 481 



482 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

Unconscious Cerebration! — That is what one of our 
facetious reporters called it when a very drunken tragedian 
went faultlessly through his part of a long and varied per- 
formance. 

A contemporary editor warns his brethren against too 
much editorial matter in our journals. The space he thinks 
can be better occupied. So far as his journal is concerned 
that may be true. He ought to know. 

We note with commendable pride the fact that our city 
is unrivaled as a center of medical learning. There are at 
present six medical colleges in active operation, well patron- 
ized and doing legitimate work. The students of the 
Pulte Medical College have been favored with remarkable 
clinical advantages during the present term. Over five 
hundred clinics have been presented and lectured upon 
with care. Over two hundred of these have been presented 
from the poli-clinic of the college, and the balance at the 
City Hospital. This will go far to place the Pulte in the 
front rank of clinical schools. The Committee on Homoe- 
opathic Colleges, at the next meeting of the American In- 
stitute, will please not overlook these facts. 

St. Jerome (24x30) by Massard. — The head of St. Jerome, by ^lassard 
is a work that is a credit to the century which produced it. It has the pathos 
of Guido at his best — for Guide's pathos was not infrequently theatric and 
novel; combined with the intensity of Salvator Kosa, and the terrible 
realism of Spagnoletto. The expression of the eyes is wonderfully touch- 
ing, and in the treatment of the skin of the forehead, and especially of the 
handS| the physical sufferings and long fasting of the saint are forcibly 
indicated. It is in these anatomical details that the picture rivals Spagne- 
letto ; but while it has all of the power of the latter painter, it is notably free 
from the brutality which is the characteristic feature of his per\'erted art. 

Our subscribers can have their choice of the above picture as a premium, 
according to our terms, if they send their orders early. 

Homoeopathic Medical Society of Ohio. — The next 
meeting will be held in Columbus, May 11th and 12th. 
It would afford us great pleasure to publish the long list of 
honorable names that have been placed on the various bu- 



Editorial 483 

reaus. There are thirty-one in all. But everybody knows 
that not over ten of them will give any sort of attention 
to the subject. These do-nothing fellows like to see their 
names in print, but the work they accomplish will not pay 
the expense of setting up their names in type. After the 
meeting our readers will all know who did the work, and 
how well they did it. llemember the time and do not fail 
to respond. 

Special Announcement for Vol/ III. — In addition to 
our usual amount of varied and original matter we are 
happy to announce that, 1. Prof W. H. Holcombc will 
maintain a department of clinics, and furnish reports of 
cases each month. These will have special value, and be 
highly prized. 2. Prof. Wm. Owens will write a series of 
articles on Materia Mcdica of a novel and original charac- 
ter. These will add much to the practical worth of the 
Advance. 

"Whom the gods would destroy they first make mad." 
If this be true, the reign of Allopathy is fast running to 
ruin. They have ceased being content with dominating in 
every department of the government. With the army and 
navy at their command, and an almost absolute, exclusive 
control of every civil appointment of a medical character, 
they rush madly at the work of wresting from the hands of 
the members of other medical schools, even their personal 
rights. JJy an evident concert of action, they have simul- 
taneously laid siege to the national, and a large number of 
state legislatures, in order to procure the passage of laws 
that would give them desiK)tic powers over medical practi- 
tioners. Under the guise of seeking the public health, they 
arc wanting according to Dr, Steven Smith, President of the 
American Public Health Association, to establish a "State 
Medicine" "empowered to enforce the most thorough med- 
ical education, and to suppi^ess all forms of irregular and ir- 
responsible practice,'* Well we all know what that means. 
We are not forgetful of the past. Indeed the work haft ^V- 



484 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

ready been begun. The Board of Health in Texas has 
passed a rule prohibiting the practice of medicine by any, 
^'save graduates from medical colleges entitled to represent- 
ation in the American Medical Association/^ And now 
Michigan Allopaths come in with a law to impose fines 
and imprisonments on all who may be deemed irregularly 
in the practice of medicine, and to put a tax on those long 
settled in reputable practice. Every state legislature in 
the country is, with few exceptions if any,, being urged to 
pass a law creating a "State Board of Health", with the 
avowed desisgn of having it fully in the hands of the Allo- 
pathic School. But the spirit of protest is aroused. From 
all parts of the country we are receiving appeals that must 
count for something if the love of justice and liberty be 
not dead. 



-♦■♦- 



Tho Philosophy of Curo. 

Dr. Holcombe's Address, published in the January number 
of the Advance, has recalled my attention to our philosophy 
of cure. Perhaps the whole subjedt needs reinvestigation. 
Our decisions are in many respects unsatisfa<5lory. I do 
not propose to go over the whole ground, but merely to state 
a few points on which further light is needed, although to 
some minds they doubtless seem clear <yiough. 

I. We say diseases are cured by the law of similars. Dr. 
Holcombe argues, in effect, that they are not, and can not be, 
cured on the principle of opposites, because there really are 
no opposites in the case. Thus, in regard to the causes of 
disease, he demands; "What is the opposite to a cold draught 
of air; a drizzling rain; the loss of a night's rest; an indigest- 
ible dinner; malarial poison ;syphihtic virus; scrofulous taint?'* 



Editorial. 480 

Now suppose a person of common understanding should 
answer: A warm and balmy breeze; no drizzling rain; a good 
ffiight^s rest; a digestible dinner; no malaria, no syphilitic vi- 
rus or scrofulous taint! 

He furthermore asks, in relation to disease itself, ** What is 
the opposite of a fever; of a dysentery; of a tubercle?" He 
himself answers, " They hav-e no opposites, but only degrees 
of manifestation." But let us think a moment. Is this true? 
Would not the state of no dysentery, or tubercle, be opposite 
to the state of disease indicated? Has every man who thinks 
himself clear, only a less degree of manifestation? But the 
Doctor supports himself by saying, " Heat is not the opposite 
of cold, nor light of darkness." It may be that the world is 
wrong in thinking that light is not opposed to darkness 
(mental or physical), but would it follow, even then, that dis- 
ease is not the opposite of health? » 

3. The Professor admits that in the physical world there are 
opposite things, even opposite forces, and that here " a force 
or current or momentum of any kind can only be neutralized 
or overcome by an opposite force of equal or greater intens- 
ity, but that the domain of animal and spiritual life is govern- 
ed by laws entirely different." Now, where is the evidence 
of this radical difference between spiritual and natural things? 
And even if there is such a difference, is it not still true that 
diseases are brought to our notice on the plane of the phys- 
ical world and of material things? Does not our friend him- 
self admit this, when he says that "Our hope for the future 
elucidation of our cures depends upon our increasing knowl- 
edge of the elc<5lro-chemical phenomena of nutrition and the 
undulatory movements of the nerve-force?" Are not these 
nutritive phenomena and nerve forces manifestations in the 
world of material things, let their origin be where it may? 
But he goes on to settle the point beyond controversy, as far 
as he himself is concerned, thus: "Disease is perverted nutri- 
tion; it begins ahcays in the ultimate ceil or organic molecule^ 
This point is clearly physical and material, and as clearly be- 
low the mental or spiritual. And since it has been admitted 
and announced by our worthy friend, that in this "physical 



*'*' I 



486 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

world" the law of counteradtion by opposite force is the only 
one which prevails, has he not overturned the very theory 
he was laboring to establish? Dpes not our law of similars 
fare badly in his hands? 

3. But how is the cure wrought? Somewhat in this man- 
ner: " Disease is an abnormal undulation, a motion of the 
nerve-fluid deviating from the normal type." " Our drugs," 
probably, "produce similar nerve undulations." "Now simi- 
lar but not identical undulations of air produce silence instead 
of sound; similar undulations of water antagonize each other 
and produce rest," etc. So, Homoeopathic medicines "pro- 
duce a similar nerve undulation, which antagonizes, neutral- 
izes or arrests the abnormal one already in force." Upon 
which it may be remarked: 

Suppose this theory of nerve undulation to be true, and 
that disease or abnormal movement is antagonized and arrest- 
ed in the way indicated; what is really the law of cure? Does 
the antagonizing drug undulation meet and stop the other by 
virtue of its likeness, or by the power of its difference? 
When one vibratory movement of light, air or water over- 
comes another, is it not because one is just enough larger or 
smaller, coarser or finer, or different in direction, to bring the 
undulations against each other, while the general movements 
are just enough alike to bring them in conta<5l? And there- 
fore, may not the law of similars be only apparent, while the 
real law of cure is that of opposites, or direct opposition? 

How, indeed, is silence produced by the contact of similar 
undulations ? Prof. Mayer illustrated it before the Academy of 
Sciences. He took two similar resonators, as near alike, prob- 
ably, as -he could get them. He placed "the planes of their 
mouths at right angles to each other." In this angle he placed 
a corresponding tuning fork, "so that the broad face of one 
of its prongs faces the mouth of one resonator, while the 
space between the prongs faces the mouth of the other. 
Complete interference of the sounds issuing from their 
mouths is obtained." But if the mouth of either resonator 
is closed, the other one will reinforce the sound of the fork. 
These undulatory waves are therefore annihilated by coming 



Editorial. 487 

together, but is it not done by their mutual opposition? They 
meet each other at right angles. 

Again, is not the explanation in itself essentially faulty? 
Thus, when these undulations of light, etc., come in contadt 
they are both destroyed. Neither one is correc^ted and per- 
mitted to go on its way. Now we are told that disease " is a 
motion of the nerve-fluid deviating from the normal type." 
A correcStion of this abnormal deviation might be a cure for 
the disease, but by this theory the motion of the nerve -fluid 
itself would be stopped. Would not this be death? We 
sometimes charge our opponents with results of this kind, 
but we hope better things of our theory. 

4. The Do6lor says again: "The only guide we have at 
present is the physical law that similar ele<5lricities repel each 
other." But how does this matter stand? Perhaps the latest 
purely scientific work which treats the subjedt of magnetic 
currents, is that of Balfour Stewart, Professor of Philosophy, 
at the Owens College, Manchester, published in 1874. He 
says, " When unlike poles are placed near each other, the cir- 
cular currents which face each other are then all going in the 
same direction, and the two will, therefore, attra6l one an- 
other, but if like poles arc placed in this position, the cur- 
rents which face each other are going in opposite directions, 
and the poles will, therefore, repel one another." So these 
forces, though apparently similar, or rather alike, arc in real- 
ity dire6lly opposite. 

This critique has not been written from ill will to Dr. Hol- 
combe, or from non-appreciation of his attempt to solve tlie 
mystery of Homoeopathic cure. We read his theory very 
carefully, as first published more than twenty years ago. 
We admired it, or rather the ingenuity of its author, but 
could not see, and can not now sec, that the real basis of our 
law is revealed. It was read with avidity, from the fa<5l that 
Hahnemann's explanation appeared so faulty. 

We must look further, and perhaps higher. Will not the 
Do<5tor tell us something of that "wonderful theory of Ho-, 
moeopathy" of which we may catch a glimpse, in the works 
of Emanuel Swcdcnborg? If he can give us a rational theory, 



488 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

we do not care so much where he gets it. If it will satisfy 
the higher laws of mind, it may prove to be reconcilable 
with the more rugged laws of science. If it does not con- 
tradidt reason itself, it will probably not be at enmity with 
fads. 

It is quite possible that disease has a two-fold nature. If it 
is "an abnormal undulation" of the nerve-fluid, it may also be 
an abnormal something in the mind, spirit, thought or passion 
which is within or above the nerve-fluid. If it is " perverted 
nutrition," it may not continue, or even begin, " always in the 
ultimate cell or organic molecule" If it is, even sometimes, 
a result of moral or mental transgression, it surely does not 
always begin in the material cell. Perhaps, therefore, the 
only way to understand the process of cure is to view it in 
the light of both physical and metaphysical investigation. 

Lewis Barnes. 



» • 



Mental Dyspepsia. By R. Ludlam, M. D. 

Concerning the real value of acquirement as a matter of 
discipline, authorities are not agreed. No doubt the mind 
may be strengthened by training, as the physical digestion 
and bodily health are improved by exercise. But with too 
many persons this discipline is the chip in the porridge that 
does little harm and no good. It is a serious question wheth- 
er the men and women who load their minds with the juice- 
less roots and remains of the dead languages and literature 
exclusively are not in the condition of the fabled frog, who 
swallowed the shot which he could not digest, and which 
would not let him leap when he wanted to. 

Brain exercise increases the development of the brain, 
and stimulates its digestive power. But while this exercise 



Mental Dyspepsia. 489 

is being taken the physiological requisites of its healthy 
a<5lion must also be supplied. Some increment of knowl- 
edge must remain, or the student will become a mere literary 
pugilist, and not a producer. 

No man who indulges to excess in the luxury of mental 
gymnastics can live on the chaff of controversy and still 
keep a sound mind. For it is as possible to have a mental 
dyspepsia from over-work and under-feeding as it is to have 
it from over-feeding and under-work. 

Six weeks ago a girl of thirteen came to my clinic for re- 
lief from a distressing and intradtable headache, which for 
several months had come on every morning and continued 
until 2 o'clock in the afternoon. The pain was sevcrte, and 
her expression gave evidence of martyrdom. I said: "Do 
you go to school?" She answered, " Yes." "For how long 
a time have you been to school?" "Three years." "How 
many studies have you?" "^t^A^" The case was one of 
mental dyspepsia, induced by over-feeding and cramming of 
the mind. And no wonder she was ill. If eight dishes were 
thrust upon the stomach, in season and out of season, whether 
the appetite craved them or not, month after month, what 
would be the consequence? 

This amount of mental pabulum was absorbed but not as- 
similated. The poor girl had a load on her mind that was 
indigestible and alien to her faculties. 

The brain revolted against such treatment, and her pe- 
riodical headache was a sort of flagging the train, a signal 
of danger ahead. Of course the remedy was to take her 
from school and place her on a more sensible bill of fare. 
She was cured in two weeks. 

In this matter of feeding the intellect, and of contributing 
to our mental growth, I know of no better rule than to obey 
the maxim which commands one to "stop while the appetite is 
good." If we read or study too much, or too many subje6ts 
or authors, the attention flags, the interest is gone, and the 
mind docs not seize upon thought-factors with avidity. 
What cloys the appetite will clog the digestion. A loss of 
relish is a sign of repletion. There is a time to stop as well 
a& a time to begin this brain-work. 



490 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

The celebrated Dr. Benjamin Rush recommended the 
plan of reading at night, just before retiring, in order that 
one's ideas might be clarified during sleep. With many 
persons this is not a harmful habit. They fill the mind with 
the materials for thought, and, while they sleep, the brain 
unconsciously filters these materials and reorganizes them. 
Not a few students may be said to do most of their thinking 
while they are asleep. Under these circumstances the world 
is shut out, all distradting influences are cut off", and the mind 
works out its problems without interruption or embarrass- 
ment. An essay which has the flavor of the early morning 
air in it is a very different thing from that which smacks of 
the tea or the cigar that kept the writer awake^after every- 
body else had gone to bed. * 

But there are cases of mental dyspepsia which are due to 
this pra6lice of reading at night. And it is very singular to 
note how little reading at such a time may suffice to make 
one ill. A very intelligent young lady had suffered for a year 
with a severe morning headache, inability to sleep after 4 
a. m., and a loss of appetite, especially for breakfast and 
dinner. She had lost interest in everybody and everything 
except her Bible-class, which she attended regularly every 
Sunday afternoon. She was not morbid nor melancholy, 
but weak and wretched. The headache was an incubus on 
her spirits, which suppressed but did not wholly extinguish 
her vivacity. All sorts of remedies were tried, but without 
avail. Finally, I said, there must be some thorn in the flesh. 
Some particular habit which is responsible for this peculiar 
and persistent suffering. 

It proved that, although for many months she had not been 
able to read or to study anything else with comfort, yet she 
had formed and continued the practice of "getting" her Bi- 
ble lesson every night before retiring. Sometimes she would 
spend an hour and sometimes two or three in this way. Then 
she would go to bed, sleep soundly until 4 o'clock, and wa- 
ken again with the old headache. 

This habit was the source of the mischief — not because the 
Bible text was any more indigestible or harmful than that of 
other books, but because the brain refused to work properly 



Mental Dyspepsia, 491 

after so late a meal, and resented this kind of treatment. Iler 
dyspeptic symptoms came the day after the imprudence, and 
were as dire<5lly traceable to it as if they had been limited to 
the stomach and had followed the eating of a hearty supper. 
There are plenty of mental dishes which, in order to insure 
their digestion, should be taken some hours before sleeping; 
and there are plenty of people whose brains will work well 
at one time and not at another. 

In no single respedt are the interests of science and of let- 
ters advancing so rapidly as in the direction of special stud- 
ies. A special aptitude for learning implies a necessity for 
special nourishment, for something that the mind is particu- 
larly fitted to appreciate and to appropriate. But this gift and 
the culture that comes of it are the outgrowth of a general 
intelligence. In every department of human effort, as through- 
out all nature, the general must precede the special. If we 
try to reverse this order we shall derange the process and stop 
the progress. For mental development is a progressive af- 
fair, and capacities for improvement increase with experience. 

In their haste to be rich or famous (which in this case are 
synonomous), men often take the shorter route, and expe<5l to 
accomplish in a brief period as much or more than it has 
taken others a lifetime to acquire. And this blunder readts 
with terrible force upon their mental faculties. The mind has 
not been fortified by the steady accretion of knowledge. The 
appetite has not been governed and educated in a gradual and 
healthy manner, but is ruled by caprice or accident. The 
ability to digest and to utilize the class of fadts that arc taken 
is impaired; and the specialist, who of all men should have a 
clear intelledt, becomes the vi<5lim of a mental dyspepsia. He 
has tried the experiment of taking food that was too strong 
for him. It is like feeding a baby whose teeth have not ap- 
peared with solid beefsteak or a bit of cheese. 

The world is full of these dyspeptics, of men and women 
who should have waited and watched for the dawning of a 
special genius and adaptability before determining upon their 
especial pursuit. It is not in love affairs alone that we arc 
mis-mated. It is not the times alone that arc out of joint. 



402 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

We are apt to settle into the wrong groove, and to fail and 
flounder there because the digestive capacity of the brain 
was not considered, and because our natural tastes and incli- 
nations were overborne by something else. 

There are those who, having acquired a smattering of knowl- 
edge, assume to be thoroughly prepared to digest and discuss 
all special topics. This is the characteristic of the Veneering 
family. Its members constitute a tasting committee for so- 
ciety at large, and the function is a useful one. But it curdles 
the meaning of special knowledge to submit its claims to the 
minds of such people. Nothing, indeed, will induce a fit of 
mental indigestion more quickly and surely. Good, bad, or 
indifferent, the flavor of our brain-food will be in the fiber of 
our thought. 

A glaring error of certain specialists is based on the theory 
that, because they have worked a single vein of research suc- 
cessfully, therefore they are praAically familiar with all the 
rest. Granted that we are blessed with special endowments, 
to have discovered what they are, and to have developed tlieir 
best fruits, should be glory enough. "- 

Dr. Priestly was a natural born chemist, but an unnatural 
theologian. His discovery of oxygen alone will make him 
famous while men continue to breathe; but his seventy vol- 
umes of controversy, and the bitter experiences which come 
of them, will always illustrate the most virulent form of men- 
tal dyspepsia. And yet the mistake of this wonderful man is 
being perpetuated. Men who have a genius, for science and 
for nothing else, arc working as vigorously, and writing and 
teaching as if they were not out of their orbit. And some 
who belong by gifts of the head as well as of the heart to 
morals, have a strange propensity to disturb their own equa- 
nimity, and to damage their usefulness, by going out of their 
way for something that is foreign to their faculties. In every 
line of thought there is the same blunder, and with a similar 
result. The consequence is that in our current literature the 
symptoms of mental indigestion are as common as the signs 
of sunrise. The only antidote to this strange predilection is 
to amend the old proverb so as to read: "Let every mind 
mind its own business." 



Mental Dyspepsia. ^9S 

Perhaps the most unfortunate result of mental mal-assimi- 
lation is known in those cases in which there is not only a 
consequent impairment of the mental vigor, but also an ac- 
quired insensibility to moral and social distinctions. For, 
strange as it may seem, this kind of dyspepsia is liable to take 
on a chronic form, in which, beside the inability to digest the 
proper nutriment, there is a positive loathing of it, and a train 
of morbid symptoms that make everybody around both 
wretched and unhappy. 

Horace defined the poets as "an irritable people." Every 
diligent scholar is more or less sensitive, but there is a point 
at which this peculiar irritability becomes a symptom of men- 
tal disease. While the mind works well, no matter how 
slowly or how swiftly, there is no jar nor fridion. The brain 
may fag, but feed it properly, and give it a little rest, and it 
will recuperate. It may have had an incredible yield, and 
nobody, not even its owner, shall realize the work it has done. 
For, like the great forces of nature, it has played its part in 
silence and without any clatter. But the moment that men 
or women begin to worry, and to talk or to think of over- 
work, to fret about excess of employment, to magnify or to 
multiply their duties, and to imagine that all the cares and re- 
sponsibilities of the community have come down upon them, 
they are the subje6ls of a confirmed and perhaps of an incur- 
able dyspepsia. These are the people who are soured with 
human nature, and who see no good in anything or in any- 
body. They have few real friends, and no lovers. They turn 
" state's evidence" against the church and the state. They de- 
clare with a perpetual echo that everything is going to the 
bad, because they feel so badly, and this, you know, is a char- 
a(5lcristic sign of dyspepsia, whether it be located in the brain 
or in the stomach. 

By so much, therefore, as these persons have been popular 
and prominent, is their after- influence a deleterious and un- 
happy one. The morbid croaking of Carlyle and the rant- 
ing of Ruskin are mischievous in their efTeCls, because these 
famous authors were once well known and read of all men. 
But, if we compare their later writings with those of Guizot, 



494 Cincinnati Medical Advance^ 

their bluster with his calmness, their pesimism with his re- 
liance on Providence, we have a good illustration of the opera- 
tions of a healthy and a disordered mind in those who have 
grown old as brain-workers. Nothing so dignifies the race 
as the steady, straightforward, persistent, and fruitful use of 
our faculties, so as to shield us from the reproach of being 
very disagreeable, peppery, ill-tempered, suicidal, and ridicu- 
lous. A literary scold is an unmitigated dyspeptic. 



♦ ♦ 



llodem Allopathy. Its Workings Brought to Light 

Our Allopathic brethren make very plausible pretensions. 
Before the public they appear to be the very paragons of wis- 
dom. One would think, and many do think, there is no medi- 
cal knowledge outside their fold. Unfortunately, however, a 
little daylight is occasionally let into the work they are doing 
at the bedside of the sick. 

We have here a couple of cases worthy of study: 

Case 1. On Monday evening last he appeared in better con- 
dition than at any time during his illness. His physician pro- 
nounced him cured, and it seemed really that all that was 
lacking was his wonted strength. lie was out of bed, walking 
about through the rooms, was in a fine flow of spirits, and 
talked cheerfully with his friends who came to see him. But 
after he had retired for the night he became very restless and 
nervous — so much so that he could not sleep. He continued 
in this condition until after dayliglit, when he showed symp- 
toms of great nervous distress. Mrs. B. sent for the physi- 
cian, who came and administered a hypodermic injection of 
opium, thus quieting his nervous system and enabling him to 
sleep. About half past 11 o'clock the Doctor came again, and 
finding his patient resting quietly, went away with the satis- 
factory impression that he was doing well. 

The family continued watching by the bedside. Once only 
during his sleep Governor B. was observed to open his eyes. 
Mrs. B. sj>oke to him, but he only replied: " Let me sleep on; 



Modern, Allopathy. 495 

I feel 80. comfortable." Directly afterward JVFrs. B. went down 
stairs to the dining-room to bring him a cup of coffee that she 
might have it ready when he should awake. But she waited 
in vain. Her husband had closed his eyes never to look upon 
her again. When she returned to his bedside she noticed an 
alarming change in the expression and color of his face, and 
observed that he was breathing with difficulty. Mrs. B. im- 
mediately summoned the family to the bedside, and endeavor- 
ed to arouse him, but he was already beyond the reach of 
human aid — beyond the sound of the familiar voices which 
called his name in the vain hope of some response. In this 
condition ho lingered for nearly an hour, and at 1 o'clock 
breathed his last, peacefully, unconsciously, and without a 
struggle. — Daily Paper. 

Case 2. M. II., husband of the deceased, testified — She 
(my wife) had been feeling unwell the last seven weeks. Iler 
health previous to this had been good. She complained of a 
severe pain in her bowels and kidneys. However, being of 
short duration, no attention was paid to it until the return of 
the same pains on Sunday morning about 8 o'clock. I then 
called in Mrs. B., who is my landlady and lives next door, and 
by her advice and assistance we applied warm applications to 
her bowels and feet, and gave her chamomile tea to drink. 
There being no relief by Jialf-past 2 o'clock in the afternoon, 
I called for Dr. . He came and examined her, and pre- 
pared some medicine in the form of powders to be given, one 
every hour in a teaspoon of water. I think he left about nine 
powders. We gave her the first powder about 3 o'clock. The 
Doctor ordered a mustard draft, which we also applied as di- 
rected, across the bowels. She took the powders regularly as 
prescribed, taking the last one about 8 o'clock, at which time 
she said the pains had partially left her, but that she felt very 
weak, and found difficulty in breathing. 

When at the Doctor's office the last time, he gave me a vial 
of medicine, which he said would give her more strength to 
counteract the medicine (/iven before. Ho directed if I should 
find her sleeping on my return not to give her medicine of any 
kind, but to let her sleep. I returned about 9 o'clock, and 
found her asleep, lying on her right side, breathing easier than 
when I left. When I was convinced that there was no pulse 
nor breath, which was about a quarter after 12 o'clock, I shook 
her, called her by name, and seeing no motion and receiving 
no reply, I was satisfied she was dead. 

Dr. F., sworn — I prescribed three weeks ago for Mrs. II., in 
my office, and again about a week after that. I prescribed for 



496 Cmcinnati Medical Advance, 

uterine haemorrhage. I made no personal examination, but 
prescribed for her from the information she gave me. I saw 
no more of her until yesterday, about 3 o'clock. I found her 
at the house, lying on a lounge, and learned that she had been 
vomiting all day, was feeling very weak and prostrate, com- 
plaining of violent pain through the whole abdomen. She had 
had a motion from the bowels and had passed some undigested 
food. I asked her if this pain proceeded from her womb as she 
thought. She said she did not know, as she had pain all 
through her bowels. I prescribed; left her ei^ht powders, 
each containing one-tenth of a grain of acetate of morphine, 
two or three grains of nitrate of bismuth, and one-half grain 
each of calomel and capsicum, telling them to give one every 
hour until her pain was relieved, to keep her extremities warm, 
and to apply a mustard draft over her abdomen, and told her 
husband if she was not better in the evening to report to mo 
about half-past 8 o'clock. Her husband came to my office and 
reported that he had given five of the powders, that her pain 
was easier, but that she had become very nervous and restless, 
and complained of difficulty in getting her breath. I said to 
him that possibly her restlessness might have come from the 
morphine she had taken, assuring him that there was rot 
enough of the morphine to produce any danger, but that some 
people were very much disturbed in their neiTOus systems by 
small amounts of morphine in any form. I then gave him an 
ounce vial containing a nervine, and told him to give a tea- 
spoonful of it every hour until she slept, and in that case not 
to disturb her, but to let her sleep. I was at a loss to account 
for her symptoms, when I was first called to see her at her 
house, as slie had had ha3inorrhage of the womb, and probably 
a miscarriage. I supposed, however, that the pain from which 
she was suffering might have come partly from diseased womb, 
and partly from colic, the result of indigestion. I made my 
prescription from this divided view of her case. I was very 
much surprised to hear this afternoon that she was dead. I 
did not weigh the medicine, but gave it by the eye, as I con- 
sider from my long experience that I can give morphine as 
accurately as I can write li.-^Coroners Inquest 

And these are called specimens of **■ Scientific Medicine." 
They are typical of the sad record of thousands of pa- 
tients who are secundum artem sent out of the world. The 
doctors are typical of their profession, the members of which 
talk very learnedly about pathology, and it all results in a hy- 
podermic injection of morphine. And this active principle of 



Alcohol. 407 

opium is an eflScient paralyzer of the nervous centers. And 
these nenrous centers are the only hope and stay of the pa- 
tient when struggling with disease. Now comes in your 
modern Allopath and knocks these ganglia squarely on the 
head. The pain and the symptoms, which are the only agents 
that can tell the doctor where and what the disease is, are all 
put to rest, and the doctor, finding the patient sleeping, goes 
■**away with the satisfactory impression that he is doing well." 
And then, when he returns, and finds his patient dead, he pro- 
fesses to be surprised; not thinking, perhaps, that he had 
«truck the patient quite so haixl a blow. And this is done 
'every day, and the coroner does not investigate them, and the 
truths remain hid from the eyes of the people. It will not be 
many years before the right estimate will be put upon such 
work« It is a relic of barbarism and a manifestation of ignor- 
ance •that will not tsnrvive the march of progress. 



" ^ »■ 



•Anstie and Dupre oa the Action of AloohbL 

About the laet literary work of the lamented Dp. Anstic 
was to describe what with unconscious prophecy he called his 
^*Final Experiments on the Elimination of Alcohol from the 
Body." 

Though fatal to a fundamental position of the ultra-tem- 
perance party, that alcohol is treated by the body precisely 
like a poison and eliminated without chemical change, the in- 
vestigations thus closed will be more fruitful for good to the 
genuine temperance cause, we believe, than anything else 
that has been done during the period of Dr. Anstie's labors. 
Moral and social reform can have no permanent basis other 
than in truth. And seeing no possible cure for the curse of 
intemperance except through remedies suggested by real 
Mar-2 



' 498 Cincinnati Medical Advance, 

knowledge of the physiolgical as well as the moral and social 
problems involved, we cannot but regard Dr Anstie^not- 
withstanding the opposition of the nominal temperance party 
— as one of the truest and most efficient temperance apostles 
of the time. This in justification, not apology. 

The controversy began some fifteen years ago on the ap- 
pearance of M. Lallemand^s work, in which on the evidence 
of certain qualitative experiments detecting alcohol in the 
urine, it was asserted that alcohol passed through the sys- 
tem unchanged. This being true ; the alcohol contained in 
wines and other spirituous beverages — as the temperance 
party were not slow to discover and teach — could be regard- 
ed only as|a disturbing element, a poison, not only unser-« 
viceable to the system, but positively harmful. 

A resultso strikingly in opposition to universal experience 
could not go long unchallenged. Among others, Dr. Anstie 
immediately instituted several series of experiments which 
proved that the idea of the non-destruction of alcohol in the 
body under normarconditions, and its copious elimination by 
the kidneys, must have arisen from nothing less than an ex- 
perimental blunder. Except in conditions of profound alco- 
holic intoxication, there appeared in the urine only the most 
minute fraction of any substance which the comprehensive 
chromic acid test would lead one to believe might be alcohol : 
a position confirmed by the subsequent researches of Schuli- 
nus and Drs. Dupro and Thudichum. 

In 1867 Drs. Anstie and Dupro together made another 
scries of investigations, covering a period of six months, and 
carrying the question of elimination as regards the urine to 
a higher certainty of conclusion. It was found, that when, 
during any twenty-four hours, not more than an ounce and 
a half of absolute alcohol "hy volume was taken — whether 
under the form of beer, wine, or spirit of any kind — it was 
never possible to obtain evidence of the presence, in the 
whole day's urine, of more than a small fraction of a grain of 
unchanged alcohol, reckoning as such everything that af- 
fected the bichromate test. "When, however, the daily 
quantum of one and a half ounces of absolute alcohol was 



Alcohol. 499 

greatly exceeded, a larger portion of alcoholic substance was 
foand in the urine, though never more than one or two grains; 
notwithstanding as much as three or four ounces of absolute 
alcohol had been consumed. 

These experiments were followed, and in a general way 
confirmed, in 1870, by those of Drs. Parkes and Wollowicz, 
who, while admitting that it was quite improbable that any 
large amount of unchanged alcohol escaped through the 
kidneys, yet maintained that the amount might be larger 
than Drs. Dupre and Anstie had estimated, the period of eli- 
mination assigned by them being, it was said, too short. 

The objection seemed well taken, and Dr. Dupre made, in 
1872, a new series of investigations to test the matter more 
thoroughly. Two unexpected and very important observa- 
tions resulted. Some time previously Dr. Dupre had estab- 
lished the fact that — contrary to the assumption of Lallo- 
mand — it was possible to recover from urine, by distillation, 
any alcohol it might contain, within an exceedingly minute 
fraction. He now discovered that there is, in the urine of 
persons who drink no alcohol, a small quantity of a sub- 
stance, which not only affects the chromic acid color test pre- 
cisely as alcohol does, but is similarly convertible into an 
acid which reacts precisely like the acetic acid derived from 
alcohol. If it is alcohol, it is certainly not alcohol which has 
been taken into the body as such, since it appears in the 
urine of teetotalers. lie found further that this small nor- 
mal constituent of urine represents that minute portion of 
supposed alcohol which can alone be found in the urine after 
moderate doses of alcohol. After narcotic doses, however, 
the larger quantity of material, capable of reacting like alco- 
hol, which appears in the urine, undoubtedly represents a 
real alcoholic elimination. 

As for the temporary retention of alcohol within the sys- 
tem, as had been suggested, to be eliminated by the kidneys 
at a later period, the facts were altogether adverse. For ex- 
ample, during the course of twelve successive days, during 
which something over nineteen ounces of alcohol were taken, 
not one thousandth part was eliminated by the kidneys; 



500 Cincinnati Medical Advance. 

and the rate of elimination was no greater at the end than 
at the beginning of the period